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Illinois Compiled Statutes

Information maintained by the Legislative Reference Bureau
Updating the database of the Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) is an ongoing process. Recent laws may not yet be included in the ILCS database, but they are found on this site as Public Acts soon after they become law. For information concerning the relationship between statutes and Public Acts, refer to the Guide.

Because the statute database is maintained primarily for legislative drafting purposes, statutory changes are sometimes included in the statute database before they take effect. If the source note at the end of a Section of the statutes includes a Public Act that has not yet taken effect, the version of the law that is currently in effect may have already been removed from the database and you should refer to that Public Act to see the changes made to the current law.

CIVIL PROCEDURE
(735 ILCS 5/) Code of Civil Procedure.

735 ILCS 5/Art. I

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. I heading)
ARTICLE I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

735 ILCS 5/1-101

    (735 ILCS 5/1-101) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-101)
    Sec. 1-101. Short titles. (a) This Act shall be known and may be cited as the "Code of Civil Procedure".
    (b) Article II shall be known as the "Civil Practice Law" and may be referred to by that designation.
    (c) Article III shall be known as the "Administrative Review Law" and may be referred to by that designation.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-102

    (735 ILCS 5/1-102) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-102)
    Sec. 1-102. Continuation of prior statutes. The provisions of this Act insofar as they are the same or substantially the same as those of any prior statute, shall be construed as a continuation of such prior statute and not as a new enactment.
    If in any other statute reference is made to an Act of the General Assembly, or an Article or a Section of such an Act, which is continued in this Act, such reference shall refer to the Act, Article, or Section thereof so continued in this Act.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-103

    (735 ILCS 5/1-103) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-103)
    Sec. 1-103. Effect of headings. Article, Part and Section headings contained herein shall not be deemed to govern, limit, modify or in any manner affect the scope, meaning or intent of the provisions of any Article, Part or Section of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-104

    (735 ILCS 5/1-104) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-104)
    Sec. 1-104. Power of courts to make rules. (a) The Supreme Court of this State has power to make rules of pleading, practice and procedure for the circuit, Appellate and Supreme Courts supplementary to, but not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, and to amend the same, for the purpose of making this Act effective for the convenient administration of justice, and otherwise simplifying judicial procedure, and power to make rules governing pleading, practice and procedure in small claims actions, including service of process in connection therewith. Unless otherwise indicated by the text, references in this Act to rules are to rules of the Supreme Court.
    (b) Subject to the rules of the Supreme Court, the circuit and Appellate Courts may make rules regulating their dockets, calendars, and business.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-105

    (735 ILCS 5/1-105) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-105)
    Sec. 1-105. Enforcement of Act and rules. The Supreme Court may provide by rule for the orderly and expeditious administration and enforcement of this Act and of the rules, including the striking of pleadings, the dismissal of claims, the entry of defaults, the assessment of costs, the assessment against an offending party of the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, which any violation causes another party to incur, or other action that may be appropriate.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-106

    (735 ILCS 5/1-106) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-106)
    Sec. 1-106. Act to be liberally construed. This Act shall be liberally construed, to the end that controversies may be speedily and finally determined according to the substantive rights of the parties. The rule that statutes in derogation of the common law must be strictly construed does not apply to this Act or to the rules made in relation thereto.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-107

    (735 ILCS 5/1-107) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-107)
    Sec. 1-107. Appeals. Appeals may be taken as provided for civil cases.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-108

    (735 ILCS 5/1-108) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-108)
    Sec. 1-108. Civil Practice Law applies. (a) The provisions of Article II of this Act apply to all proceedings covered by Articles III through XIX of this Act except as otherwise provided in each of the Articles III through XIX, respectively.
    (b) In proceedings in which the procedure is regulated by statutes other than those contained in this Act, such other statutes control to the extent to which they regulate procedure but Article II of this Act applies to matters of procedure not regulated by such other statutes.
    (c) As to all matters not regulated by statute or rule of court, the practice at common law prevails.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/1-109

    (735 ILCS 5/1-109) (from Ch. 110, par. 1-109)
    Sec. 1-109. Verification by certification. Unless otherwise expressly provided by rule of the Supreme Court, whenever in this Code any complaint, petition, answer, reply, bill of particulars, answer to interrogatories, affidavit, return or proof of service, or other document or pleading filed in any court of this State is required or permitted to be verified, or made, sworn to or verified under oath, such requirement or permission is hereby defined to include a certification of such pleading, affidavit or other document under penalty of perjury as provided in this Section.
    Whenever any such pleading, affidavit or other document is so certified, the several matters stated shall be stated positively or upon information and belief only, according to the fact. The person or persons having knowledge of the matters stated in a pleading, affidavit or other document certified in accordance with this Section shall subscribe to a certification in substantially the following form: Under penalties as provided by law pursuant to Section 1-109 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the undersigned certifies that the statements set forth in this instrument are true and correct, except as to matters therein stated to be on information and belief and as to such matters the undersigned certifies as aforesaid that he verily believes the same to be true.
    Any pleading, affidavit or other document certified in accordance with this Section may be used in the same manner and with the same force and effect as though subscribed and sworn to under oath.
    Any person who makes a false statement, material to the issue or point in question, which he does not believe to be true, in any pleading, affidavit or other document certified by such person in accordance with this Section shall be guilty of a Class 3 felony.
(Source: P.A. 83-916.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II heading)
ARTICLE II
CIVIL PRACTICE

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 1

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 1 heading)
Part 1. Venue

735 ILCS 5/2-101

    (735 ILCS 5/2-101) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-101)
    Sec. 2-101. Generally. Except as otherwise provided in this Act, every action must be commenced (1) in the county of residence of any defendant who is joined in good faith and with probable cause for the purpose of obtaining a judgment against him or her and not solely for the purpose of fixing venue in that county, or (2) in the county in which the transaction or some part thereof occurred out of which the cause of action arose.
    If a check, draft, money order, or other instrument for the payment of child support payable to or delivered to the State Disbursement Unit established under Section 10-26 of the Illinois Public Aid Code is returned by the bank or depository for any reason, venue for the enforcement of any criminal proceedings or civil cause of action for recovery and attorney fees shall be in the county where the principal office of the State Disbursement Unit is located.
    If all defendants are nonresidents of the State, an action may be commenced in any county.
    If the corporate limits of a city, village or town extend into more than one county, then the venue of an action or proceeding instituted by that municipality to enforce any fine, imprisonment, penalty or forfeiture for violation of any ordinance of that municipality, regardless of the county in which the violation was committed or occurred, may be in the appropriate court (i) in the county wherein the office of the clerk of the municipality is located or (ii) in any county in which at least 35% of the territory within the municipality's corporate limits is located.
(Source: P.A. 91-212, eff. 7-20-99.)

735 ILCS 5/2-102

    (735 ILCS 5/2-102) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-102)
    Sec. 2-102. Residence of corporations, voluntary unincorporated associations and partnerships defined. For purposes of venue, the following definitions apply:
    (a) Any private corporation or railroad or bridge company, organized under the laws of this State, and any foreign corporation authorized to transact business in this State is a resident of any county in which it has its registered office or other office or is doing business. A foreign corporation not authorized to transact business in this State is a nonresident of this State.
    (b) A partnership sued in its firm name is a resident of any county in which any partner resides or in which the partnership has an office or is doing business. A partnership sued in its firm name, of which all partners are nonresidents of this State and which does not have an office or do business in this State, is a nonresident of this State.
    (c) A voluntary unincorporated association sued in its own name is a resident of any county in which the association has an office or, if on due inquiry no office can be found, in which any officer of the association resides. A voluntary unincorporated association sued in its own name, of which all its members are nonresidents of this State and which does not have an office or do business in this State, is a nonresident of this State.
(Source: P.A. 83-901.)

735 ILCS 5/2-103

    (735 ILCS 5/2-103) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-103)
    Sec. 2-103. Public corporations - Local actions - Libel - Insurance companies.
    (a) Actions must be brought against a public, municipal, governmental or quasi-municipal corporation in the county in which its principal office is located or in the county in which the transaction or some part thereof occurred out of which the cause of action arose. Except as otherwise provided in Section 7-102 of this Code, if the cause of action is related to an airport owned by a unit of local government or the property or aircraft operations thereof, however, including an action challenging the constitutionality of this amendatory Act of the 93rd General Assembly, the action must be brought in the county in which the unit of local government's principal office is located. Actions to recover damage to real estate which may be overflowed or otherwise damaged by reason of any act of the corporation may be brought in the county where the real estate or some part of it is situated, or in the county where the corporation is located, at the option of the party claiming to be injured. Except as otherwise provided in Section 7-102 of this Code, any cause of action that is related to an airport owned by a unit of local government, and that is pending on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 93rd General Assembly in a county other than the county in which the unit of local government's principal office is located, shall be transferred, upon motion of any party under Section 2-106 of this Code, to the county in which the unit of local government's principal office is located.
    (b) Any action to quiet title to real estate, or to partition or recover possession thereof or to foreclose a mortgage or other lien thereon, must be brought in the county in which the real estate or some part of it is situated.
    (c) Any action which is made local by any statute must be brought in the county designated in the statute.
    (d) Every action against any owner, publisher, editor, author or printer of a newspaper or magazine of general circulation for libel contained in that newspaper or magazine may be commenced only in the county in which the defendant resides or has his, her or its principal office or in which the article was composed or printed, except when the defendant resides or the article was printed without this State, in either of which cases the action may be commenced in any county in which the libel was circulated or published.
    (e) Actions against any insurance company incorporated under the law of this State or doing business in this State may also be brought in any county in which the plaintiff or one of the plaintiffs may reside.
(Source: P.A. 93-450, eff. 8-6-03.)

735 ILCS 5/2-104

    (735 ILCS 5/2-104) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-104)
    Sec. 2-104. Wrong venue - Waiver - Motion to transfer. (a) No order or judgment is void because rendered in the wrong venue, except in case of judgment by confession as provided in subsection (c) of Section 2-1301 of this Act. No action shall abate or be dismissed because commenced in the wrong venue if there is a proper venue to which the cause may be transferred.
    (b) All objections of improper venue are waived by a defendant unless a motion to transfer to a proper venue is made by the defendant on or before the date upon which he or she is required to appear or within any further time that may be granted him or her to answer or move with respect to the complaint, except that if a defendant upon whose residence venue depends is dismissed upon motion of plaintiff, a remaining defendant may promptly move for transfer as though the dismissed defendant had not been a party.
    (c) Motions for transfer to a proper venue may be supported and opposed by affidavit. In determining issues of fact raised by affidavits, any competent evidence adduced by the parties shall also be considered. The determination of any issue of fact in connection with a motion to transfer does not constitute a determination of the merits of the case or any aspect thereof.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-105

    (735 ILCS 5/2-105) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-105)
    Sec. 2-105. Defendants in different counties - Review. In any action involving defendants residing in different counties in which venue is based on residence and an appropriate and timely motion to transfer is made by a defendant not residing in the county, the overruling of the motion is not ground for reversal if he or she proceeds to trial on the merits, unless he or she renews the motion at the close of all the evidence and it appears from the record or the evidence that the defendant residing within the county was joined without probable cause and not in good faith for the purpose of obtaining a judgment against him or her but solely for the purpose of fixing venue in that county.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-106

    (735 ILCS 5/2-106) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-106)
    Sec. 2-106. Transfer. (a) Transfer for wrong venue. If a motion to transfer is allowed on the ground that the action was commenced in a wrong venue, the cause shall be transferred to the court in a proper venue, subject to any equitable terms and conditions that may be prescribed.
    (b) Method of transfer. The clerk of the court from which a transfer is granted shall immediately certify and transmit to the clerk of the court to which the transfer is ordered the originals of all papers filed in the case together with copies of all orders entered therein. In the event of a severance, certified copies of papers filed and orders entered shall be transmitted. The clerk of the court to which the transfer is ordered shall file the papers and transcript transmitted to him or her and docket the case, and the action shall proceed and be determined as if it had originated in that court.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-107

    (735 ILCS 5/2-107) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-107)
    Sec. 2-107. Costs and expenses of transfer. The costs attending a transfer shall be taxed by the clerk of the court from which the transfer is granted, and, together with the filing fee in the transferee court, shall be paid by plaintiff. If the court granting the transfer finds that venue was fixed by plaintiff in bad faith and without probable cause, then it may order the reasonable expenses of defendant in attending and obtaining a transfer to a proper venue, including a reasonable attorney's fee, to be paid by plaintiff. If the costs and expenses are not paid within a reasonable time, the transferring court shall on motion dismiss the action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-108

    (735 ILCS 5/2-108) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-108)
    Sec. 2-108. Place of trial. All actions shall be tried in the county in which they are commenced, except as otherwise provided by law.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-109

    (735 ILCS 5/2-109) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-109)
    Sec. 2-109. Malicious prosecution - medical malpractice. In all cases alleging malicious prosecution arising out of proceedings which sought damages for injuries or death by reason of medical, hospital, or other healing art malpractice, the plaintiff need not plead or prove special injury to sustain his or her cause of action. In all such cases alleging malicious prosecution, no exemplary or punitive damages shall be allowed.
(Source: P.A. 91-357, eff. 7-29-99.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 2

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 2 heading)
Part 2. Process

735 ILCS 5/2-201

    (735 ILCS 5/2-201) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-201)
    Sec. 2-201. Commencement of actions - Forms of process. (a) Every action, unless otherwise expressly provided by statute, shall be commenced by the filing of a complaint. The clerk shall issue summons upon request of the plaintiff. The form and substance of the summons, and of all other process, and the issuance of alias process, and the service of copies of pleadings shall be according to rules.
    (b) One or more duplicate original summonses may be issued, marked "First Duplicate," "Second Duplicate," etc., as the case may be, whenever it will facilitate the service of summons in any one or more counties, including the county of venue.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-202

    (735 ILCS 5/2-202) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-202)
    Sec. 2-202. Persons authorized to serve process; Place of service; Failure to make return.
    (a) Process shall be served by a sheriff, or if the sheriff is disqualified, by a coroner of some county of the State. A sheriff of a county with a population of less than 2,000,000 may employ civilian personnel to serve process. In counties with a population of less than 2,000,000, process may be served, without special appointment, by a person who is licensed or registered as a private detective under the Private Detective, Private Alarm, Private Security, Fingerprint Vendor, and Locksmith Act of 2004 or by a registered employee of a private detective agency certified under that Act as defined in Section (a-5). A private detective or licensed employee must supply the sheriff of any county in which he serves process with a copy of his license or certificate; however, the failure of a person to supply the copy shall not in any way impair the validity of process served by the person. The court may, in its discretion upon motion, order service to be made by a private person over 18 years of age and not a party to the action. It is not necessary that service be made by a sheriff or coroner of the county in which service is made. If served or sought to be served by a sheriff or coroner, he or she shall endorse his or her return thereon, and if by a private person the return shall be by affidavit.
    (a-5) Upon motion and in its discretion, the court may appoint as a special process server a private detective agency certified under the Private Detective, Private Alarm, Private Security, Fingerprint Vendor, and Locksmith Act of 2004. Under the appointment, any employee of the private detective agency who is registered under that Act may serve the process. The motion and the order of appointment must contain the number of the certificate issued to the private detective agency by the Department of Professional Regulation under the Private Detective, Private Alarm, Private Security, Fingerprint Vendor, and Locksmith Act of 2004. A private detective or private detective agency shall send, one time only, a copy of his, her, or its individual private detective license or private detective agency certificate to the county sheriff in each county in which the detective or detective agency or his, her, or its employees serve process, regardless of size of the population of the county. As long as the license or certificate is valid and meets the requirements of the Department of Financial and Professional Regulation, a new copy of the current license or certificate need not be sent to the sheriff. A private detective agency shall maintain a list of its registered employees. Registered employees shall consist of:
        (1) an employee who works for the agency holding a
    
valid Permanent Employee Registration Card;
        (2) a person who has applied for a Permanent Employee
    
Registration Card, has had his or her fingerprints processed and cleared by the Department of State Police and the FBI, and as to whom the Department of Financial and Professional Regulation website shows that the person's application for a Permanent Employee Registration Card is pending;
        (3) a person employed by a private detective agency
    
who is exempt from a Permanent Employee Registration Card requirement because the person is a current peace officer; and
        (4) a private detective who works for a private
    
detective agency as an employee.
A detective agency shall maintain this list and forward it to any sheriff's department that requests this list within 5 business days after the receipt of the request.
    (b) Summons may be served upon the defendants wherever they may be found in the State, by any person authorized to serve process. An officer may serve summons in his or her official capacity outside his or her county, but fees for mileage outside the county of the officer cannot be taxed as costs. The person serving the process in a foreign county may make return by mail.
    (c) If any sheriff, coroner, or other person to whom any process is delivered, neglects or refuses to make return of the same, the plaintiff may petition the court to enter a rule requiring the sheriff, coroner, or other person, to make return of the process on a day to be fixed by the court, or to show cause on that day why that person should not be attached for contempt of the court. The plaintiff shall then cause a written notice of the rule to be served on the sheriff, coroner, or other person. If good and sufficient cause be not shown to excuse the officer or other person, the court shall adjudge him or her guilty of a contempt, and shall impose punishment as in other cases of contempt.
    (d) If process is served by a sheriff or coroner, the court may tax the fee of the sheriff or coroner as costs in the proceeding. If process is served by a private person or entity, the court may establish a fee therefor and tax such fee as costs in the proceedings.
    (e) In addition to the powers stated in Section 8.1a of the Housing Authorities Act, in counties with a population of 3,000,000 or more inhabitants, members of a housing authority police force may serve process for forcible entry and detainer actions commenced by that housing authority and may execute orders of possession for that housing authority.
    (f) In counties with a population of 3,000,000 or more, process may be served, with special appointment by the court, by a private process server or a law enforcement agency other than the county sheriff in proceedings instituted under the Forcible Entry and Detainer Article of this Code as a result of a lessor or lessor's assignee declaring a lease void pursuant to Section 11 of the Controlled Substance and Cannabis Nuisance Act.
(Source: P.A. 96-1451, eff. 8-20-10; 97-427, eff. 1-1-12.)

735 ILCS 5/2-203

    (735 ILCS 5/2-203) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-203)
    (Text of Section before amendment by P.A. 98-966)
    Sec. 2-203. Service on individuals.
    (a) Except as otherwise expressly provided, service of summons upon an individual defendant shall be made (1) by leaving a copy of the summons with the defendant personally, (2) by leaving a copy at the defendant's usual place of abode, with some person of the family or a person residing there, of the age of 13 years or upwards, and informing that person of the contents of the summons, provided the officer or other person making service shall also send a copy of the summons in a sealed envelope with postage fully prepaid, addressed to the defendant at his or her usual place of abode, or (3) as provided in Section 1-2-9.2 of the Illinois Municipal Code with respect to violation of an ordinance governing parking or standing of vehicles in cities with a population over 500,000. The certificate of the officer or affidavit of the person that he or she has sent the copy in pursuance of this Section is evidence that he or she has done so. No employee of a facility licensed under the Nursing Home Care Act, the Specialized Mental Health Rehabilitation Act of 2013, or the ID/DD Community Care Act shall obstruct an officer or other person making service in compliance with this Section.
    (b) The officer, in his or her certificate or in a record filed and maintained in the Sheriff's office, or other person making service, in his or her affidavit or in a record filed and maintained in his or her employer's office, shall (1) identify as to sex, race, and approximate age the defendant or other person with whom the summons was left and (2) state the place where (whenever possible in terms of an exact street address) and the date and time of the day when the summons was left with the defendant or other person.
    (c) Any person who knowingly sets forth in the certificate or affidavit any false statement, shall be liable in civil contempt. When the court holds a person in civil contempt under this Section, it shall award such damages as it determines to be just and, when the contempt is prosecuted by a private attorney, may award reasonable attorney's fees.
(Source: P.A. 97-38, eff. 6-28-11; 97-227, eff. 1-1-12; 97-813, eff. 7-13-12; 98-104, eff. 7-22-13.)
 
    (Text of Section after amendment by P.A. 98-966)
    Sec. 2-203. Service on individuals.
    (a) Except as otherwise expressly provided, service of summons upon an individual defendant shall be made (1) by leaving a copy of the summons with the defendant personally, (2) by leaving a copy at the defendant's usual place of abode, with some person of the family or a person residing there, of the age of 13 years or upwards, and informing that person of the contents of the summons, provided the officer or other person making service shall also send a copy of the summons in a sealed envelope with postage fully prepaid, addressed to the defendant at his or her usual place of abode, or (3) as provided in Section 1-2-9.2 of the Illinois Municipal Code with respect to violation of an ordinance governing parking or standing of vehicles in cities with a population over 500,000. The certificate of the officer or affidavit of the person that he or she has sent the copy in pursuance of this Section is evidence that he or she has done so. No employee of a facility licensed under the Nursing Home Care Act, the Specialized Mental Health Rehabilitation Act of 2013, or the ID/DD Community Care Act shall obstruct an officer or other person making service in compliance with this Section. An employee of a gated residential community shall grant entry into the community, including its common areas and common elements, to a process server authorized under Section 2-202 of this Code who is attempting to serve process on a defendant or witness who resides within or is known to be within the community. As used in this Section, "gated residential community" includes a condominium association, housing cooperative, or private community.
    (b) The officer, in his or her certificate or in a record filed and maintained in the Sheriff's office, or other person making service, in his or her affidavit or in a record filed and maintained in his or her employer's office, shall (1) identify as to sex, race, and approximate age the defendant or other person with whom the summons was left and (2) state the place where (whenever possible in terms of an exact street address) and the date and time of the day when the summons was left with the defendant or other person.
    (c) Any person who knowingly sets forth in the certificate or affidavit any false statement, shall be liable in civil contempt. When the court holds a person in civil contempt under this Section, it shall award such damages as it determines to be just and, when the contempt is prosecuted by a private attorney, may award reasonable attorney's fees.
(Source: P.A. 97-38, eff. 6-28-11; 97-227, eff. 1-1-12; 97-813, eff. 7-13-12; 98-104, eff. 7-22-13; 98-966, eff. 1-1-15.)

735 ILCS 5/2-203.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-203.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-203.1)
    Sec. 2-203.1. Service by special order of court. If service upon an individual defendant is impractical under items (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of Section 2-203, the plaintiff may move, without notice, that the court enter an order directing a comparable method of service. The motion shall be accompanied with an affidavit stating the nature and extent of the investigation made to determine the whereabouts of the defendant and the reasons why service is impractical under items (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of Section 2-203, including a specific statement showing that a diligent inquiry as to the location of the individual defendant was made and reasonable efforts to make service have been unsuccessful. The court may order service to be made in any manner consistent with due process.
(Source: P.A. 87-1165.)

735 ILCS 5/2-203.2

    (735 ILCS 5/2-203.2)
    Sec. 2-203.2. Service on an inmate. For the security of a correctional institution or facility or jail, a process server may be refused entry into that correctional institution or facility or jail. Each correctional institution or facility or jail shall designate a representative to accept service from a licensed or registered private detective or agency for purposes of effectuating service upon an inmate in the custody of the institution, facility, or jail. With respect to an inmate incarcerated in an Illinois Department of Corrections facility, the process server shall contact the chief administrative officer in advance to arrange and designate the time and date, during regularly scheduled business hours, that the facility representative will meet with and accept service from the process server. Service upon a warden's or sheriff's representative shall constitute substitute service and a mailing to the inmate of the process shall be completed by the server in accordance with Section 2-202. A warden's or sheriff's representative accepting substitute service shall forward the process to the inmate, but if for any reason the process is not forwarded to the inmate, the sheriff, sheriff's representative, warden, or warden's representative shall not be responsible for any civil fine or penalty, or have other liability. If for any reason an inmate is not in the correctional institution or facility or jail at the time of the service of process, a warden's or sheriff's representative may refuse to accept service for the inmate. If it is determined after the process has been left with the designated representative, that the inmate is not present at that institution or facility or jail, the designated representative shall promptly return it to the licensed or registered private detective or agency, indicating that the substitute service could not be effectuated. The process server shall promptly notify the court of the unsuccessful service.
(Source: P.A. 96-1451, eff. 8-20-10.)

735 ILCS 5/2-204

    (735 ILCS 5/2-204) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-204)
    Sec. 2-204. Service on private corporations. A private corporation may be served (1) by leaving a copy of the process with its registered agent or any officer or agent of the corporation found anywhere in the State; or (2) in any other manner now or hereafter permitted by law. A private corporation may also be notified by publication and mail in like manner and with like effect as individuals.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-205

    (735 ILCS 5/2-205) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-205)
    Sec. 2-205. Service on partnership and partners. (a) A partnership sued in its firm name may be served by leaving a copy of the process with any partner personally or with any agent of the partnership found anywhere in the State. A partnership sued in its firm name may also be notified by publication and mail in like manner and with like effect as individuals.
    (b) When a personal judgment is sought against a known partner for a partnership liability the partner may be served (1) in any manner provided for service on individuals or (2) by leaving a copy of the summons for him or her with any other partner and mailing a copy of the summons in a sealed envelope with postage prepaid, addressed to the partner against whom the judgment is sought at his or her usual place of abode as shown by an affidavit filed in the cause. The certificate of the officer or the affidavit of the other person making service that he or she has mailed the copy in pursuance of this section is evidence that he or she has done so. Service on a nonresident partner against whom a personal judgment is sought may be made by leaving a copy with any other partner, and mailing, as provided herein, only if the cause of action sued on is a partnership liability arising out of the transaction of business within the State.
    (c) When a personal judgment is sought against an unknown owner in an action authorized under Section 6 of "An Act in relation to the use of an assumed name in the conduct or transaction of business in this State", approved July 17, 1941, as amended, service may be made by leaving a copy of the summons with any agent of the business and publishing notice in the manner provided by Section 2-206 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-205.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-205.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-205.1)
    Sec. 2-205.1. Service on voluntary unincorporated associations. A voluntary unincorporated association sued in its own name may be served by leaving a copy of the process with any officer of the association personally or by leaving a copy of the process at the office of the association with an agent of the association. A voluntary unincorporated association sued in its own name may also be notified by publication and mail in like manner and with like effect as individuals.
(Source: P.A. 83-901.)

735 ILCS 5/2-206

    (735 ILCS 5/2-206) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-206)
    Sec. 2-206. Service by publication; affidavit; mailing; certificate.
    (a) Whenever, in any action affecting property or status within the jurisdiction of the court, including an action to obtain the specific performance, reformation, or rescission of a contract for the conveyance of land, plaintiff or his or her attorney shall file, at the office of the clerk of the court in which the action is pending, an affidavit showing that the defendant resides or has gone out of this State, or on due inquiry cannot be found, or is concealed within this State, so that process cannot be served upon him or her, and stating the place of residence of the defendant, if known, or that upon diligent inquiry his or her place of residence cannot be ascertained, the clerk shall cause publication to be made in some newspaper published in the county in which the action is pending. If there is no newspaper published in that county, then the publication shall be in a newspaper published in an adjoining county in this State, having a circulation in the county in which action is pending. The publication shall contain notice of the pendency of the action, the title of the court, the title of the case, showing the names of the first named plaintiff and the first named defendant, the number of the case, the names of the parties to be served by publication, and the date on or after which default may be entered against such party. The clerk shall also, within 10 days of the first publication of the notice, send a copy thereof by mail, addressed to each defendant whose place of residence is stated in such affidavit. The certificate of the clerk that he or she has sent the copy in pursuance of this Section is evidence that he or she has done so.
    (b) In any action brought by a unit of local government to cause the demolition, repair, or enclosure of a dangerous and unsafe or uncompleted or abandoned building, notice by publication under this Section may be commenced during the time during which attempts are made to locate the defendant for personal service. In that case, the unit of local government shall file with the clerk an affidavit stating that the action meets the requirements of this subsection and that all required attempts are being made to locate the defendant. Upon the filing of the affidavit, the clerk shall cause publication to be made under this Section. Upon completing the attempts to locate the defendant required by this Section, the municipality shall file with the clerk an affidavit meeting the requirements of subsection (a). Service under this subsection shall not be deemed to have been made until the affidavit is filed and service by publication in the manner prescribed in subsection (a) is completed.
(Source: P.A. 87-1276.)

735 ILCS 5/2-207

    (735 ILCS 5/2-207) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-207)
    Sec. 2-207. Period of Publication - Default. The notice required in the preceding section may be given at any time after the commencement of the action, and shall be published at least once in each week for 3 successive weeks. No default or proceeding shall be taken against any defendant not served with summons, or a copy of the complaint, and not appearing, unless the first publication be at least 30 days prior to the time when the default or other proceeding is sought to be taken.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-208

    (735 ILCS 5/2-208) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-208)
    Sec. 2-208. Personal service outside State. (a) Personal service of summons may be made upon any party outside the State. If upon a citizen or resident of this State or upon a person who has submitted to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, it shall have the force and effect of personal service of summons within this State; otherwise it shall have the force and effect of service by publication.
    (b) The service of summons shall be made in like manner as service within this State, by any person over 18 years of age not a party to the action. No order of court is required. An affidavit of the server shall be filed stating the time, manner and place of service. The court may consider the affidavit, or any other competent proofs, in determining whether service has been properly made.
    (c) No default shall be entered until the expiration of at least 30 days after service. A default judgment entered on such service may be set aside only on a showing which would be timely and sufficient to set aside a default judgment entered on personal service within this State.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-209

    (735 ILCS 5/2-209) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-209)
    Sec. 2-209. Act submitting to jurisdiction - Process.
    (a) Any person, whether or not a citizen or resident of this State, who in person or through an agent does any of the acts hereinafter enumerated, thereby submits such person, and, if an individual, his or her personal representative, to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State as to any cause of action arising from the doing of any of such acts:
        (1) The transaction of any business within this State;
        (2) The commission of a tortious act within this
    
State;
        (3) The ownership, use, or possession of any real
    
estate situated in this State;
        (4) Contracting to insure any person, property or
    
risk located within this State at the time of contracting;
        (5) With respect to actions of dissolution of
    
marriage, declaration of invalidity of marriage and legal separation, the maintenance in this State of a matrimonial domicile at the time this cause of action arose or the commission in this State of any act giving rise to the cause of action;
        (6) With respect to actions brought under the
    
Illinois Parentage Act of 1984, as now or hereafter amended, the performance of an act of sexual intercourse within this State during the possible period of conception;
        (7) The making or performance of any contract or
    
promise substantially connected with this State;
        (8) The performance of sexual intercourse within this
    
State which is claimed to have resulted in the conception of a child who resides in this State;
        (9) The failure to support a child, spouse or former
    
spouse who has continued to reside in this State since the person either formerly resided with them in this State or directed them to reside in this State;
        (10) The acquisition of ownership, possession or
    
control of any asset or thing of value present within this State when ownership, possession or control was acquired;
        (11) The breach of any fiduciary duty within this
    
State;
        (12) The performance of duties as a director or
    
officer of a corporation organized under the laws of this State or having its principal place of business within this State;
        (13) The ownership of an interest in any trust
    
administered within this State; or
        (14) The exercise of powers granted under the
    
authority of this State as a fiduciary.
    (b) A court may exercise jurisdiction in any action arising within or without this State against any person who:
        (1) Is a natural person present within this State
    
when served;
        (2) Is a natural person domiciled or resident within
    
this State when the cause of action arose, the action was commenced, or process was served;
        (3) Is a corporation organized under the laws of this
    
State; or
        (4) Is a natural person or corporation doing business
    
within this State.
    (b-5) Foreign defamation judgment. The courts of this State shall have personal jurisdiction over any person who obtains a judgment in a defamation proceeding outside the United States against any person who is a resident of Illinois or, if not a natural person, has its principal place of business in Illinois, for the purposes of rendering declaratory relief with respect to that resident's liability for the judgment, or for the purpose of determining whether said judgment should be deemed non-recognizable pursuant to this Code, to the fullest extent permitted by the United States Constitution, provided:
        (1) the publication at issue was published in
    
Illinois, and
        (2) that resident (i) has assets in Illinois
    
which might be used to satisfy the foreign defamation judgment, or (ii) may have to take actions in Illinois to comply with the foreign defamation judgment.
    The provisions of this subsection (b-5) shall apply to persons who obtained judgments in defamation proceedings outside the United States prior to, on, or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
    (c) A court may also exercise jurisdiction on any other basis now or hereafter permitted by the Illinois Constitution and the Constitution of the United States.
    (d) Service of process upon any person who is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, as provided in this Section, may be made by personally serving the summons upon the defendant outside this State, as provided in this Act, with the same force and effect as though summons had been personally served within this State.
    (e) Service of process upon any person who resides or whose business address is outside the United States and who is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, as provided in this Section, in any action based upon product liability may be made by serving a copy of the summons with a copy of the complaint attached upon the Secretary of State. The summons shall be accompanied by a $5 fee payable to the Secretary of State. The plaintiff shall forthwith mail a copy of the summons, upon which the date of service upon the Secretary is clearly shown, together with a copy of the complaint to the defendant at his or her last known place of residence or business address. Plaintiff shall file with the circuit clerk an affidavit of the plaintiff or his or her attorney stating the last known place of residence or the last known business address of the defendant and a certificate of mailing a copy of the summons and complaint to the defendant at such address as required by this subsection (e). The certificate of mailing shall be prima facie evidence that the plaintiff or his or her attorney mailed a copy of the summons and complaint to the defendant as required. Service of the summons shall be deemed to have been made upon the defendant on the date it is served upon the Secretary and shall have the same force and effect as though summons had been personally served upon the defendant within this State.
    (f) Only causes of action arising from acts enumerated herein may be asserted against a defendant in an action in which jurisdiction over him or her is based upon subsection (a).
    (g) Nothing herein contained limits or affects the right to serve any process in any other manner now or hereafter provided by law.
(Source: P.A. 95-865, eff. 8-19-08.)

735 ILCS 5/2-209.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-209.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-209.1)
    Sec. 2-209.1. Actions by and against voluntary associations. A voluntary unincorporated association may sue and be sued in its own name, and may complain and defend in all actions. For the purposes of this Code, "voluntary unincorporated association" means any organization of 2 or more individuals formed for a common purpose, excluding a partnership or corporation.
(Source: P.A. 84-1043.)

735 ILCS 5/2-210

    (735 ILCS 5/2-210) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-210)
    Sec. 2-210. Aircraft and Watercraft. (a) For the purposes of this Section:
    "aircraft" means any contrivance now known, or hereafter invented, used or designed for flight in the air;
    "watercraft" means any boat, vessel, craft or floating thing designed for navigation in the water; and
    "waters of this State" means the Illinois portion of all boundary lakes and rivers, and all lakes, rivers, streams, ponds and canals within the State of Illinois.
    (b) The use and operation by any person of an aircraft on the land of or in the air over this State or the use and operation by any person of a watercraft in the waters of this State, shall be deemed an appointment by such person of the Secretary of State, to be his or her true and lawful attorney upon whom may be served all legal process in any action or proceeding against him or her, growing out of such use or resulting in damage or loss to person or property, and such use or operation shall be signification of his or her agreement that any such process against him or her which is so served, shall be of the same legal force and validity as though served upon him or her personally if such person is a nonresident of this State or at the time a cause of action arises is a resident of this State but subsequently becomes a nonresident of this State. Service of such process shall be made by serving a copy upon the Secretary of State, or by filing such copy in his or her office, together with a fee of $2.00, and such service shall be sufficient service upon such person; if notice of such service and a copy of the process are, within 10 days thereafter, sent by registered mail by the plaintiff to the defendant, at the last known address of the defendant, and the plaintiff's affidavit of compliance herewith is appended to the summons. The court in which the action is pending may order such continuances as may be necessary to afford the defendant reasonable opportunity to defend the action. The fee of $2.00 paid by the plaintiff to the Secretary of State at the time of the service shall be taxed in his or her costs, if he or she prevails in the action. The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all such processes, which shall show the day and hours of such services.
    (c) When a final judgment is entered against any non-resident defendant who has not received notice of service and a copy of the process by registered mail, required to be sent to him or her as above provided, and such person, his or her heirs, legatees, executor, administrator or other legal representatives, as the case may require, shall within one year after the written notice is given to him or her of such judgment, or within 5 years after such judgment, if no such notice has been given, as above stated, appear and petition the court to be heard regarding such judgment, and shall pay such costs as the court may deem reasonable in that behalf, the person so petitioning may appear and answer the plaintiff's allegations, and thereupon such proceeding shall be had as if the defendant had appeared in due time and no judgment had been entered. If it appears upon the hearing that the judgment ought not to have been entered against the defendant, the judgment may be set aside, altered or amended as shall appear just; otherwise, it shall be ordered that the judgment stands confirmed against such defendant. The judgment shall after 5 years from the entry thereof, if not set aside in the manner stated above, be deemed and adjudged confirmed against such defendant, and all persons claiming under him or her by virtue of any act done subsequent to the commencement of such action, and at the end of the 5 years, the court may enter such further orders as shall be required for the enforcement of the judgment.
(Source: P.A. 84-549.)

735 ILCS 5/2-211

    (735 ILCS 5/2-211) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-211)
    Sec. 2-211. Service on public, municipal, governmental and quasi-municipal corporations. In actions against public, municipal, governmental or quasi-municipal corporations, summons may be served by leaving a copy with the chairperson of the county board or county clerk in the case of a county, with the mayor or city clerk in the case of a city, with the president of the board of trustees or village clerk in the case of a village, with the supervisor or town clerk in the case of a town, and with the president or clerk or other officer corresponding thereto in the case of any other public, municipal, governmental or quasi-municipal corporation or body.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-212

    (735 ILCS 5/2-212) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-212)
    Sec. 2-212. Service on trustee of corporation or receiver. Any trustee of a corporation or its property or any receiver may be served with summons (1) in any manner provided for service on individuals or corporations, as is appropriate, or (2) by leaving a copy thereof with any agent in the employ of the trustee or receiver anywhere in the State. The trustee or receiver may also be notified by publication and mail in like manner and with like effect as individuals.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-213

    (735 ILCS 5/2-213) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-213)
    Sec. 2-213. Waiver of service.
    (a) Notice and request for waiver. A plaintiff may notify a defendant of the commencement of an action and request that the defendant waive service of a summons. The notice and request shall be in writing in a form prescribed by Supreme Court rule. The notice and request shall:
        (1) be addressed to an individual who is the
    
defendant or who could be served as representative of an entity that is the defendant;
        (2) be dispatched through first class U.S. mail or
    
other equally reliable means;
        (3) contain a copy of the complaint and identify the
    
court in which it has been filed;
        (4) inform the defendant of the consequences of
    
compliance and of a failure to comply with the request;
        (5) allow the defendant a reasonable time to return
    
the waiver, which shall be at least (i) 30 days from the date on which the request is sent or (ii) 60 days if the defendant is addressed outside the United States; and
        (6) provide the defendant with an extra copy of the
    
notice and request and prepaid means of compliance in writing.
    (b) Limits on waiver. A defendant who waives service of a summons in the manner provided in subsection (a) does not thereby waive any objection to the venue or to the jurisdiction of the court over the person of the defendant.
    (c) Time to appear or answer. A defendant who returns a timely waiver of service is not required to appear or serve an answer to the complaint until (i) 60 days from the date on which the request for waiver of service was sent or (ii) 90 days if the defendant was addressed outside of the United States.
    (d) Effect of filing. When a waiver of service is filed by the plaintiff with the court, the action shall proceed as if a summons and complaint had been served at the time of filing of the waiver, and no proof of service shall be required.
    (e) Right to refuse to waive service; effect of refusal. A defendant may refuse to waive service of a summons. If a defendant does not return the waiver provided for in subsection (a), the plaintiff must serve summons on that defendant as otherwise provided by this Code and Supreme Court rules.
(Source: P.A. 87-352.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 3

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 3 heading)
Part 3. Appearance

735 ILCS 5/2-301

    (735 ILCS 5/2-301) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-301)
    Sec. 2-301. Objections to jurisdiction over the person.
    (a) Prior to the filing of any other pleading or motion other than a motion for an extension of time to answer or otherwise appear, a party may object to the court's jurisdiction over the party's person, either on the ground that the party is not amenable to process of a court of this State or on the ground of insufficiency of process or insufficiency of service of process, by filing a motion to dismiss the entire proceeding or any cause of action involved in the proceeding or by filing a motion to quash service of process. Such a motion may be made singly or included with others in a combined motion, but the parts of a combined motion must be identified in the manner described in Section 2-619.1. Unless the facts that constitute the basis for the objection are apparent from papers already on file in the case, the motion must be supported by an affidavit setting forth those facts.
    (a-5) If the objecting party files a responsive pleading or a motion (other than a motion for an extension of time to answer or otherwise appear) prior to the filing of a motion in compliance with subsection (a), that party waives all objections to the court's jurisdiction over the party's person.
    (b) In disposing of a motion objecting to the court's jurisdiction over the person of the objecting party, the court shall consider all matters apparent from the papers on file in the case, affidavits submitted by any party, and any evidence adduced upon contested issues of fact. The court shall enter an appropriate order sustaining or overruling the objection. No determination of any issue of fact in connection with the objection is a determination of the merits of the case or any aspect thereof. A decision adverse to the objector does not preclude the objector from making any motion or defense which he or she might otherwise have made.
    (c) Error in ruling against the objecting party on the objection is waived by the party's taking part in further proceedings unless the objection is on the ground that the party is not amenable to process issued by a court of this State.
(Source: P.A. 91-145, eff. 1-1-00.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 4

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 4 heading)
Part 4. Parties

735 ILCS 5/2-401

    (735 ILCS 5/2-401) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-401)
    Sec. 2-401. Designation of parties - Misnomer. (a) The party commencing an action shall be called the plaintiff. The adverse party shall be called the defendant.
    (b) Misnomer of a party is not a ground for dismissal but the name of any party may be corrected at any time, before or after judgment, on motion, upon any terms and proof that the court requires.
    (c) A party shall set forth in the body of his or her pleading the names of all parties for and against whom relief is sought thereby.
    (d) Unless a contrary meaning is indicated, wherever used in this Act and in rules adopted pursuant hereto the term "plaintiff" includes counterclaimants and third-party plaintiffs, and the term "defendant" includes third-party defendants and parties against whom relief is sought by counterclaim.
    (e) Upon application and for good cause shown the parties may appear under fictitious names.
(Source: P.A. 85-907.)

735 ILCS 5/2-402

    (735 ILCS 5/2-402) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-402)
    Sec. 2-402. Respondents in discovery. The plaintiff in any civil action may designate as respondents in discovery in his or her pleading those individuals or other entities, other than the named defendants, believed by the plaintiff to have information essential to the determination of who should properly be named as additional defendants in the action.
    Persons or entities so named as respondents in discovery shall be required to respond to discovery by the plaintiff in the same manner as are defendants and may, on motion of the plaintiff, be added as defendants if the evidence discloses the existence of probable cause for such action.
    A person or entity named a respondent in discovery may upon his or her own motion be made a defendant in the action, in which case the provisions of this Section are no longer applicable to that person.
    A copy of the complaint shall be served on each person or entity named as a respondent in discovery.
    Each respondent in discovery shall be paid expenses and fees as provided for witnesses.
    A person or entity named as a respondent in discovery in any civil action may be made a defendant in the same action at any time within 6 months after being named as a respondent in discovery, even though the time during which an action may otherwise be initiated against him or her may have expired during such 6 month period. An extension from the original 6-month period for good cause may be granted only once for up to 90 days for (i) withdrawal of plaintiff's counsel or (ii) good cause. Notwithstanding the limitations in this Section, the court may grant additional reasonable extensions from this 6-month period for a failure or refusal on the part of the respondent to comply with timely filed discovery.
    The plaintiff shall serve upon the respondent or respondents a copy of the complaint together with a summons in a form substantially as follows:
 
 
"STATE OF ILLINOIS
 
COUNTY OF ..................
 
IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF ................ COUNTY, ILLINOIS
COUNTY DEPARTMENT, LAW DIVISION
(or, In the Circuit Court of the ............ Judicial Circuit)
...................
                    Plaintiff(s),
        v.                             No.
.................
.................,
                    Defendant(s),
        and                             PLEASE SERVE:
.................
.................,
        Respondent(s) in Discovery.
 
SUMMONS FOR DISCOVERY

TO RESPONDENT IN DISCOVERY:
 
    YOU ARE HEREBY NOTIFIED that on ................, 20..... , a complaint, a copy of which is attached, was filed in the above Court naming you as a Respondent in Discovery. Pursuant to the Illinois Code of Civil Procedure Section 2-402 and Supreme Court Rules 201 et. seq., and/or Court Order entered on .................................., the above named Plaintiff(s) are authorized to proceed with the discovery of the named Respondent(s) in Discovery.
 
    YOU ARE SUMMONED AND COMMANDED to appear for deposition, before a notary public (answer the attached written interrogatories), (respond to the attached request to produce), (or other appropriate discovery tool).
 
We are scheduled to take the oral discovery deposition of the above named Respondent, .................................., on ........................, 20..., at the hour of ..... a.m./p.m., at the office ..........................................., Illinois, in accordance with the rules and provisions of this Court. Witness and mileage fees in the amount of ....................... are attached (or)
 
(serve the following interrogatories, request to produce, or other appropriate discovery tool upon Respondent, ....................... to be answered under oath by Respondent, ............................, and delivered to the office of ................................., Illinois, within 28 days from date of service).
 
TO THE OFFICER/SPECIAL PROCESS SERVER:
    This summons must be returned by the officer or other person to whom it was given for service, with endorsement or affidavit of service and fees and an endorsement or affidavit of payment to the Respondent of witness and mileage fees, if any, immediately after service. If service cannot be made, this summons shall be returned so endorsed.
 
WITNESS, .....................
 
..............................
Clerk of Court
 
Date of Service: .........., 20...
(To be inserted by officer on copy left
with Respondent or other person)
 
Attorney No.
Name:
Attorney for:
Address:
City/State/Zip:
Telephone:".
    This amendatory Act of the 94th General Assembly applies to causes of action pending on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 94-582, eff. 1-1-06.)

735 ILCS 5/2-403

    (735 ILCS 5/2-403) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-403)
    Sec. 2-403. Who may be plaintiff - Assignments - Subrogation. (a) The assignee and owner of a non-negotiable chose in action may sue thereon in his or her own name. Such person shall in his or her pleading on oath allege that he or she is the actual bona fide owner thereof, and set forth how and when he or she acquired title. The action is subject to any defense or set-off existing before notice of the assignment.
    (b) In all cases in which the chose in action consists of wages due or to become due to the assignor thereof from the defendant in the action, at least 5 days' written notice of the pendency of the action shall be served upon the assignor, before the trial of the same. Upon application of the assignor of the chose in action the court shall allow him or her to intervene and be made a party to the action. The assignor, or the defendant to the action on behalf of the assignor, shall be allowed to set up or affirmatively maintain any just setoff, discount or defense which the assignor may have to the assignment of the chose in action, or to the indebtedness, the payment of which is secured by the assignment of the chose in action. The court, by jury or otherwise, shall ascertain the amount of the indebtedness remaining due and unpaid from the assignor to the assignee of the chose in action. The judgment, if any, against the defendant shall not exceed the amount so found to be due and unpaid from the assignor to the assignee of the chose in action. Judgment for the balance, if any, remaining due from the defendant, upon the assigned chose in action, shall be rendered in favor of the assignor and against the defendant in the action or proceeding. The court may enter any order as to costs in the proceeding that may be equitable.
    (c) Any action hereafter brought by virtue of the subrogation provision of any contract or by virtue of subrogation by operation of law shall be brought either in the name or for the use of the subrogee; and the subrogee shall in his or her pleading on oath, or by his or her affidavit if pleading is not required, allege that he or she is the actual bona fide subrogee and set forth how and when he or she became subrogee.
    (d) A judgment in an action brought and conducted by a subrogee by virtue of the subrogation provision of any contract or by virtue of any subrogation by operation of law, whether in the name of the subrogor or otherwise, is not a bar or a determination on the merits of the case or any aspect thereof in an action by the subrogor to recover upon any other cause of action arising out of the same transaction or series of transactions.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-404

    (735 ILCS 5/2-404) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-404)
    Sec. 2-404. Joinder of plaintiffs. All persons may join in one action as plaintiffs, in whom any right to relief in respect of or arising out of the same transaction or series of transactions is alleged to exist, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative, whenever if those persons had brought separate actions any common question of law or fact would arise. If upon the application of any party it shall appear that joinder may embarrass or delay the trial of the action, the court may order separate trials or enter any other order that may be expedient. Judgment may be entered for any one or more of the plaintiffs who may be found to be entitled to relief, for the relief to which he or she or they may be entitled.
    If any one who is a necessary plaintiff, counterclaimant or third-party plaintiff declines to join, he or she may be made a defendant, cross defendant or third-party defendant, as the case may be, the reason therefor being stated in the complaint, counterclaim or third-party complaint.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-405

    (735 ILCS 5/2-405) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-405)
    Sec. 2-405. Joinder of defendants. (a) Any person may be made a defendant who, either jointly, severally or in the alternative, is alleged to have or claim an interest in the controversy, or in any part thereof, or in the transaction or series of transactions out of which the controversy arose, or whom it is necessary to make a party for the complete determination or settlement of any question involved therein, or against whom a liability is asserted either jointly, severally or in the alternative arising out of the same transaction or series of transactions, regardless of the number of causes of action joined.
    (b) It is not necessary that each defendant be interested as to all the relief prayed for, or as to every cause of action included in any proceeding against him or her; but the court may make any order that may be just to prevent any defendant from being embarrassed or put to expense by being required to attend any proceedings in which such defendant may have no interest.
    (c) If the plaintiff is in doubt as to the person from whom he or she is entitled to redress, he or she may join two or more defendants, and state his or her claim against them in the alternative in the same count or plead separate counts in the alternative against different defendants, to the intent that the question which, if any, of the defendants is liable, and to what extent, may be determined as between the parties.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-406

    (735 ILCS 5/2-406) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-406)
    Sec. 2-406. Bringing in new parties - Third-party proceedings. (a) If a complete determination of a controversy cannot be had without the presence of other parties, the court may direct them to be brought in. If a person, not a party, has an interest or title which the judgment may affect, the court, on application, shall direct such person to be made a party.
    (b) Within the time for filing his or her answer or thereafter by leave of court, a defendant may by third-party complaint bring in as a defendant a person not a party to the action who is or may be liable to him or her for all or part of the plaintiff's claim against him or her. Subsequent pleadings shall be filed as in the case of a complaint and with like designation and effect. The third-party defendant may assert any defenses which he or she has to the third-party complaint or which the third-party plaintiff has to the plaintiff's claim and shall have the same right to file a counterclaim or third-party complaint as any other defendant. If the plaintiff desires to assert against the third-party defendant any claim which the plaintiff might have asserted against the third-party defendant had he or she been joined originally as a defendant, the plaintiff shall do so by an appropriate pleading. When a counterclaim is filed against a party, the party may in like manner proceed against third parties. Nothing herein applies to liability insurers.
    (c) An action is commenced against a new party by the filing of an appropriate pleading or the entry of an order naming him or her a party. Service of process shall be had upon a new party in like manner as is provided for service on a defendant.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-407

    (735 ILCS 5/2-407) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-407)
    Sec. 2-407. Nonjoinder and misjoinder of parties - Change of parties. No action shall be dismissed for misjoinder of parties, or dismissed for nonjoinder of necessary parties without first affording reasonable opportunity to add them as parties. New parties may be added and parties misjoined may be dropped by order of the court, at any stage of the cause, before or after judgment, as the ends of justice may require and on terms which the court may fix.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-408

    (735 ILCS 5/2-408) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-408)
    Sec. 2-408. Intervention. (a) Upon timely application anyone shall be permitted as of right to intervene in an action: (1) when a statute confers an unconditional right to intervene; or (2) when the representation of the applicant's interest by existing parties is or may be inadequate and the applicant will or may be bound by an order or judgment in the action; or (3) when the applicant is so situated as to be adversely affected by a distribution or other disposition of property in the custody or subject to the control or disposition of the court or a court officer.
    (b) Upon timely application anyone may in the discretion of the court be permitted to intervene in an action: (1) when a statute confers a conditional right to intervene; or (2) when an applicant's claim or defense and the main action have a question of law or fact in common.
    (c) In all cases involving the validity of a constitutional provision, statute or regulation of this State and affecting the public interest, the State upon timely application may in the discretion of the court be permitted to intervene.
    (d) In all cases involving the validity of an ordinance or regulation of a municipality or governmental subdivision of this State and affecting the public interest, the municipality or governmental subdivision upon timely application may in the discretion of the court be permitted to intervene.
    (e) A person desiring to intervene shall present a petition setting forth the grounds for intervention, accompanied by the initial pleading or motion which he or she proposes to file. In cases in which the allowance of intervention is discretionary, the court shall consider whether the intervention will unduly delay or prejudice the adjudication of the rights of the original parties.
    (f) An intervenor shall have all the rights of an original party, except that the court may in its order allowing intervention, whether discretionary or a matter of right, provide that the applicant shall be bound by orders or judgments, theretofore entered or by evidence theretofore received, that the applicant shall not raise issues which might more properly have been raised at an earlier stage of the proceeding, that the applicant shall not raise new issues or add new parties, or that in other respects the applicant shall not interfere with the control of the litigation, as justice and the avoidance of undue delay may require.
(Source: P.A. 82-783.)

735 ILCS 5/2-409

    (735 ILCS 5/2-409) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-409)
    Sec. 2-409. Interpleader. Persons having claims against the plaintiff arising out of the same or related subject matter may be joined as defendants and required to interplead when their claims may expose plaintiff to double or multiple liability. It is not a ground for objection to interpleader that the claims of the several claimants or the titles upon which their claims depend do not have a common origin or are not identical, or are adverse to or independent of one another, or that the plaintiff avers that he or she is not liable in whole or in part to any of or all the claimants. A defendant under similar circumstances may obtain like relief by counterclaim. The provisions hereof are not a limitation upon the joinder of parties or causes of action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-410

    (735 ILCS 5/2-410) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-410)
    Sec. 2-410. Actions against joint debtors or partners. All parties to a joint obligation, including a partnership obligation, may be sued jointly, or separate actions may be brought against one or more of them. A judgment against fewer than all the parties to a joint or partnership obligation does not bar an action against those not included in the judgment or not sued. Nothing herein permits more than one satisfaction.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-411

    (735 ILCS 5/2-411) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-411)
    Sec. 2-411. Actions by or against partnerships. (a) A partnership may sue or be sued in the names of the partners as individuals doing business as the partnership, or in the firm name, or both.
    (b) An unsatisfied judgment against a partnership in its firm name does not bar an action to enforce the individual liability of any partner.
(Source: P.A. 86-483.)

735 ILCS 5/2-412

    (735 ILCS 5/2-412) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-412)
    Sec. 2-412. Saving clause as to change of parties. No change in parties, made by order of court or otherwise, impairs any previous attachment of the estate or body of any person remaining a defendant in the action, or bonds or recognizances of any person remaining a party, either as against such person or his or her sureties, or receipts to an officer for property attached; and, when parties are changed, the court may order new bonds if new bonds are necessary.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-413

    (735 ILCS 5/2-413) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-413)
    Sec. 2-413. Unknown parties. If in any action there are persons interested therein whose names are unknown, it shall be lawful to make them parties to the action by the name and description of unknown owners, or unknown heirs or legatees of any deceased person, who may have been interested in the subject matter of the action previous to his or her death; but an affidavit shall be filed by the party desiring to make those persons parties stating that their names are unknown. Process may then issue and publication may be had against those persons by the name and description so given, and judgments entered in respect to them shall be of the same effect as though they had been designated by their proper names. If there has been a person who may have been interested in the action, and upon diligent inquiry it cannot be ascertained whether the person is living or dead, it shall be lawful to make those persons who would be his or her heirs and legatees parties defendant as unknown owners, the same as if he or she were known to be dead, but in all those cases an affidavit shall be filed by the party desiring to make any unknown persons who would be the heirs or legatees of the person not known to be living or dead parties, stating that upon due and diligent inquiry it cannot be ascertained whether or not the person is living or dead and further stating that the names of the persons who would be his or her heirs or legatees are unknown. Process may then issue and publication may be had against all parties by the name and description of unknown owners, and judgments entered in respect to the unknown parties shall be of the same effect as though they had been designated by their proper names. Only one affidavit is necessary under the provisions of this section for the purpose of making persons described herein parties to the action.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-414

    (735 ILCS 5/2-414) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-414)
    Sec. 2-414. Joint or consolidated affidavits - validation of judgments. (a) If in any action or proceeding the affidavits required by Section 2-206 and Section 2-413 of this Act are joined and submitted as a single affidavit, or as two affidavits on one sheet, the fact of joinder or of consolidation of the two affidavits into one shall not deprive the court of the jurisdiction it would have had if the affidavits had been filed as two distinct affidavits; however, the facts with reference to the nonresident defendants required by Section 2-206 of this Act, and the facts relative to the unknown parties required by Section 2-413 of this Act, are otherwise correctly set forth and properly related in the one affidavit.
    (b) Any judgment heretofore entered by the court based upon joint affidavits or a consolidated affidavit which is regular in other respects is validated as though the affidavits were separate and distinct.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-415

    (735 ILCS 5/2-415) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-415)
    Sec. 2-415. Appointment of and actions against receivers. (a) Before any receiver shall be appointed the party making the application shall give bond to the adverse party in such penalty as the court may order and with security to be approved by the court conditioned to pay all damages including reasonable attorney's fees sustained by reason of the appointment and acts of such receiver, in case the appointment of such receiver is revoked or set aside. Bond need not be required, when for good cause shown, and upon notice and full hearing, the court is of the opinion that a receiver ought to be appointed without such bond.
    (b) On an application for the appointment of a receiver, the court may, in lieu of appointing a receiver, permit the party in possession to retain such possession upon giving bond with such penalty and with such security and upon such condition as the court may order and approve; and the court may remove a receiver and restore the property to the possession of the party from whom it was taken upon the giving of a like bond.
    (c) Every receiver of any property appointed by any court of this State may be sued in respect of any act or transaction of the receiver in carrying on the business connected with the property, without the previous leave of the court in which the receiver was appointed; but the action shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the court in which the receiver was appointed, so far as the same is necessary to the ends of justice.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-416

    (735 ILCS 5/2-416) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-416)
    Sec. 2-416. Representation of corporations in small claims. A corporation may prosecute as plaintiff or defend as defendant any small claims proceeding in any court of this State through any officer, director, manager, department manager or supervisor of the corporation, as though such corporation were appearing in its proper person.
    No corporation may appear as assignee or subrogee in a small claims proceeding.
    For the purposes of this Section, the term "officer" means the president, vice-president, registered agent or other person vested with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the corporation, and "small claims proceeding" means a civil action based on either tort or contract for money not in excess of $2,500, exclusive of interests and costs, or for collection of taxes not in excess of that amount.
(Source: P.A. 84-1043.)

735 ILCS 5/2-417

    (735 ILCS 5/2-417) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-417)
    Sec. 2-417. Actions under Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act. Whenever the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Board commences an action under subsection (b) of Section 16 of the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act seeking to enforce a final order of the Board or alleging a violation of a final order, such action shall be commenced by petition filed in the name of the people of the State of Illinois as Petitioner and any persons charged with alleged violation of such final order shall be designated Respondents. Persons charged with alleged violation of such final order may not raise as defenses in such action any matters that such persons could have raised by initiating judicial review of such final order in accordance with subsection (a) of Section 16 of the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act and Section 3-104 of the Administrative Review Law.
(Source: P.A. 84-123.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 5

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 5 heading)
Part 5. Appointment of Guardians

735 ILCS 5/2-501

    (735 ILCS 5/2-501) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-501)
    Sec. 2-501. Guardian for persons not in being. In any action, whether a trust is involved or not, any person or persons not in being are or may become entitled to, or may upon coming into being claim to be entitled to, any future interest, legal or equitable, whether arising by way of remainder, reversion, possibility of reverter, executory devise, upon the happening of a condition subsequent, or otherwise, in any property, real or personal, involved in such action, the court may, whenever it may deem it necessary for the proper and complete determination of such cause, appoint some competent and disinterested person as guardian ad litem of such person or persons not in being; and any judgment or order entered in such action shall be as binding and effectual for all purposes as though such person or persons were in being and were parties to such action. By such appointment, the person so appointed guardian ad litem, shall not be rendered liable to pay costs of the action; and shall be allowed a reasonable fee for the services as such guardian, to be fixed by the court.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-502

    (735 ILCS 5/2-502) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-502)
    Sec. 2-502. Guardians for minors. Guardianships for minors shall be governed by Section 11-13 of the "Probate Act of 1975", as amended.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 6

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 6 heading)
Part 6. Pleading

735 ILCS 5/2-601

    (735 ILCS 5/2-601) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-601)
    Sec. 2-601. Substance of pleadings. In all actions, pleadings shall be as specified in Article II of this Act and the rules. This section does not affect in any way the substantial allegations of fact necessary to state any cause of action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-602

    (735 ILCS 5/2-602) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-602)
    Sec. 2-602. Designation and order of pleadings. The first pleading by the plaintiff shall be designated a complaint. The first pleading by the defendant shall be designated an answer. If new matter by way of defense is pleaded in the answer, a reply shall be filed by the plaintiff, but the filing of a reply is not an admission of the legal sufficiency of the new matter. Further pleadings may be permitted as required by the court.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-603

    (735 ILCS 5/2-603) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-603)
    Sec. 2-603. Form of pleadings. (a) All pleadings shall contain a plain and concise statement of the pleader's cause of action, counterclaim, defense, or reply.
    (b) Each separate cause of action upon which a separate recovery might be had shall be stated in a separate count or counterclaim, as the case may be and each count, counterclaim, defense or reply, shall be separately pleaded, designated and numbered, and each shall be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively, each paragraph containing, as nearly as may be, a separate allegation.
    (c) Pleadings shall be liberally construed with a view to doing substantial justice between the parties.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-604

    (735 ILCS 5/2-604) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-604)
    Sec. 2-604. Prayer for relief. Every count in every complaint and counterclaim shall contain specific prayers for the relief to which the pleader deems himself or herself entitled except that in actions for injury to the person, no ad damnum may be pleaded except to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the circuit rules of assignment where the claim is filed. Relief may be requested in the alternative. Prayers for relief which the allegations of the pleadings do not sustain may be objected to on motion or in the answering pleading. In actions for injury to the person, any complaint filed which contains an ad damnum, except to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the circuit rules of assignment where the claim is filed, shall, on motion of a defendant or on the court's own motion, be dismissed without prejudice. Except in case of default, the prayer for relief does not limit the relief obtainable, but where other relief is sought the court shall, by proper orders, and upon terms that may be just, protect the adverse party against prejudice by reason of surprise. In case of default, if relief is sought, whether by amendment, counterclaim, or otherwise, beyond that prayed in the pleading to which the party is in default, notice shall be given the defaulted party as provided by rule.
    Nothing in this Section shall be construed as prohibiting the defendant from requesting of the plaintiff by interrogatory the amount of damages which will be sought.
(Source: P.A. 93-387, eff. 7-25-03.)

735 ILCS 5/2-604.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-604.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-604.1)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-604.1. Pleading of punitive damages. In all actions on account of bodily injury or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, where punitive damages are permitted no complaint shall be filed containing a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. However, a plaintiff may, pursuant to a pretrial motion and after a hearing before the court, amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. The court shall allow the motion to amend the complaint if the plaintiff establishes at such hearing a reasonable likelihood of proving facts at trial sufficient to support an award of punitive damages. Any motion to amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages shall be made not later than 30 days after the close of discovery. A prayer for relief added pursuant to this Section shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-604.1. Pleading of punitive damages. In all actions on account of bodily injury or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, where punitive damages are permitted no complaint shall be filed containing a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. However, a plaintiff may, pursuant to a pretrial motion and after a hearing before the court, amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. The court shall allow the motion to amend the complaint if the plaintiff establishes at such hearing a reasonable likelihood of proving facts at trial sufficient to support an award of punitive damages. Any motion to amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages shall be made not later than 30 days after the close of discovery. A prayer for relief added pursuant to this Section shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed.
(Source: P.A. 84-1431.)

735 ILCS 5/2-605

    (735 ILCS 5/2-605) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-605)
    Sec. 2-605. Verification of pleadings. (a) Any pleading, although not required to be sworn to, may be verified by the oath of the party filing it or of any other person or persons having knowledge of the facts pleaded. Corporations may verify by the oath of any officer or agent having knowledge of the facts. If any pleading is so verified, every subsequent pleading must also be verified, unless verification is excused by the court. In pleadings which are so verified, the several matters stated shall be stated positively or upon information and belief only, according to the fact. Verified allegations do not constitute evidence except by way of admission.
    (b) The allegation of the execution or assignment of any written instrument is admitted unless denied in a pleading verified by oath, except in cases in which verification is excused by the court. If the party making the denial is not the person alleged to have executed or assigned the instrument, the denial may be made on the information and belief of that party.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-606

    (735 ILCS 5/2-606) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-606)
    Sec. 2-606. Exhibits. If a claim or defense is founded upon a written instrument, a copy thereof, or of so much of the same as is relevant, must be attached to the pleading as an exhibit or recited therein, unless the pleader attaches to his or her pleading an affidavit stating facts showing that the instrument is not accessible to him or her. In pleading any written instrument a copy thereof may be attached to the pleading as an exhibit. In either case the exhibit constitutes a part of the pleading for all purposes.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-607

    (735 ILCS 5/2-607) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-607)
    Sec. 2-607. Bills of particulars. (a) Within the time a party is to respond to a pleading, that party may, if allegations are so wanting in details that the responding party should be entitled to a bill of particulars, file and serve a notice demanding it. The notice shall point out specifically the defects complained of or the details desired. The pleader shall have 28 days to file and serve the bill of particulars, and the party who requested the bill shall have 28 days to plead after being served with the bill.
    (b) If the pleader does not file and serve a bill of particulars within 28 days of the demand, or if the bill of particulars delivered is insufficient, the court may, on motion and in its discretion, strike the pleading, allow further time to furnish the bill of particulars or require a more particular bill to be filed and served.
    (c) If a bill of particulars, in an action based on a contract, contains the statement of items of indebtedness and is verified by oath, the items thereof are admitted except in so far as the opposite party files an affidavit specifically denying them, and as to each item denied states the facts upon which the denial is based, unless the affidavit is excused by the court.
    (d) If the party on whom a demand for a bill of particulars has been made believes that the party demanding it is not entitled to the particulars asked for, he or she may move the court that the demand be denied or modified.
(Source: P.A. 86-646.)

735 ILCS 5/2-608

    (735 ILCS 5/2-608) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-608)
    Sec. 2-608. Counterclaims. (a) Any claim by one or more defendants against one or more plaintiffs, or against one or more codefendants, whether in the nature of setoff, recoupment, cross claim or otherwise, and whether in tort or contract, for liquidated or unliquidated damages, or for other relief, may be pleaded as a cross claim in any action, and when so pleaded shall be called a counterclaim.
    (b) The counterclaim shall be a part of the answer, and shall be designated as a counterclaim. Service of process on parties already before the court is not necessary.
    (c) Every counterclaim shall be pleaded in the same manner and with the same particularity as a complaint, and shall be complete in itself, but allegations set forth in other parts of the answer may be incorporated by specific reference instead of being repeated.
    (d) An answer to a counterclaim and pleadings subsequent thereto shall be filed as in the case of a complaint and with like designation and effect.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-609

    (735 ILCS 5/2-609) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-609)
    Sec. 2-609. Supplemental pleadings. Supplemental pleadings, setting up matters which arise after the original pleadings are filed, may be filed within a reasonable time by either party by leave of court and upon terms.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-610

    (735 ILCS 5/2-610) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-610)
    Sec. 2-610. Pleadings to be specific. (a) Every answer and subsequent pleading shall contain an explicit admission or denial of each allegation of the pleading to which it relates.
    (b) Every allegation, except allegations of damages, not explicitly denied is admitted, unless the party states in his or her pleading that he or she has no knowledge thereof sufficient to form a belief, and attaches an affidavit of the truth of the statement of want of knowledge, or unless the party has had no opportunity to deny.
    (c) Denials must not be evasive, but must fairly answer the substance of the allegation denied.
    (d) If a party wishes to raise an issue as to the amount of damages only, he or she may do so by stating in his or her pleading that he or she desires to contest only the amount of the damages.
(Source: P.A. 83-354.)

735 ILCS 5/2-612

    (735 ILCS 5/2-612) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-612)
    Sec. 2-612. Insufficient pleadings. (a) If any pleading is insufficient in substance or form the court may order a fuller or more particular statement. If the pleadings do not sufficiently define the issues the court may order other pleadings prepared.
    (b) No pleading is bad in substance which contains such information as reasonably informs the opposite party of the nature of the claim or defense which he or she is called upon to meet.
    (c) All defects in pleadings, either in form or substance, not objected to in the trial court are waived.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-613

    (735 ILCS 5/2-613) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-613)
    Sec. 2-613. Separate counts and defenses. (a) Parties may plead as many causes of action, counterclaims, defenses, and matters in reply as they may have, and each shall be separately designated and numbered.
    (b) When a party is in doubt as to which of two or more statements of fact is true, he or she may, regardless of consistency, state them in the alternative or hypothetically in the same or different counts or defenses. A bad alternative does not affect a good one.
    (c) Defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement or in bar may be pleaded together, without waiving any defense so pleaded, but the court may order defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement to be tried first. An answer containing only defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement does not constitute an admission of the facts alleged in the complaint, counterclaim or third-party complaint.
    (d) The facts constituting any affirmative defense, such as payment, release, satisfaction, discharge, license, fraud, duress, estoppel, laches, statute of frauds, illegality, that the negligence of a complaining party contributed in whole or in part to the injury of which he complains, that an instrument or transaction is either void or voidable in point of law, or cannot be recovered upon by reason of any statute or by reason of nondelivery, want or failure of consideration in whole or in part, and any defense which by other affirmative matter seeks to avoid the legal effect of or defeat the cause of action set forth in the complaint, counterclaim, or third-party complaint, in whole or in part, and any ground or defense, whether affirmative or not, which, if not expressly stated in the pleading, would be likely to take the opposite party by surprise, must be plainly set forth in the answer or reply.
(Source: P.A. 84-624.)

735 ILCS 5/2-614

    (735 ILCS 5/2-614) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-614)
    Sec. 2-614. Joinder of causes of action and use of counterclaims. (a) Any plaintiff or plaintiffs may join any causes of action, against any defendant or defendants; and the defendant may set up in his or her answer any and all cross claims whatever, whether in the nature of recoupment, setoff or otherwise, which shall be designated counterclaims.
    (b) The court may, in its discretion, order separate trial of any causes of action, counterclaim or third-party claim if it cannot be conveniently disposed of with the other issues in the case. Legal and equitable issues may be tried together if no jury is employed.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-615

    (735 ILCS 5/2-615) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-615)
    Sec. 2-615. Motions with respect to pleadings. (a) All objections to pleadings shall be raised by motion. The motion shall point out specifically the defects complained of, and shall ask for appropriate relief, such as: that a pleading or portion thereof be stricken because substantially insufficient in law, or that the action be dismissed, or that a pleading be made more definite and certain in a specified particular, or that designated immaterial matter be stricken out, or that necessary parties be added, or that designated misjoined parties be dismissed, and so forth.
    (b) If a pleading or a division thereof is objected to by a motion to dismiss or for judgment or to strike out the pleading, because it is substantially insufficient in law, the motion must specify wherein the pleading or division thereof is insufficient.
    (c) Upon motions based upon defects in pleadings, substantial defects in prior pleadings may be considered.
    (d) After rulings on motions, the court may enter appropriate orders either to permit or require pleading over or amending or to terminate the litigation in whole or in part.
    (e) Any party may seasonably move for judgment on the pleadings.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-616

    (735 ILCS 5/2-616) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-616)
    Sec. 2-616. Amendments.
    (a) At any time before final judgment amendments may be allowed on just and reasonable terms, introducing any party who ought to have been joined as plaintiff or defendant, dismissing any party, changing the cause of action or defense or adding new causes of action or defenses, and in any matter, either of form or substance, in any process, pleading, bill of particulars or proceedings, which may enable the plaintiff to sustain the claim for which it was intended to be brought or the defendant to make a defense or assert a cross claim.
    (b) The cause of action, cross claim or defense set up in any amended pleading shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed, and if it shall appear from the original and amended pleadings that the cause of action asserted, or the defense or cross claim interposed in the amended pleading grew out of the same transaction or occurrence set up in the original pleading, even though the original pleading was defective in that it failed to allege the performance of some act or the existence of some fact or some other matter which is a necessary condition precedent to the right of recovery or defense asserted, if the condition precedent has in fact been performed, and for the purpose of preserving the cause of action, cross claim or defense set up in the amended pleading, and for that purpose only, an amendment to any pleading shall be held to relate back to the date of the filing of the original pleading so amended.
    (c) A pleading may be amended at any time, before or after judgment, to conform the pleadings to the proofs, upon terms as to costs and continuance that may be just.
    (d) A cause of action against a person not originally named a defendant is not barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if all the following terms and conditions are met: (1) the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original action was commenced; (2) the person, within the time that the action might have been brought or the right asserted against him or her plus the time for service permitted under Supreme Court Rule 103(b), received such notice of the commencement of the action that the person will not be prejudiced in maintaining a defense on the merits and knew or should have known that, but for a mistake concerning the identity of the proper party, the action would have been brought against him or her; and (3) it appears from the original and amended pleadings that the cause of action asserted in the amended pleading grew out of the same transaction or occurrence set up in the original pleading, even though the original pleading was defective in that it failed to allege the performance of some act or the existence of some fact or some other matter which is a necessary condition precedent to the right of recovery when the condition precedent has in fact been performed, and even though the person was not named originally as a defendant. For the purpose of preserving the cause of action under those conditions, an amendment adding the person as a defendant relates back to the date of the filing of the original pleading so amended.
    (e) A cause of action against a beneficiary of a land trust not originally named a defendant is not barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if all the following terms and conditions are met: (1) the cause of action arises from the ownership, use or possession of real estate, record title whereto is held by a land trustee; (2) the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original action was commenced; (3) the land trustee of record is named as a defendant; and (4) the plaintiff proceeds with reasonable diligence subsequent to the commencement of the action to serve process upon the land trustee, to determine the identity of the beneficiary, and to amend the complaint to name the beneficiary as a defendant.
    (f) The changes made by this amendatory Act of the 92nd General Assembly apply to all complaints filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act, and to complaints filed before the effective date of this amendatory Act if the limitation period has not ended before the effective date.
(Source: P.A. 92-116, eff. 1-1-02.)

735 ILCS 5/2-617

    (735 ILCS 5/2-617) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-617)
    Sec. 2-617. Seeking wrong remedy not fatal. Where relief is sought and the court determines, on motion directed to the pleadings, or on motion for summary judgment or upon trial, that the plaintiff has pleaded or established facts which entitled the plaintiff to relief but that the plaintiff has sought the wrong remedy, the court shall permit the pleadings to be amended, on just and reasonable terms, and the court shall grant the relief to which the plaintiff is entitled on the amended pleadings or upon the evidence. In considering whether a proposed amendment is just and reasonable, the court shall consider the right of the defendant to assert additional defenses, to demand a trial by jury, to plead a counterclaim or third party complaint, and to order the plaintiff to take additional steps which were not required under the pleadings as previously filed.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-618

    (735 ILCS 5/2-618) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-618)
    Sec. 2-618. Lost pleadings. If any pleading or paper filed in a cause has been lost or mislaid, the court may permit the filing of a copy authenticated by such affidavits as the court may require.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-619

    (735 ILCS 5/2-619) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-619)
    Sec. 2-619. Involuntary dismissal based upon certain defects or defenses. (a) Defendant may, within the time for pleading, file a motion for dismissal of the action or for other appropriate relief upon any of the following grounds. If the grounds do not appear on the face of the pleading attacked the motion shall be supported by affidavit:
    (1) That the court does not have jurisdiction of the subject matter of the action, provided the defect cannot be removed by a transfer of the case to a court having jurisdiction.
    (2) That the plaintiff does not have legal capacity to sue or that the defendant does not have legal capacity to be sued.
    (3) That there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause.
    (4) That the cause of action is barred by a prior judgment.
    (5) That the action was not commenced within the time limited by law.
    (6) That the claim set forth in the plaintiff's pleading has been released, satisfied of record, or discharged in bankruptcy.
    (7) That the claim asserted is unenforceable under the provisions of the Statute of Frauds.
    (8) That the claim asserted against defendant is unenforceable because of his or her minority or other disability.
    (9) That the claim asserted against defendant is barred by other affirmative matter avoiding the legal effect of or defeating the claim.
    (b) A similar motion may be made by any other party against whom a claim is asserted.
    (c) If, upon the hearing of the motion, the opposite party presents affidavits or other proof denying the facts alleged or establishing facts obviating the grounds of defect, the court may hear and determine the same and may grant or deny the motion. If a material and genuine disputed question of fact is raised the court may decide the motion upon the affidavits and evidence offered by the parties, or may deny the motion without prejudice to the right to raise the subject matter of the motion by answer and shall so deny it if the action is one in which a party is entitled to a trial by jury and a jury demand has been filed by the opposite party in apt time.
    (d) The raising of any of the foregoing matters by motion under this Section does not preclude the raising of them subsequently by answer unless the court has disposed of the motion on its merits; and a failure to raise any of them by motion does not preclude raising them by answer.
    (e) Pleading over after denial by the court of a motion under this Section is not a waiver of any error in the decision denying the motion.
    (f) The form and contents of and procedure relating to affidavits under this Section shall be as provided by rule.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-619.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-619.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-619.1)
    Sec. 2-619.1. Combined motions. Motions with respect to pleadings under Section 2-615, motions for involuntary dismissal or other relief under Section 2-619, and motions for summary judgment under Section 2-1005 may be filed together as a single motion in any combination. A combined motion, however, shall be in parts. Each part shall be limited to and shall specify that it is made under one of Sections 2-615, 2-619, or 2-1005. Each part shall also clearly show the points or grounds relied upon under the Section upon which it is based.
(Source: P.A. 86-1156.)

735 ILCS 5/2-620

    (735 ILCS 5/2-620) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-620)
    Sec. 2-620. Practice on motions. The form and contents of motions, notices regarding the same, hearings on motions, and all other matters of procedure relative thereto, shall be according to rules.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-621

    (735 ILCS 5/2-621) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-621)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-621. Product liability actions.
    (a) In any product liability action based on any theory or doctrine commenced or maintained against a defendant or defendants other than the manufacturer, that party shall upon answering or otherwise pleading file an affidavit certifying the correct identity of the manufacturer of the product allegedly causing injury, death or damage. The commencement of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine against such defendant or defendants shall toll the applicable statute of limitation and statute of repose relative to the defendant or defendants for purposes of asserting a strict liability in tort cause of action.
    (b) Once the plaintiff has filed a complaint against the manufacturer or manufacturers, and the manufacturer or manufacturers have or are required to have answered or otherwise pleaded, the court shall order the dismissal of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine against the certifying defendant or defendants, provided the certifying defendant or defendants are not within the categories set forth in subsection (c) of this Section. Due diligence shall be exercised by the certifying defendant or defendants in providing the plaintiff with the correct identity of the manufacturer or manufacturers, and due diligence shall be exercised by the plaintiff in filing an action and obtaining jurisdiction over the manufacturer or manufacturers.
    The plaintiff may at any time subsequent to the dismissal move to vacate the order of dismissal and reinstate the certifying defendant or defendants, provided plaintiff can show one or more of the following:
        (1) That the applicable period of statute of
    
limitation or statute of repose bars the assertion of a cause of action against the manufacturer or manufacturers of the product allegedly causing the injury, death or damage; or
        (2) That the identity of the manufacturer given to
    
the plaintiff by the certifying defendant or defendants was incorrect. Once the correct identity of the manufacturer has been given by the certifying defendant or defendants the court shall again dismiss the certifying defendant or defendants; or
        (3) That the manufacturer no longer exists, cannot be
    
subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, or, despite due diligence, the manufacturer is not amenable to service of process; or
        (4) That the manufacturer is unable to satisfy any
    
judgment as determined by the court; or
        (5) That the court determines that the manufacturer
    
would be unable to satisfy a reasonable settlement or other agreement with plaintiff.
    (c) A court shall not enter a dismissal order relative to any certifying defendant or defendants other than the manufacturer even though full compliance with subsection (a) of this Section has been made where the plaintiff can show one or more of the following:
        (1) That the defendant has exercised some significant
    
control over the design or manufacture of the product, or has provided instructions or warnings to the manufacturer relative to the alleged defect in the product which caused the injury, death or damage; or
        (2) That the defendant had actual knowledge of the
    
defect in the product which caused the injury, death or damage; or
        (3) That the defendant created the defect in the
    
product which caused the injury, death or damage.
    (d) Nothing contained in this Section shall be construed to grant a cause of action on any legal theory or doctrine, or to affect the right of any person to seek and obtain indemnity or contribution.
    (e) This Section applies to all causes of action accruing on or after September 24, 1979.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-621. Product liability actions.
    (a) In any product liability action based in whole or in part on the doctrine of strict liability in tort commenced or maintained against a defendant or defendants other than the manufacturer, that party shall upon answering or otherwise pleading file an affidavit certifying the correct identity of the manufacturer of the product allegedly causing injury, death or damage. The commencement of a product liability action based in whole or in part on the doctrine of strict liability in tort against such defendant or defendants shall toll the applicable statute of limitation and statute of repose relative to the defendant or defendants for purposes of asserting a strict liability in tort cause of action.
    (b) Once the plaintiff has filed a complaint against the manufacturer or manufacturers, and the manufacturer or manufacturers have or are required to have answered or otherwise pleaded, the court shall order the dismissal of a strict liability in tort claim against the certifying defendant or defendants, provided the certifying defendant or defendants are not within the categories set forth in subsection (c) of this Section. Due diligence shall be exercised by the certifying defendant or defendants in providing the plaintiff with the correct identity of the manufacturer or manufacturers, and due diligence shall be exercised by the plaintiff in filing an action and obtaining jurisdiction over the manufacturer or manufacturers.
    The plaintiff may at any time subsequent to the dismissal move to vacate the order of dismissal and reinstate the certifying defendant or defendants, provided plaintiff can show one or more of the following:
    (1) That the applicable period of statute of limitation or statute of repose bars the assertion of a strict liability in tort cause of action against the manufacturer or manufacturers of the product allegedly causing the injury, death or damage; or
    (2) That the identity of the manufacturer given to the plaintiff by the certifying defendant or defendants was incorrect. Once the correct identity of the manufacturer has been given by the certifying defendant or defendants the court shall again dismiss the certifying defendant or defendants; or
    (3) That the manufacturer no longer exists, cannot be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, or, despite due diligence, the manufacturer is not amenable to service of process; or
    (4) That the manufacturer is unable to satisfy any judgment as determined by the court; or
    (5) That the court determines that the manufacturer would be unable to satisfy a reasonable settlement or other agreement with plaintiff.
    (c) A court shall not enter a dismissal order relative to any certifying defendant or defendants other than the manufacturer even though full compliance with subsection (a) of this Section has been made where the plaintiff can show one or more of the following:
    (1) That the defendant has exercised some significant control over the design or manufacture of the product, or has provided instructions or warnings to the manufacturer relative to the alleged defect in the product which caused the injury, death or damage; or
    (2) That the defendant had actual knowledge of the defect in the product which caused the injury, death or damage; or
    (3) That the defendant created the defect in the product which caused the injury, death or damage.
    (d) Nothing contained in this Section shall be construed to grant a cause of action in strict liability in tort or any other legal theory, or to affect the right of any person to seek and obtain indemnity or contribution.
    (e) This Section applies to all causes of action accruing on or after September 24, 1979.
(Source: P.A. 84-1043.)

735 ILCS 5/2-622

    (735 ILCS 5/2-622) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-622)
    Sec. 2-622. Healing art malpractice.
    (a) In any action, whether in tort, contract or otherwise, in which the plaintiff seeks damages for injuries or death by reason of medical, hospital, or other healing art malpractice, the plaintiff's attorney or the plaintiff, if the plaintiff is proceeding pro se, shall file an affidavit, attached to the original and all copies of the complaint, declaring one of the following:
        1. That the affiant has consulted and reviewed the
    
facts of the case with a health professional who the affiant reasonably believes: (i) is knowledgeable in the relevant issues involved in the particular action; (ii) practices or has practiced within the last 6 years or teaches or has taught within the last 6 years in the same area of health care or medicine that is at issue in the particular action; and (iii) is qualified by experience or demonstrated competence in the subject of the case; that the reviewing health professional has determined in a written report, after a review of the medical record and other relevant material involved in the particular action that there is a reasonable and meritorious cause for the filing of such action; and that the affiant has concluded on the basis of the reviewing health professional's review and consultation that there is a reasonable and meritorious cause for filing of such action. If the affidavit is filed as to a defendant who is a physician licensed to treat human ailments without the use of drugs or medicines and without operative surgery, a dentist, a podiatric physician, a psychologist, or a naprapath, the written report must be from a health professional licensed in the same profession, with the same class of license, as the defendant. For affidavits filed as to all other defendants, the written report must be from a physician licensed to practice medicine in all its branches. In either event, the affidavit must identify the profession of the reviewing health professional. A copy of the written report, clearly identifying the plaintiff and the reasons for the reviewing health professional's determination that a reasonable and meritorious cause for the filing of the action exists, must be attached to the affidavit, but information which would identify the reviewing health professional may be deleted from the copy so attached.
        2. That the affiant was unable to obtain a
    
consultation required by paragraph 1 because a statute of limitations would impair the action and the consultation required could not be obtained before the expiration of the statute of limitations. If an affidavit is executed pursuant to this paragraph, the certificate and written report required by paragraph 1 shall be filed within 90 days after the filing of the complaint. The defendant shall be excused from answering or otherwise pleading until 30 days after being served with a certificate required by paragraph 1.
        3. That a request has been made by the plaintiff or
    
his attorney for examination and copying of records pursuant to Part 20 of Article VIII of this Code and the party required to comply under those Sections has failed to produce such records within 60 days of the receipt of the request. If an affidavit is executed pursuant to this paragraph, the certificate and written report required by paragraph 1 shall be filed within 90 days following receipt of the requested records. All defendants except those whose failure to comply with Part 20 of Article VIII of this Code is the basis for an affidavit under this paragraph shall be excused from answering or otherwise pleading until 30 days after being served with the certificate required by paragraph 1.
    (b) Where a certificate and written report are required pursuant to this Section a separate certificate and written report shall be filed as to each defendant who has been named in the complaint and shall be filed as to each defendant named at a later time.
    (c) Where the plaintiff intends to rely on the doctrine of "res ipsa loquitur", as defined by Section 2-1113 of this Code, the certificate and written report must state that, in the opinion of the reviewing health professional, negligence has occurred in the course of medical treatment. The affiant shall certify upon filing of the complaint that he is relying on the doctrine of "res ipsa loquitur".
    (d) When the attorney intends to rely on the doctrine of failure to inform of the consequences of the procedure, the attorney shall certify upon the filing of the complaint that the reviewing health professional has, after reviewing the medical record and other relevant materials involved in the particular action, concluded that a reasonable health professional would have informed the patient of the consequences of the procedure.
    (e) Allegations and denials in the affidavit, made without reasonable cause and found to be untrue, shall subject the party pleading them or his attorney, or both, to the payment of reasonable expenses, actually incurred by the other party by reason of the untrue pleading, together with reasonable attorneys' fees to be summarily taxed by the court upon motion made within 30 days of the judgment or dismissal. In no event shall the award for attorneys' fees and expenses exceed those actually paid by the moving party, including the insurer, if any. In proceedings under this paragraph (e), the moving party shall have the right to depose and examine any and all reviewing health professionals who prepared reports used in conjunction with an affidavit required by this Section.
    (f) A reviewing health professional who in good faith prepares a report used in conjunction with an affidavit required by this Section shall have civil immunity from liability which otherwise might result from the preparation of such report.
    (g) The failure to file a certificate required by this Section shall be grounds for dismissal under Section 2-619.
    (h) (Blank).
    (i) (Blank).
(Source: P.A. 97-1145, eff. 1-18-13; 98-214, eff. 8-9-13.)

735 ILCS 5/2-623

    (735 ILCS 5/2-623)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-623. Certificate of merit; product liability.
    (a) In a product liability action, as defined in Section 2-2101, in which the plaintiff seeks damages for harm, the plaintiff's attorney or the plaintiff, if the plaintiff is proceeding pro se, shall file an affidavit, attached to the original and all copies of the complaint, declaring one of the following:
        (1) That the affiant has consulted and reviewed the
    
facts of the case with a qualified expert, as defined in subsection (c), who has completed a written report, after examination of the product or a review of literature pertaining to the product, in accordance with the following requirements:
            (A) In an action based on strict liability in
        
tort or implied warranty, the report must:
                (i) identify specific defects in the product
            
that have a potential for harm beyond that which would be objectively contemplated by the ordinary user of the product; and
                (ii) contain a determination that the product
            
was unreasonably dangerous and in a defective condition when it left the control of the manufacturer.
            (B) In any other product liability action, the
        
report must identify the specific act or omission or other fault, as defined in Section 2-1116, on the part of the defendant.
            (C) In any product liability action, the report
        
must contain a determination that the defective condition of the product or other fault was a proximate cause of the plaintiff's harm.
        (2) That the plaintiff has not previously voluntarily
    
dismissed an action based upon the same or substantially the same acts, omissions, or occurrences and that the affiant was unable to obtain a consultation required by paragraph (1) because either a statute of limitations would impair the action and the consultation required could not be obtained before the expiration of the statute of limitations or despite a good faith effort to comply with this Section, the plaintiff was prevented by another person from inspecting or conducting nondestructive testing of the product. If an affidavit is executed pursuant to this paragraph, the affidavit required by paragraph (1) shall be filed within 90 days after the filing of the complaint. The defendant shall be excused from answering or otherwise pleading until 30 days after being served with an affidavit required by paragraph (1). No plaintiff shall be afforded the 90-day extension of time provided by this paragraph (2) if he or she has voluntarily dismissed an action for the same harm against the same defendant.
    (b) When the defective condition referred to in the written report required under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) is based on a design defect, the affiant shall further state that the qualified expert, as defined in subsection (c), has identified in the written report required under subsection (a) either: (i) a feasible alternative design that existed at the time the product left the manufacturer's control; or (ii) an applicable government or industry standard to which the product did not conform.
    (c) A qualified expert, for the purposes of subsections (a) and (b), is someone who possesses scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge regarding the product at issue or similar products and who is qualified to prepare the report required by subsections (a) and (b).
    (d) A copy of the written report required by subsections (a) and (b) shall be attached to the original and all copies of the complaint. The report shall include the name and address of the expert.
    (e) The failure to file an affidavit required by subsections (a) and (b) shall be grounds for dismissal under Section 2-619.
    (f) Any related allegations concerning healing art malpractice must include an affidavit under Section 2-622.
    (g) This amendatory Act of 1995 applies only to causes of action filed on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-624

    (735 ILCS 5/2-624)
    Sec. 2-624. (Repealed).
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95. Repealed by P.A. 97-1145, eff. 1-18-13.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 7

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 7 heading)
Part 7. Action for Declaratory Judgment

735 ILCS 5/2-701

    (735 ILCS 5/2-701) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-701)
    Sec. 2-701. Declaratory judgments. (a) No action or proceeding is open to objection on the ground that a merely declaratory judgment or order is sought thereby. The court may, in cases of actual controversy, make binding declarations of rights, having the force of final judgments, whether or not any consequential relief is or could be claimed, including the determination, at the instance of anyone interested in the controversy, of the construction of any statute, municipal ordinance, or other governmental regulation, or of any deed, will, contract or other written instrument, and a declaration of the rights of the parties interested. The foregoing enumeration does not exclude other cases of actual controversy. The court shall refuse to enter a declaratory judgment or order, if it appears that the judgment or order, would not terminate the controversy or some part thereof, giving rise to the proceeding. In no event shall the court entertain any action or proceeding for a declaratory judgment or order involving any political question where the defendant is a State officer whose election is provided for by the Constitution; however, nothing herein shall prevent the court from entertaining any such action or proceeding for a declaratory judgment or order if such question also involves a constitutional convention or the construction of a statute involving a constitutional convention.
    (b) Declarations of rights, as herein provided for, may be obtained by means of a pleading seeking that relief alone, or as incident to or part of a complaint, counterclaim or other pleading seeking other relief as well, and if a declaration of rights is the only relief asked, the case may be set for early hearing as in the case of a motion.
    (c) If further relief based upon a declaration of right becomes necessary or proper after the declaration has been made, application may be made by petition to any court having jurisdiction for an order directed to any party or parties whose rights have been determined by the declaration to show cause why the further relief should not be granted forthwith, upon reasonable notice prescribed by the court in its order.
    (d) If a proceeding under this Section involves the determination of issues of fact triable by a jury, they shall be tried and determined in the same manner as issues of fact are tried and determined in other civil actions in the court in which the proceeding is pending.
    (e) Unless the parties agree by stipulation as to the allowance thereof, costs in proceedings authorized by this Section shall be allowed in accordance with rules. In the absence of rules the practice in other civil actions shall be followed if applicable, and if not applicable, the costs may be taxed as to the court seems just.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-702

    (735 ILCS 5/2-702)
    Sec. 2-702. Petition for a certificate of innocence that the petitioner was innocent of all offenses for which he or she was incarcerated.
    (a) The General Assembly finds and declares that innocent persons who have been wrongly convicted of crimes in Illinois and subsequently imprisoned have been frustrated in seeking legal redress due to a variety of substantive and technical obstacles in the law and that such persons should have an available avenue to obtain a finding of innocence so that they may obtain relief through a petition in the Court of Claims. The General Assembly further finds misleading the current legal nomenclature which compels an innocent person to seek a pardon for being wrongfully incarcerated. It is the intent of the General Assembly that the court, in exercising its discretion as permitted by law regarding the weight and admissibility of evidence submitted pursuant to this Section, shall, in the interest of justice, give due consideration to difficulties of proof caused by the passage of time, the death or unavailability of witnesses, the destruction of evidence or other factors not caused by such persons or those acting on their behalf.
    (b) Any person convicted and subsequently imprisoned for one or more felonies by the State of Illinois which he or she did not commit may, under the conditions hereinafter provided, file a petition for certificate of innocence in the circuit court of the county in which the person was convicted. The petition shall request a certificate of innocence finding that the petitioner was innocent of all offenses for which he or she was incarcerated.
    (c) In order to present the claim for certificate of innocence of an unjust conviction and imprisonment, the petitioner must attach to his or her petition documentation demonstrating that:
        (1) he or she has been convicted of one or more
    
felonies by the State of Illinois and subsequently sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and has served all or any part of the sentence; and
        (2) his or her judgment of conviction was reversed or
    
vacated, and the indictment or information dismissed or, if a new trial was ordered, either he or she was found not guilty at the new trial or he or she was not retried and the indictment or information dismissed; or the statute, or application thereof, on which the indictment or information was based violated the Constitution of the United States or the State of Illinois; and
        (3) his or her claim is not time barred by the
    
provisions of subsection (i) of this Section.
    (d) The petition shall state facts in sufficient detail to permit the court to find that the petitioner is likely to succeed at trial in proving that the petitioner is innocent of the offenses charged in the indictment or information or his or her acts or omissions charged in the indictment or information did not constitute a felony or misdemeanor against the State of Illinois, and the petitioner did not by his or her own conduct voluntarily cause or bring about his or her conviction. The petition shall be verified by the petitioner.
    (e) A copy of the petition shall be served on the Attorney General and the State's Attorney of the county where the conviction was had. The Attorney General and the State's Attorney of the county where the conviction was had shall have the right to intervene as parties.
    (f) In any hearing seeking a certificate of innocence, the court may take judicial notice of prior sworn testimony or evidence admitted in the criminal proceedings related to the convictions which resulted in the alleged wrongful incarceration, if the petitioner was either represented by counsel at such prior proceedings or the right to counsel was knowingly waived.
    (g) In order to obtain a certificate of innocence the petitioner must prove by a preponderance of evidence that:
        (1) the petitioner was convicted of one or more
    
felonies by the State of Illinois and subsequently sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and has served all or any part of the sentence;
        (2)(A) the judgment of conviction was reversed or
    
vacated, and the indictment or information dismissed or, if a new trial was ordered, either the petitioner was found not guilty at the new trial or the petitioner was not retried and the indictment or information dismissed; or (B) the statute, or application thereof, on which the indictment or information was based violated the Constitution of the United States or the State of Illinois;
        (3) the petitioner is innocent of the offenses
    
charged in the indictment or information or his or her acts or omissions charged in the indictment or information did not constitute a felony or misdemeanor against the State; and
        (4) the petitioner did not by his or her own conduct
    
voluntarily cause or bring about his or her conviction.
    (h) If the court finds that the petitioner is entitled to a judgment, it shall enter a certificate of innocence finding that the petitioner was innocent of all offenses for which he or she was incarcerated. Upon entry of the certificate of innocence or pardon from the Governor stating that such pardon was issued on the ground of innocence of the crime for which he or she was imprisoned, (1) the clerk of the court shall transmit a copy of the certificate of innocence to the clerk of the Court of Claims, together with the claimant's current address; and (2) the court shall enter an order expunging the record of arrest from the official records of the arresting authority and order that the records of the clerk of the circuit court and Department of State Police be sealed until further order of the court upon good cause shown or as otherwise provided herein, and the name of the defendant obliterated from the official index requested to be kept by the circuit court clerk under Section 16 of the Clerks of Courts Act in connection with the arrest and conviction for the offense but the order shall not affect any index issued by the circuit court clerk before the entry of the order. The court shall enter the expungement order regardless of whether the petitioner has prior criminal convictions.
    All records sealed by the Department of State Police may be disseminated by the Department only as required by law or to the arresting authority, the State's Attorney, the court upon a later arrest for the same or similar offense, or for the purpose of sentencing for any subsequent felony. Upon conviction for any subsequent offense, the Department of Corrections shall have access to all sealed records of the Department pertaining to that individual.
    Upon entry of the order of expungement, the clerk of the circuit court shall promptly mail a copy of the order to the person whose records were expunged and sealed.
    (i) Any person seeking a certificate of innocence under this Section based on the dismissal of an indictment or information or acquittal that occurred before the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly shall file his or her petition within 2 years after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly. Any person seeking a certificate of innocence under this Section based on the dismissal of an indictment or information or acquittal that occurred on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly shall file his or her petition within 2 years after the dismissal.
    (j) The decision to grant or deny a certificate of innocence shall be binding only with respect to claims filed in the Court of Claims and shall not have a res judicata effect on any other proceedings.
(Source: P.A. 98-133, eff. 1-1-14.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 8

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 8 heading)
Part 8. Class Action

735 ILCS 5/2-801

    (735 ILCS 5/2-801) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-801)
    Sec. 2-801. Prerequisites for the maintenance of a class action. An action may be maintained as a class action in any court of this State and a party may sue or be sued as a representative party of the class only if the court finds:
    (1) The class is so numerous that joinder of all members is impracticable.
    (2) There are questions of fact or law common to the class, which common questions predominate over any questions affecting only individual members.
    (3) The representative parties will fairly and adequately protect the interest of the class.
    (4) The class action is an appropriate method for the fair and efficient adjudication of the controversy.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-802

    (735 ILCS 5/2-802) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-802)
    Sec. 2-802. Order and findings relative to the class. (a) Determination of Class. As soon as practicable after the commencement of an action brought as a class action, the court shall determine by order whether it may be so maintained and describe those whom the court finds to be members of the class. This order may be conditional and may be amended before a decision on the merits.
    (b) Class Action on Limited Issues and Sub-classes. When appropriate, an action may be brought or maintained as a class action with respect to particular issues, or divided into sub-classes and each sub-class treated as a class. The provisions of this rule shall then be construed and applied accordingly.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-803

    (735 ILCS 5/2-803) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-803)
    Sec. 2-803. Notice in class cases. Upon a determination that an action may be maintained as a class action, or at any time during the conduct of the action, the court in its discretion may order such notice that it deems necessary to protect the interests of the class and the parties.
    An order entered under subsection (a) of Section 2-802 of this Act, determining that an action may be maintained as a class action, may be conditioned upon the giving of such notice as the court deems appropriate.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-804

    (735 ILCS 5/2-804) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-804)
    Sec. 2-804. Intervention by and exclusion of class members. (a) Intervention. Any class member seeking to intervene or otherwise appear in the action may do so with leave of court and such leave shall be liberally granted except when the court finds that such intervention will disrupt the conduct of the action or otherwise prejudice the rights of the parties or the class.
    (b) Exclusion. Any class member seeking to be excluded from a class action may request such exclusion and any judgment entered in the action shall not apply to persons who properly request to be excluded.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-805

    (735 ILCS 5/2-805) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-805)
    Sec. 2-805. Judgments in class cases. Any judgment entered in a class action brought under Section 2-801 of this Act shall be binding on all class members, as the class is defined by the court, except those who have been properly excluded from the class under subsection (b) of Section 2-804 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-806

    (735 ILCS 5/2-806) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-806)
    Sec. 2-806. Dismissal or compromise of class cases. Any action brought as a class action under Section 2-801 of this Act shall not be compromised or dismissed except with the approval of the court and, unless excused for good cause shown, upon notice as the court may direct.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-807

    (735 ILCS 5/2-807)
    Sec. 2-807. Residual funds in a common fund created in a class action.
    (a) Definitions. As used in this Section:
    "Eligible organization" means a not-for-profit organization that:
        (i) has been in existence for no less than 3 years;
        (ii) has been tax exempt for no less than 3 years
    
from the payment of federal taxes under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code;
        (iii) is in compliance with registration and filing
    
requirements applicable pursuant to the Charitable Trust Act and the Solicitation for Charity Act; and
        (iv) has a principal purpose of promoting or
    
providing services that would be eligible for funding under the Illinois Equal Justice Act.
    "Residual funds" means all unclaimed funds, including uncashed checks or other unclaimed payments, that remain in a common fund created in a class action after court-approved payments are made for the following:
        (i) class member claims;
        (ii) attorney's fees and costs; and
        (iii) any reversions to a defendant agreed upon by
    
the parties.
    (b) Settlement. An order approving a proposed settlement of a class action that results in the creation of a common fund for the benefit of the class shall, consistent with the other Sections of this Part, establish a process for the administration of the settlement and shall provide for the distribution of any residual funds to one or more eligible organizations, except that up to 50% of the residual funds may be distributed to one or more other nonprofit charitable organizations or other organizations that serve the public good if the court finds there is good cause to approve such a distribution as part of a settlement.
    (c) Judgment. A judgment in favor of the plaintiff in a class action that results in the creation of a common fund for the benefit of the class shall provide for the distribution of any residual funds to one or more eligible organizations.
    (d) State and its political subdivisions. This Section does not apply to any class action lawsuit against the State of Illinois or any of its political subdivisions.
    (e) Application. This Section applies to all actions commenced on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly and to all actions pending on the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly for which no court order has been entered preliminarily approving a proposed settlement for a class of plaintiffs.
(Source: P.A. 95-479, eff. 7-1-08.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 9

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 9 heading)
Part 9. Action on Penal Bond

735 ILCS 5/2-901

    (735 ILCS 5/2-901) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-901)
    Sec. 2-901. Actions on penal bonds. In an action on a penal bond the plaintiff may allege as many breaches as the plaintiff may think fit. Damages shall be assessed for the breaches which are proved. The judgment for the penalty stands as security for all other breaches which may occur thereafter. The court may at any time thereafter, upon motion of plaintiff and 10 days' notice, assess damages for each subsequent breach. An order shall be entered after each assessment of damages for the enforcement of the judgment for the amount of the additional damages assessed, until the full amount of the judgment is paid.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 10

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 10 heading)
Part 10. Pre-trial Steps

735 ILCS 5/2-1001

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1001) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1001)
    Sec. 2-1001. Substitution of judge.
    (a) A substitution of judge in any civil action may be had in the following situations:
        (1) Involvement of judge. When the judge is a party
    
or interested in the action, or his or her testimony is material to either of the parties to the action, or he or she is related to or has been counsel for any party in regard to the matter in controversy. In any such situation a substitution of judge may be awarded by the court with or without the application of either party.
        (2) Substitution as of right. When a party timely
    
exercises his or her right to a substitution without cause as provided in this paragraph (2).
            (i) Each party shall be entitled to one
        
substitution of judge without cause as a matter of right.
            (ii) An application for substitution of judge as
        
of right shall be made by motion and shall be granted if it is presented before trial or hearing begins and before the judge to whom it is presented has ruled on any substantial issue in the case, or if it is presented by consent of the parties.
            (iii) If any party has not entered an appearance
        
in the case and has not been found in default, rulings in the case by the judge on any substantial issue before the party's appearance shall not be grounds for denying an otherwise timely application for substitution of judge as of right by the party.
        (3) Substitution for cause. When cause exists.
            (i) Each party shall be entitled to a
        
substitution or substitutions of judge for cause.
            (ii) Every application for substitution of judge
        
for cause shall be made by petition, setting forth the specific cause for substitution and praying a substitution of judge. The petition shall be verified by the affidavit of the applicant.
            (iii) Upon the filing of a petition for
        
substitution of judge for cause, a hearing to determine whether the cause exists shall be conducted as soon as possible by a judge other than the judge named in the petition. The judge named in the petition need not testify but may submit an affidavit if the judge wishes. If the petition is allowed, the case shall be assigned to a judge not named in the petition. If the petition is denied, the case shall be assigned back to the judge named in the petition.
        (4) Substitution in contempt proceedings. When any
    
defendant in a proceeding for contempt arising from an attack upon the character or conduct of a judge occurring otherwise than in open court, and the proceeding is pending before the judge whose character or conduct was impugned, fears that he or she will not receive a fair and impartial trial before that judge. In any such situation the application shall be by petition, verified by the applicant, and shall be filed before the trial of the contempt proceeding.
    (b) An application for substitution of judge may be made to the court in which the case is pending, reasonable notice of the application having been given to the adverse party or his or her attorney.
    (c) When a substitution of judge is granted, the case may be assigned to some other judge in the same county, or in some other convenient county, to which there is no valid objection. If the case is assigned to a judge in some other county, the provisions of subsections (f) through (m) of Section 2-1001.5 shall apply.
(Source: P.A. 94-531, eff. 1-1-06.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1001.5

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1001.5) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1001.5)
    Sec. 2-1001.5. Change of venue.
    (a) A change of venue in any civil action may be had when the court determines that any party may not receive a fair trial in the court in which the action is pending because the inhabitants of the county are prejudiced against the party, or his or her attorney, or the adverse party has an undue influence over the minds of the inhabitants.
    (b) Every application for a change of venue by a party or his or her attorney shall be by petition, verified by the affidavit of the applicant. The petition shall set forth the facts upon which the petitioner bases his or her belief of prejudice of the inhabitants of the county or the undue influence of the adverse party over their minds, and must be supported by the affidavits of at least 2 other reputable persons residing in the county. The adverse party may controvert the petition by counter affidavits, and the court may grant or deny the petition as shall appear to be according to the right of the case.
    (c) A petition for change of venue shall not be granted unless it is presented before trial or hearing begins and before the judge to whom it is presented has ruled on any substantial issue in the case, but if any ground for change of venue occurs thereafter, a petition for change of venue may be presented based upon that ground.
    (d) The application may be made to the court in which the case is pending, reasonable notice thereof having been given to the adverse party or his or her attorney.
    (e) When a change of venue is granted, it shall be to some other convenient county to which there is no valid objection.
    (f) The order for a change of venue may be made subject to such equitable terms and conditions as safety to the rights of the parties may seem to require, and the court in its discretion may prescribe.
    (g) The expenses attending a change of venue shall be taxed by the clerk of the court from which the case is certified according to the rates established by law for like services, and shall be paid by the petitioner and not allowed as part of the costs in the action.
    (h) The order shall be void unless the party obtaining a change of venue shall, within 15 days, or such shorter time as the court may prescribe, pay to the clerk the expenses attending the change.
    (i) Where the venue is changed without the application of either party, the costs of such change shall abide the event of the action.
    (j) In all cases of change of venue, the clerk of the court from which the change is granted shall immediately prepare a full transcript of the record and proceedings in the case, and of the petition, affidavits and order for the change of venue, and transmit the same, together with all the papers filed in the case, to the proper court, but when the venue is changed, on behalf of a part of the defendants in a condemnation proceeding, it shall not be necessary to transmit the original papers in the case, and it shall be sufficient to transmit certified copies of so much thereof as pertains to the case so changed. Such transcript and papers or copies may be transmitted by mail, or in such other ways as the court may direct.
    (k) The clerk of the court to which the change of venue is granted shall file the transcript and papers transmitted and docket the cause, and such cause shall be proceeded in and determined before and after judgment, as if it had originated in such court.
    (l) All questions concerning the regularity of the proceedings in a change of venue, and the right of the court to which the change is made to try the cause and enforce the judgment, shall be considered as waived after trial and verdict.
    (m) Upon the entry of judgment of any civil cause in which the venue has been changed, it shall be lawful for the party in whose favor judgment is entered, to file in the office of the clerk of the court where the action was instituted a transcript of such judgment, and the clerk shall file the same of record, and enforcement may be had thereon, and the same shall, from the time of filing such transcript, have the same operation and effect as if originally recovered in such court.
(Source: P.A. 87-949.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1003

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1003) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1003)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1003. Discovery and depositions.
    (a) Any party who by pleading alleges any claim for bodily injury or disease, including mental health injury or disease, shall be deemed to waive any privilege between the injured person and each health care provider who has furnished care at any time to the injured person. "Health care provider" means any person or entity who delivers or has delivered health care services, including diagnostic services, and includes, but is not limited to, physicians, psychologists, chiropractors, nurses, mental health workers, therapists, and other healing art practitioners. Any party alleging any such claim for bodily or mental health injury or disease shall, upon written request of any other party who has appeared in the action, sign and deliver within 28 days to the requesting party a separate Consent authorizing each person or entity who has provided health care at any time to the allegedly injured person to:
        (1) furnish the requesting party or the party's
    
attorney a complete copy of the chart or record of health care in the possession of the provider, including reports sent to any third party, including any records generated by other health care providers and in the possession of the health care provider, and including radiographic films of any type;
        (2) permit the requesting party or the party's
    
attorney to inspect the original chart or record of health care during regular business hours and at the regular business location of the health care provider, upon written request made not less than 7 days prior to the inspection;
        (3) accept and consider charts and other records of
    
health care by others, radiographic films, and documents, including reports, deposition transcripts, and letters, furnished to the health care provider by the requesting party or the party's attorney, before giving testimony in any deposition or trial or other hearing;
        (4) confer with the requesting party's attorney
    
before giving testimony in any deposition or trial or other hearing and engage in discussion with the attorney on the subjects of the health care provider's observations related to the allegedly injured party's health, including the following: the patient history, whether charted or otherwise recorded or not; the health care provider's opinions related to the patient's state of health, prognosis, etiology, or cause of the patient's state of health at any time, and the nature and quality of care by other health care providers, including whether any standard of care was or was not breached; and the testimony the health care provider would give in response to any point of interrogation, and the education, experience, and qualifications of the health care provider.
    The form of the Consent furnished pursuant to this subsection (a) shall recite that it is signed and delivered under the authority of this subsection. Any variation in the form of the Consent required by any health care provider, not subject to the jurisdiction of the circuit court before which the action is pending, to whom a request is directed under subdivision (1) or (2) of this subsection (a) shall be accepted by the allegedly injured party and the revised form requested by the health care provider shall be signed and delivered to the requesting party within 28 days after it is tendered for signature.
    All documents and information obtained pursuant to a Consent shall be considered confidential. Disclosure may be made only to the parties to the action, their attorneys, their insurers' representatives, and witnesses and consultants whose testimony concerns medical treatment prognosis, or rehabilitation, including expert witnesses.
    A request for a Consent under this subsection (a) does not preclude such subsequent requests as may reasonably be made seeking to expand the scope of an earlier Consent which was limited to less than all the authority permitted by subdivisions (1) through (4) of this subsection (a) or seeking additional Consents for other health care providers.
    The provisions of this subsection (a) do not restrict the right of any party to discovery pursuant to rule.
    Should a plaintiff refuse to timely comply with a request for signature and delivery of a consent permitted by this subsection (a) the court, on motion, shall issue an order authorizing disclosure to the party or parties requesting said consent of all records and information mentioned herein or order the cause dismissed pursuant to Section 2-619(a)(9).
    (a-1) Discovery, admissions of fact and of genuineness of documents and answers to interrogatories shall be in accordance with rules.
    (b) The taking of depositions, whether for use in evidence or for purposes of discovery in proceedings in this State or elsewhere, and fees and charges in connection therewith, shall be in accordance with rules.
    (c) A party shall not be required to furnish the names or addresses of his or her witnesses, except that upon motion of any party disclosure of the identity of expert witnesses shall be made to all parties and the court in sufficient time in advance of trial so as to insure a fair and equitable preparation of the case by all parties.
    (d) Whenever the defendant in any litigation in this State has the right to demand a physical or mental examination of the plaintiff pursuant to statute or Supreme Court Rule, relative to the occurrence and extent of injuries or damages for which claim is made, or in connection with the plaintiff's capacity to exercise any right plaintiff has, or would have but for a finding based upon such examination, the plaintiff has the right to have his or her attorney, or such other person as the plaintiff may wish, present at such physical or mental examination.
    (e) No person or organization shall be required to furnish claims, loss or risk management information held or provided by an insurer, which information is described in Section 143.10a of the "Illinois Insurance Code".
    (f) This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action filed on and after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1003. Discovery and depositions.
    (a) Discovery, admissions of fact and of genuineness of documents and answers to interrogatories shall be in accordance with rules.
    (b) The taking of depositions, whether for use in evidence or for purposes of discovery in proceedings in this State or elsewhere, and fees and charges in connection therewith, shall be in accordance with rules.
    (c) A party shall not be required to furnish the names or addresses of his or her witnesses, except that upon motion of any party disclosure of the identity of expert witnesses shall be made to all parties and the court in sufficient time in advance of trial so as to insure a fair and equitable preparation of the case by all parties.
    (d) Whenever the defendant in any litigation in this State has the right to demand a physical or mental examination of the plaintiff pursuant to statute or Supreme Court Rule, relative to the occurrence and extent of injuries or damages for which claim is made, or in connection with the plaintiff's capacity to exercise any right plaintiff has, or would have but for a finding based upon such examination, the plaintiff has the right to have his or her attorney, or such other person as the plaintiff may wish, present at such physical or mental examination.
    (e) No person or organization shall be required to furnish claims, loss or risk management information held or provided by an insurer, which information is described in Section 143.10a of the "Illinois Insurance Code".
(Source: P.A. 84-1431.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1004

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1004) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1004)
    Sec. 2-1004. Pretrial procedure. The holding of pretrial conferences shall be in accordance with rules.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1005

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1005) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1005)
    Sec. 2-1005. Summary judgments. (a) For plaintiff. Any time after the opposite party has appeared or after the time within which he or she is required to appear has expired, a plaintiff may move with or without supporting affidavits for a summary judgment in his or her favor for all or any part of the relief sought.
    (b) For defendant. A defendant may, at any time, move with or without supporting affidavits for a summary judgment in his or her favor as to all or any part of the relief sought against him or her.
    (c) Procedure. The opposite party may prior to or at the time of the hearing on the motion file counteraffidavits. The judgment sought shall be rendered without delay if the pleadings, depositions, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law. A summary judgment, interlocutory in character, may be rendered on the issue of liability alone although there is a genuine issue as to the amount of damages.
    (d) Summary determination of major issues. If the court determines that there is no genuine issue of material fact as to one or more of the major issues in the case, but that substantial controversy exists with respect to other major issues, or if a party moves for a summary determination of one or more, but less than all, of the major issues in the case, and the court finds that there is no genuine issue of material fact as to that issue or those issues, the court shall thereupon draw an order specifying the major issue or issues that appear without substantial controversy, and directing such further proceedings upon the remaining undetermined issues as are just. Upon the trial of the case, the facts so specified shall be deemed established, and the trial shall be conducted accordingly.
    (e) Form of affidavits. The form and contents of and procedure relating to affidavits under this Section shall be as provided by rule.
    (f) Affidavits made in bad faith. If it appears to the satisfaction of the court at any time that any affidavit presented pursuant to this Section is presented in bad faith or solely for the purpose of delay, the court shall without delay order the party employing it to pay to the other party the amount of the reasonable expenses which the filing of the affidavit caused him or her to incur, including reasonable attorney's fees, and any offending party or attorney may be adjudged guilty of contempt.
    (g) Amendment of pleading. Before or after the entry of a summary judgment, the court shall permit pleadings to be amended upon just and reasonable terms.
(Source: P.A. 84-316.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1006

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1006) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1006)
    Sec. 2-1006. Consolidation and severance of cases. An action may be severed, and actions pending in the same court may be consolidated, as an aid to convenience, whenever it can be done without prejudice to a substantial right.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1007

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1007) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1007)
    Sec. 2-1007. Extension of time and continuances. On good cause shown, in the discretion of the court and on just terms, additional time may be granted for the doing of any act or the taking of any step or proceeding prior to judgment.
    The circumstances, terms and conditions under which continuances may be granted, the time and manner in which application therefor shall be made, and the effect thereof, shall be according to rules. However, in actions involving building code violations or violations of municipal ordinances caused by the failure of a building or structure to conform to the minimum standards of health and safety, the court shall grant a continuance only upon a written motion by the party seeking the continuance specifying the reason why such continuance should be granted.
    It is sufficient cause for the continuance of any action that any party applying therefor or his or her attorney is a member of either house of the General Assembly during the time the General Assembly is in session, or if any party's attorney is a bona fide member of a religious faith that dictates that the individual refrain from normal business activity or attend religious services as a part of the observance of a religious holiday and requests a continuance to observe such religious holiday when the date of a scheduled court proceeding conflicts with the date of such holiday, or if any party applying therefor or his or her attorney is a delegate to a State Constitutional Convention during the time the Constitutional Convention is in session, if the presence of such party is necessary for the full and fair trial of the action and, in the case of his or her attorney, if such attorney was retained by such party prior to the time the cause was set for trial.
(Source: P.A. 84-931.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1007.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1007.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1007.1)
    Sec. 2-1007.1. Preference in setting for trial. (a) A party who is an individual and has reached the age of 70 years shall, upon motion by that party, be entitled to preference in setting for trial unless the court finds that the party does not have a substantial interest in the case as a whole.
    (b) The court may, in its discretion, grant a motion for preference in setting for trial where a party shows good cause that the interests of justice will be served by granting a preference in setting for trial.
(Source: P.A. 86-854.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1008

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1008) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1008)
    Sec. 2-1008. Abatement; change of interest or liability; substitution of parties.
    (a) Change of interest or liability. If by reason of marriage, bankruptcy, assignment, or any other event occurring after the commencement of a cause or proceeding, either before or after judgment, causing a change or transmission of interest or liability, or by reason of any person interested coming into existence after commencement of the action, it becomes necessary or desirable that any person not already a party be before the court, or that any person already a party be made party in another capacity, the action does not abate, but on motion an order may be entered that the proper parties be substituted or added, and that the cause or proceeding be carried on with the remaining parties and new parties, with or without a change in the title of the cause.
    (b) Death. If a party to an action dies and the action is one which survives, the proper party or parties may be substituted by order of court upon motion as follows:
        (1) If no petition for letters of office for the
    
decedent's estate has been filed, the court may appoint a special representative for the deceased for the purpose of prosecuting the action. The appointment shall be on verified motion of any party who appears entitled to participate in the deceased's estate, reciting the names and last known addresses of all known heirs and the legatees and executor named in any will that has been filed. The court's determination that a person appears entitled to participate in the deceased's estate shall be solely for purposes of this Section and not determinative of rights in final disposition. Within 90 days after appointment, the special representative shall notify the heirs and legatees of the following information by mail: that an appointment has been made, the court in which the case was filed, the caption of the case, and a description of the nature of the case. The special representative shall publish notice to unknown heirs and legatees as provided in the Probate Act of 1975. If a will is filed within 90 days after the appointment of the special representative, the same notice shall be given to any additional executors and legatees named in the will. At any time that an estate is opened with a representative other than the special representative, the court may upon motion substitute the representative for the special representative. In this case, the court shall allow disbursements and fees of the special representative and his or her attorney as a claim against any proceeds received. The proceeds of any judgment or settlement shall be distributed under the provisions of the Probate Act of 1975. This paragraph (1) does not apply to actions pending under the Wrongful Death Act.
        (2) If a person against whom an action has been
    
brought dies, and the cause of action survives and is not otherwise barred, his or her personal representative shall be substituted as a party. If no petition has been filed for letters of office for the deceased's estate, the court, upon the motion of a person bringing an action and after the notice to the party's heirs or legatees as the court directs and without opening an estate, may appoint a special representative for the deceased party for the purposes of defending the action. If a party elects to have a special representative appointed under this paragraph (2), the recovery shall be limited to the proceeds of any liability insurance protecting the estate and shall not bar the estate from enforcing any claims that might have been available to it as counterclaims.
    If a motion to substitute is not filed within 90 days after the death is suggested of record, the action may be dismissed as to the deceased party.
    In the event of the death of a party in an action in which the right sought to be enforced survives only as to the remaining parties to the action, the action does not abate. The death shall be suggested of record and the action shall proceed in favor of or against the remaining parties.
    No action brought for the use of another abates by reason of the death of the plaintiff whose name is used but may be maintained by the party for whose use it was brought in his or her own name upon suggesting the death of record and the entry of an order of substitution.
    (c) Legal disability. If a party is declared to be a person under legal disability, that fact shall be suggested of record and the prosecution or defense shall be maintained by his or her representative, guardian ad litem or next friend, as may be appropriate.
    (d) Trustees; public officers. If any trustee or any public officer ceases to hold the trust or office and that fact is suggested of record, the action shall proceed in favor of or against his or her successor.
    (e) Service of process. Parties against whom relief is sought, substituted under subsection (a) hereof, shall be brought in by service of process. Service of process on parties substituted under subsections (b), (c), and (d) hereof is not required, but notice shall be given as the court may direct.
(Source: P.A. 90-111, eff. 7-14-97.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1009

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1009) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1009)
    Sec. 2-1009. Voluntary dismissal.
    (a) The plaintiff may, at any time before trial or hearing begins, upon notice to each party who has appeared or each such party's attorney, and upon payment of costs, dismiss his or her action or any part thereof as to any defendant, without prejudice, by order filed in the cause.
    (b) The court may hear and decide a motion that has been filed prior to a motion filed under subsection (a) of this Section when that prior filed motion, if favorably ruled on by the court, could result in a final disposition of the cause.
    (c) After trial or hearing begins, the plaintiff may dismiss, only on terms fixed by the court (1) upon filing a stipulation to that effect signed by the defendant, or (2) on motion specifying the ground for dismissal, which shall be supported by affidavit or other proof.
    (d) A dismissal under subsection (a) of this Section does not dismiss a pending counterclaim or third party complaint.
    (e) Counterclaimants and third-party plaintiffs may dismiss upon the same terms and conditions as plaintiffs.
(Source: P.A. 88-157.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1010

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1010) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1010)
    Sec. 2-1010. (a) In any action, whether in tort, contract or otherwise, in which the plaintiff seeks damages for injuries or death by reason of medical, hospital, or other healing art malpractice, a party may, in lieu of answering or otherwise pleading, file an affidavit certifying that he or she was not directly or indirectly involved in the occurrence or occurrences alleged in the action. In the event such an affidavit is filed, the court shall order the dismissal of the claim against the certifying party, except as provided for in subparagraph (b).
    (b) Any party may oppose the dismissal or move to vacate the order of dismissal and reinstate the certifying party, provided he or she can show that the certifying party was directly or indirectly involved in the occurrence or occurrences alleged in the action. The party opposing the dismissal may, after the filing of an affidavit under this Section, have discovery with respect to the involvement or noninvolvement of the party filing the affidavit, provided that such discovery is completed within 60 days of the filing of such affidavit.
    (c) This Section does not apply to or affect any actions pending at the time of its effective date, but applies to cases filed on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1011

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1011) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1011)
    Sec. 2-1011. Deposits with Court.
    (a) In any action in which any part of the relief sought is a judgment for a sum of money or a determination by the court as to the disposition of a sum of money and a party to the action deposits all or part of that sum with the clerk of the court, the clerk shall deposit that money in an interest bearing account as provided in this Section. When a judgment is entered as to the disposition of the principal deposited, the court shall also direct disposition of the interest accrued to the parties as it deems appropriate.
    (b) Unless otherwise ordered by the court as to a specified deposit or deposits, all funds so deposited with the court may be intermingled. The accounts established by the clerk of the circuit court under this Section shall be in banks or savings and loan associations doing business in this State. The accounts must be insured by an agency of the United States to the full extent of the amounts held in the accounts. The clerk shall keep complete and accurate records of the amounts deposited with the court in each action and of the accounts containing those deposits. The records and accounts shall be subject to audit, as provided by law. The clerk shall, upon request of any party in an action in which a sum of money has been deposited with the court under this Section, furnish to that party a statement showing the condition of the deposit or of the account containing the deposit.
    (c) Payment out of money deposited with the court shall be made only upon order of the court after a finding that:
        (1) the order is consistent with the account records
    
as to the amount involved; and
        (2) the order correctly identifies affected parties
    
and specifies to whom payments are to be made and the amount each is to receive.
    (d) No moneys on deposit under this Section shall be paid out except by a check of the clerk.
    (e) Orders to pay out may be made under terms and conditions as the court may, in its discretion, deem appropriate, subject to the provisions of this Section. The orders may be stayed pending appeal upon application under Supreme Court Rule 305.
(Source: P.A. 86-1329.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 10A

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 10A heading)
PART 10A. MANDATORY ARBITRATION SYSTEM

735 ILCS 5/2-1001A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1001A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1001A)
    Sec. 2-1001A. Authorization. The Supreme Court of Illinois, by rule, may provide for mandatory arbitration of such civil actions as the Court deems appropriate in order to expedite in a less costly manner any litigation wherein a party asserts a claim not exceeding $50,000 or any lesser amount as authorized by the Supreme Court for a particular Circuit, or a judge of the circuit court, at a pretrial conference, determines that no greater amount than that authorized for the Circuit appears to be genuinely in controversy.
(Source: P.A. 88-108.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1002A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1002A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1002A)
    Sec. 2-1002A. Implementation by Supreme Court Rules. The Supreme Court shall by rule adopt procedures adapted to each judicial circuit to implement mandatory arbitration under this Act.
(Source: P.A. 84-844.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1003A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1003A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1003A)
    Sec. 2-1003A. Qualification, Appointment, and Compensation of Arbitrators. The qualification and the method of appointment of arbitrators shall be prescribed by rule. Arbitrators shall be entitled to reasonable compensation for their services. Arbitration hearings shall be conducted by arbitrators sitting in panels of three or of such lesser number as may be stipulated by the parties.
(Source: P.A. 84-844.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1004A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1004A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1004A)
    Sec. 2-1004A. Decision and Award. Following an arbitration hearing as prescribed by rule, the arbitrators' decision shall be filed with the circuit court, together with proof of service on the parties. Within the time prescribed by rule, any party to the proceeding may file with the clerk of the court a written notice of the rejection of the award. In case of such rejection, the parties may, upon payment of appropriate costs and fees imposed by Supreme Court Rule as a consequence of the rejection, proceed to trial before a judge or jury. Costs and fees received by the clerk of the circuit court pursuant to this Section shall be remitted within one month after receipt to the State Treasurer for deposit into the Mandatory Arbitration Fund.
(Source: P.A. 85-408; 85-1007.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1005A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1005A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1005A)
    Sec. 2-1005A. Judgment of the Court. If no rejection of the award is filed, a judge of the circuit court may enter the award as the judgment of the court.
(Source: P.A. 84-844.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1006A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1006A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1006A)
    Sec. 2-1006A. Uniform Arbitration Act. The provisions of the Uniform Arbitration Act shall not be applicable to the proceedings under this Part 10A of Article II.
(Source: P.A. 84-1308.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1007A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1007A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1007A)
    Sec. 2-1007A. The expenses of conducting mandatory arbitration programs in the circuit court, including arbitrator fees, and the expenses related to conducting such other alternative dispute resolution programs as may be authorized by circuit court rule for operation in counties that have implemented mandatory arbitration, shall be determined by the Supreme Court and paid from the State Treasury on the warrant of the Comptroller out of appropriations made for that purpose by the General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 89-532, eff. 7-19-96.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1008A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1008A)
    Sec. 2-1008A. (Repealed).
(Source: P.A. 85-408. Repealed by P.A. 97-1099, eff. 8-24-12.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1009A

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1009A) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1009A)
    Sec. 2-1009A. Filing Fees. In each county authorized by the Supreme Court to utilize mandatory arbitration, the clerk of the circuit court shall charge and collect, in addition to any other fees, an arbitration fee of $8, except in counties with 3,000,000 or more inhabitants the fee shall be $10, at the time of filing the first pleading, paper or other appearance filed by each party in all civil cases, but no additional fee shall be required if more than one party is represented in a single pleading, paper or other appearance. Arbitration fees received by the clerk of the circuit court pursuant to this Section shall be remitted within one month after receipt to the State Treasurer for deposit into the Mandatory Arbitration Fund, a special fund in the State treasury for the purpose of funding mandatory arbitration programs and such other alternative dispute resolution programs as may be authorized by circuit court rule for operation in counties that have implemented mandatory arbitration, with a separate account being maintained for each county. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section to the contrary, the Mandatory Arbitration Fund may be used for any other purpose authorized by the Supreme Court.
(Source: P.A. 94-91, eff. 7-1-05; 94-839, eff. 6-6-06; 95-707, eff. 1-11-08.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 11

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 11 heading)
Part 11. Trial

735 ILCS 5/2-1101

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1101) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1101)
    Sec. 2-1101. Subpoenas. The clerk of any court in which an action is pending shall, from time to time, issue subpoenas for those witnesses and to those counties in the State as may be required by either party. Every clerk who shall refuse so to do shall be guilty of a petty offense and fined any sum not to exceed $100. An attorney admitted to practice in the State of Illinois, as an officer of the court, may also issue subpoenas on behalf of the court for witnesses and to counties in a pending action. An order of court is not required to obtain the issuance by the clerk or by an attorney of a subpoena duces tecum. For good cause shown, the court on motion may quash or modify any subpoena or, in the case of a subpoena duces tecum, condition the denial of the motion upon payment in advance by the person in whose behalf the subpoena is issued of the reasonable expense of producing any item therein specified.
    In the event that a party has subpoenaed an expert witness including, but not limited to physicians or medical providers, and the expert witness appears in court, and a conflict arises between the party subpoenaing the expert witness and the expert witness over the fees charged by the expert witness, the trial court shall be advised of the conflict. The trial court shall conduct a hearing subsequent to the testimony of the expert witness and shall determine the reasonable fee to be paid to the expert witness.
(Source: P.A. 95-1033, eff. 6-1-09.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1102

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1102) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1102)
    Sec. 2-1102. Examination of adverse party or agent. Upon the trial of any case any party thereto or any person for whose immediate benefit the action is prosecuted or defended, or the officers, directors, managing agents or foreman of any party to the action, may be called and examined as if under cross-examination at the instance of any adverse party. The party calling for the examination is not concluded thereby but may rebut the testimony thus given by countertestimony and may impeach the witness by proof of prior inconsistent statements.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1103

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1103) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1103)
    Sec. 2-1103. Affidavits. (a) All affidavits presented to the court shall be filed with the clerk.
    (b) If evidence is necessary concerning any fact which according to law and the practice of the court may now be supplied by affidavit, the court may, in its discretion, require the evidence to be presented, wholly or in part, by oral examination of the witnesses in open court upon notice to all parties not in default, or their attorneys. If the evidence is presented by oral examination, an adverse party shall have the right to cross-examination. This Section does not apply to applications for change of venue on grounds of prejudice.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1104

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1104) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1104)
    Sec. 2-1104. Party need not submit to lie detector. In the course of any civil trial or pre-trial proceeding the court shall not require that the plaintiff or defendant submit to a polygraphic detection deception test, commonly known as a lie detector test or require, suggest or request that the plaintiff or defendant submit to questioning under the effect of thiopental sodium or to any other test or questioning by means of any chemical substance.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1105

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1105) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1105)
    Sec. 2-1105. Jury demand.
    (a) A plaintiff desirous of a trial by jury must file a demand therefor with the clerk at the time the action is commenced. A defendant desirous of a trial by jury must file a demand therefor not later than the filing of his or her answer. Otherwise, the party waives a jury. If an action is filed seeking equitable relief and the court thereafter determines that one or more of the parties is or are entitled to a trial by jury, the plaintiff, within 3 days from the entry of such order by the court, or the defendant, within 6 days from the entry of such order by the court, may file his or her demand for trial by jury with the clerk of the court. If the plaintiff files a jury demand and thereafter waives a jury, any defendant and, in the case of multiple defendants, if the defendant who filed a jury demand thereafter waives a jury, any other defendant shall be granted a jury trial upon demand therefor made promptly after being advised of the waiver and upon payment of the proper fees, if any, to the clerk.
    (b) All jury cases where the claim for damages is $50,000 or less shall be tried by a jury of 6, unless either party demands a jury of 12. If a fee in connection with a jury demand is required by statute or rule of court, the fee for a jury of 6 shall be 1/2 the fee for a jury of 12. A party demanding a jury of 12 after another party has paid the applicable fee for a jury of 6 shall pay the remaining 1/2 of the fee applicable to a jury of 12.
(Source: P.A. 94-206, eff. 1-1-06.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1105.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1105.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1105.1)
    Sec. 2-1105.1. Challenge for cause. Each party may challenge jurors for cause. If a prospective juror has a physical impairment, the court shall consider such prospective juror's ability to perceive and appreciate the evidence when considering a challenge for cause.
(Source: P.A. 83-461.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1106

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1106) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1106)
    Sec. 2-1106. Peremptory challenges - Alternate jurors. (a) Each side shall be entitled to 5 peremptory challenges. If there is more than one party on any side, the court may allow each side additional peremptory challenges, not to exceed 3, on account of each additional party on the side having the greatest number of parties. Each side shall be allowed an equal number of peremptory challenges. If the parties on a side are unable to agree upon the allocation of peremptory challenges among themselves, the allocation shall be determined by the court.
    (b) The court may direct that 1 or 2 jurors in addition to the regular panel be impanelled to serve as alternate jurors. Alternate jurors, in the sequence in which they are ordered into the jury box, shall replace jurors who, prior to the time the jury retires to consider its verdict, become unable to perform their duties. Alternate jurors shall be drawn in the same manner, have the same qualifications, be subject to the same examination and challenges, take the same oath, and have the same functions, powers, facilities, and privileges as the principal jurors. An alternate juror who does not replace a principal juror shall be discharged at the time the jury retires to consider its verdict. If alternate jurors are called each side shall be allowed one additional peremptory challenge, regardless of the number of alternate jurors called. The additional peremptory challenge may be used only against an alternate juror, but any unexercised peremptory challenges may be used against an alternate juror.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1107

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1107) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1107)
    Sec. 2-1107. Instructing the jury - Taking instructions and papers to the jury room. (a) The court shall give instructions to the jury only in writing, unless the parties agree otherwise, and only as to the law of the case. An original and one copy of each instruction asked by any party shall be tendered to the court. The copies shall be numbered and shall indicate who tendered them. Copies of instructions given on the court's own motion or modified by the court shall be so identified. When instructions are asked which the court refuses to give, the court shall on the margin of the original and copy write the word "refused" and shall write the word "given" on the margin of the original and copy of those given. The court shall in no case, after instructions are given, clarify, modify or in any manner explain them to the jury, otherwise than in writing, unless the parties agree otherwise.
    (b) The original written instructions given by the court to the jury shall be taken by the jury to the jury room, and shall be returned by the jury with its verdict into court. The originals and copies of all instructions, whether given, modified or refused, shall be filed as a part of the proceedings in the cause.
    (c) At the close of the evidence or at any earlier time during the trial that the court reasonably directs, any party may tender instructions and shall at the same time deliver copies thereof to counsel for other parties. If the number or length of the instructions tendered is unreasonable, the court after examining the instructions may require counsel to reduce the number or length thereof. The court shall hold a conference with counsel to settle the instructions and shall inform counsel of the court's proposed action thereon prior to the arguments to the jury. If as a result of the arguments to the jury the court determines that additional instructions are desirable, the court may after a further conference with counsel approve additional instructions. The court shall instruct the jury after the arguments are completed. Conferences on instructions must be out of the presence of the jury.
    (d) Papers read or received in evidence, other than depositions, may be taken by the jury to the jury room for use during the jury's deliberation.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1107.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1107.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1107.1)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1107.1. Jury instruction in tort actions. In all actions on account of bodily injury or death or physical damage to property based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, the court shall instruct the jury in writing, to the extent that it is true, that any award of compensatory damages or punitive damages will not be taxable under federal or State income tax law. The court shall not inform or instruct the jury that the defendant shall be found not liable if the jury finds that the contributory fault of the plaintiff is more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage for which recovery is sought, but it shall be the duty of the court to deny recovery if the jury finds that the plaintiff's contributory fault is more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage. The court shall not inform or instruct the jury concerning any limitations in the amount of non-economic damages or punitive damages that are recoverable, but it shall be the duty of the trial court upon entering judgment to reduce any award in excess of such limitation to no more than the proper limitation.
    This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action filed on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1107.1. Jury instruction in tort actions. In all actions on account of bodily injury or death or physical damage to property based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, the court shall instruct the jury in writing that the defendant shall be found not liable if the jury finds that the contributory fault of the plaintiff is more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage for which recovery is sought.
(Source: P.A. 84-1431.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1108

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1108) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1108)
    Sec. 2-1108. Verdict - Special interrogatories. Unless the nature of the case requires otherwise, the jury shall render a general verdict. The jury may be required by the court, and must be required on request of any party, to find specially upon any material question or questions of fact submitted to the jury in writing. Special interrogatories shall be tendered, objected to, ruled upon and submitted to the jury as in the case of instructions. Submitting or refusing to submit a question of fact to the jury may be reviewed on appeal, as a ruling on a question of law. When the special finding of fact is inconsistent with the general verdict, the former controls the latter and the court may enter judgment accordingly.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1109

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1109) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1109)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1109. Itemized verdicts. In every case where damages for bodily injury or death are assessed by the jury the verdict shall be itemized so as to reflect the monetary distribution, if any, among economic loss and non-economic loss as defined in Section 2-1115.2 and, in healing art malpractice cases, further itemized so as to reflect the distribution of economic loss by category, such itemization of economic loss by category to include: (a) amounts intended to compensate for reasonable expenses which have been incurred, or which will be incurred, for necessary medical, surgical, x-ray, dental, or other health or rehabilitative services, drugs, and therapy; (b) amounts intended to compensate for lost wages or loss of earning capacity; and (c) all other economic losses claimed by the plaintiff or granted by the jury. Each category of economic loss shall be further itemized into amounts intended to compensate for losses which have been incurred prior to the verdict and amounts intended to compensate for future losses.
    This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action filed on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1109. Itemized verdicts. In every case where damages for injury to the person are assessed by the jury the verdict shall be itemized so as to reflect the monetary distribution among economic loss and non-economic loss, if any, and, in medical malpractice cases, further itemized so as to reflect the distribution of economic loss by category, such itemization of economic loss by category to include: (a) amounts intended to compensate for reasonable expenses which have been incurred, or which will be incurred, for necessary medical, surgical, x-ray, dental, or other health or rehabilitative services, drugs, and therapy; (b) amounts intended to compensate for lost wages or loss of earning capacity; and (c) all other economic losses claimed by the plaintiff or granted by the jury. Each category of economic loss shall be further itemized into amounts intended to compensate for losses which have been incurred prior to the verdict and amounts intended to compensate for losses which will be incurred in the future.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1110

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1110) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1110)
    Sec. 2-1110. Motion in non-jury case to find for defendant at close of plaintiff's evidence. In all cases tried without a jury, defendant may, at the close of plaintiff's case, move for a finding or judgment in his or her favor. In ruling on the motion the court shall weigh the evidence, considering the credibility of the witnesses and the weight and quality of the evidence. If the ruling on the motion is favorable to the defendant, a judgment dismissing the action shall be entered. If the ruling on the motion is adverse to the defendant, the defendant may proceed to adduce evidence in support of his or her defense, in which event the motion is waived.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1111

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1111) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1111)
    Sec. 2-1111. Juries in cases seeking equitable relief. The court may in its discretion direct an issue or issues to be tried by a jury, whenever it is judged necessary in any action seeking equitable relief.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1112

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1112) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1112)
    Sec. 2-1112. Oral testimony in actions seeking equitable relief. On the trial of every action seeking equitable relief, oral testimony shall be taken when desired by either party.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1113

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1113) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1113)
    Sec. 2-1113. Medical malpractice - res ipsa loquitur. In all cases of alleged medical or dental malpractice, where the plaintiff relies upon the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur, the court shall determine whether that doctrine applies. In making that determination, the court shall rely upon either the common knowledge of laymen, if it determines that to be adequate, or upon expert medical testimony, that the medical result complained of would not have ordinarily occurred in the absence of negligence on the part of the defendant. Proof of an unusual, unexpected or untoward medical result which ordinarily does not occur in the absence of negligence will suffice in the application of the doctrine.
(Source: P.A. 82-783.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1114

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1114) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1114)
    Sec. 2-1114. Contingent fees for attorneys in medical malpractice actions.
    (a) In all medical malpractice actions the total contingent fee for plaintiff's attorney or attorneys shall not exceed 33 1/3% of all sums recovered.
    (b) For purposes of determining any lump sum contingent fee, any future damages recoverable by the plaintiff in periodic installments shall be reduced to a lump sum value.
    (c) (Blank).
    (d) As used in this Section, "contingent fee basis" includes any fee arrangement under which the compensation is to be determined in whole or in part on the result obtained.
(Source: P.A. 97-1145, eff. 1-18-13.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1115

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1115) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1115)
    Sec. 2-1115. Punitive damages not recoverable in healing art and legal malpractice cases. In all cases, whether in tort, contract or otherwise, in which the plaintiff seeks damages by reason of legal, medical, hospital, or other healing art malpractice, no punitive, exemplary, vindictive or aggravated damages shall be allowed.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1115.05

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1115.05)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1115.05. Limitations on recovery of punitive damages in cases other than healing art or legal malpractice cases.
    (a) In all cases on account of bodily injury, or physical damage to property based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, other than those cases described in Section 2-1115, punitive damages may be awarded only if actual damages are awarded. The amount of punitive damages that may be awarded for a claim in any civil action subject to this Section shall not exceed 3 times the amount awarded to the claimant for the economic damages on which such claim is based.
    (b) To recover punitive damages in cases described in subsection (a), a plaintiff must show by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant's conduct was with evil motive or with a reckless and outrageous indifference to a highly unreasonable risk of harm and with a conscious indifference to the rights and safety of others. "Clear and convincing evidence" means that measure or degree of proof that will produce in the mind of the trier of fact a high degree of certainty as to the truth of the allegations sought to be established. This evidence requires a greater degree of persuasion than is necessary to meet the preponderance of the evidence standard.
    (c) In any action including a claim for punitive damages, a defendant may request that the issues relating to punitive damages be tried separately from the other issues in the action. If such a request is made, the trier of fact shall first hear evidence relevant to, and render a verdict upon, the defendant's liability for compensatory damages and the amount thereof. If the trier of fact makes an award of actual damages, the same trier of fact shall immediately hear any additional evidence relevant to, and render a verdict upon, the defendant's liability for punitive damages and the amount thereof. If no award of actual damages is made, the claim for punitive damages shall be dismissed. If the defendant requests a separate proceeding concerning liability for punitive damages pursuant to this Section, and the proceeding is held, evidence relevant only to the claim of punitive damages shall be inadmissible in any proceeding to determine whether compensatory damages are to be awarded.
    (d) The limitations of subsection (a) shall not apply in a case in which a plaintiff seeks damages against an individual on account of death, bodily injury, or physical damage to property based on any theory or doctrine due to an incident or occurrence for which the individual has been charged and convicted of a criminal act for which a period of incarceration is or may be a part of the sentence.
    (e) Nothing in this Section shall be construed to create a right to recover punitive damages.
    (f) This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1115.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1115.1)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1115.1. Limitations on recovery of non-economic damages.
    (a) In all common law, statutory or other actions that seek damages on account of death, bodily injury, or physical damage to property based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, recovery of non-economic damages shall be limited to $500,000 per plaintiff. There shall be no recovery for hedonic damages.
    (b) Beginning in 1997, every January 20, the liability limit established in subsection (a) shall automatically be increased or decreased, as applicable, by a percentage equal to the percentage change in the consumer price index-u during the preceding 12-month calendar year. "Consumer price index-u" means the index published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor that measures the average change in prices of goods and services purchased by all urban consumers, United States city average, all items, 1982-84 = 100. The new amount resulting from each annual adjustment shall be determined by the Comptroller and made available to the chief judge of each judicial circuit.
    (c) The liability limits at the time at which damages subject to such limits are awarded by final judgment or settlement shall be utilized by the courts.
    (d) Nothing in this Section shall be construed to create a right to recover non-economic damages.
    (e) This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 95-331, eff. 8-21-07.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1115.2

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1115.2)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1115.2. Economic and non-economic loss. In all actions on account of bodily injury, death, physical damage to property based on negligence, or a product liability action as defined in Section 2-2101, the following terms have the following meanings:
    (a) "Economic loss" or "economic damages" means all damages which are tangible, such as damages for past and future medical expenses, loss of income or earnings and other property loss.
    (b) "Non-economic loss" or "non-economic damages" means damages which are intangible, including but not limited to damages for pain and suffering, disability, disfigurement, loss of consortium, and loss of society.
    (c) "Compensatory damages" or "actual damages" are the sum of economic and non-economic damages.
    This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action filed on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1116

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1116) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1116)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1116. Limitation on recovery in tort actions; fault.
    (a) The purpose of this Section is to allocate the responsibility of bearing or paying damages in actions brought on account of death, bodily injury, or physical damage to property according to the proportionate fault of the persons who proximately caused the damage.
    (b) As used in this Section:
    "Fault" means any act or omission that (i) is negligent, willful and wanton, or reckless, is a breach of an express or implied warranty, gives rise to strict liability in tort, or gives rise to liability under the provisions of any State statute, rule, or local ordinance and (ii) is a proximate cause of death, bodily injury to person, or physical damage to property for which recovery is sought.
    "Contributory fault" means any fault on the part of the plaintiff (including but not limited to negligence, assumption of the risk, or willful and wanton misconduct) which is a proximate cause of the death, bodily injury to person, or physical damage to property for which recovery is sought.
    "Tortfeasor" means any person, excluding the injured person, whose fault is a proximate cause of the death, bodily injury to person, or physical damage to property for which recovery is sought, regardless of whether that person is the plaintiff's employer, regardless of whether that person is joined as a party to the action, and regardless of whether that person may have settled with the plaintiff.
    (c) In all actions on account of death, bodily injury or physical damage to property in which recovery is predicated upon fault, the contributory fault chargeable to the plaintiff shall be compared with the fault of all tortfeasors whose fault was a proximate cause of the death, injury, loss, or damage for which recovery is sought. The plaintiff shall be barred from recovering damages if the trier of fact finds that the contributory fault on the part of the plaintiff is more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage for which recovery is sought. The plaintiff shall not be barred from recovering damages if the trier of fact finds that the contributory fault on the part of the plaintiff is not more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage for which recovery is sought, but any economic or non-economic damages allowed shall be diminished in the proportion to the amount of fault attributable to the plaintiff.
    (d) Nothing in this Section shall be construed to create a cause of action.
    (e) This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1116. Limitation on recovery in tort actions.
     In all actions on account of bodily injury or death or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, the plaintiff shall be barred from recovering damages if the trier of fact finds that the contributory fault on the part of the plaintiff is more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage for which recovery is sought. The plaintiff shall not be barred from recovering damages if the trier of fact finds that the contributory fault on the part of the plaintiff is not more than 50% of the proximate cause of the injury or damage for which recovery is sought, but any damages allowed shall be diminished in the proportion to the amount of fault attributable to the plaintiff.
(Source: P.A. 84-1431.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1117

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1117) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1117)
    Sec. 2-1117. Joint liability. Except as provided in Section 2-1118, in actions on account of bodily injury or death or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, all defendants found liable are jointly and severally liable for plaintiff's past and future medical and medically related expenses. Any defendant whose fault, as determined by the trier of fact, is less than 25% of the total fault attributable to the plaintiff, the defendants sued by the plaintiff, and any third party defendant except the plaintiff's employer, shall be severally liable for all other damages. Any defendant whose fault, as determined by the trier of fact, is 25% or greater of the total fault attributable to the plaintiff, the defendants sued by the plaintiff, and any third party defendants except the plaintiff's employer, shall be jointly and severally liable for all other damages.
(Source: P.A. 93-10, eff. 6-4-03; 93-12, eff. 6-4-03.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1118

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1118)
    (This Section was repealed by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1118. Exceptions. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2-1117, in any action in which the trier of fact determines that the injury or damage for which recovery is sought was caused by an act involving the discharge into the environment of any pollutant, including any waste, hazardous substance, irritant or contaminant, including, but not limited to smoke, vapor, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis, asbestos, toxic or corrosive chemicals, radioactive waste or mine tailings, and including any such material intended to be recycled, reconditioned or reclaimed, any defendants found liable shall be jointly and severally liable for such damage. However, Section 2-1117 shall apply to a defendant who is a response action contractor. As used in this Section, "response action contractor" means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, joint venture or other commercial entity or an employee, agent, sub-contractor, or consultant thereof which enters into a contract, for the performance of remedial or response action, or for the identification, handling, storage, treatment or disposal of a pollutant, which is entered into between any person or entity and a response action contractor when such response action contractor is not liable for the creation or maintenance of the condition to be ameliorated under the contract.
    Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2-1117, in any medical malpractice action, as defined in Section 2-1704, based upon negligence, any defendants found liable shall be jointly and severally liable.
(Source: P.A. 84-1431.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1119

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1119)
    Sec. 2-1119. Tampering with anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities.
    (a) A person tampering with anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities does not have a cause of action against the owner of the equipment, containers, or storage facilities, any person responsible for the installation or operation of the equipment, containers, or storage facilities, the person lawfully selling anhydrous ammonia, the person who lawfully purchases anhydrous ammonia for agricultural purposes, or the person who operates or uses anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities when lawfully applying anhydrous ammonia for agricultural purposes.
    (b) No person may commence a derivative action against the owner of anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities, any person responsible for the installation or operation of the equipment, containers, or storage facilities, the person lawfully selling anhydrous ammonia, the person who lawfully purchases anhydrous ammonia for agricultural purposes, or the person who operates or uses anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities when lawfully applying anhydrous ammonia for agricultural purposes when the injured person has tampered with anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities.
    (c) Tampering with anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities occurs when any person who is not authorized by the owner of the anhydrous ammonia or anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities transfers or attempts to transfer anhydrous ammonia to another container or causes damage to anhydrous ammonia equipment, containers, or storage facilities.
    (d) For purposes of this Section:
    "Anhydrous ammonia" means the compound defined in paragraph (d) of Section 3 of the Illinois Fertilizer Act of 1961.
    "Anhydrous ammonia equipment", "anhydrous ammonia storage containers", and "anhydrous ammonia storage facilities" are defined in the rules adopted under the Illinois Fertilizer Act of 1961.
    (e) The immunity to civil liability provided in this Section does not apply to any act or omission caused by the willful and wanton negligence of any person.
(Source: P.A. 91-263, eff. 1-1-00.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 12

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 12 heading)
Part 12. Post-Trial

735 ILCS 5/2-1201

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1201) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1201)
    Sec. 2-1201. Return of verdict - Separate counts - Defective or unproved counts. (a) It is sufficient for the jury to pronounce its verdict by its foreman in open court, without reducing it to writing, if it is a general verdict. The clerk shall enter it in form, under the direction of the court.
    (b) Promptly upon the return of a verdict, the court shall enter judgment thereon.
    (c) If there are several counts in a complaint, counterclaim or third-party complaint based on different claims upon which separate recoveries might be had, the court shall, on the motion of any party, direct the jury to find a separate verdict upon each claim.
    (d) If several grounds of recovery are pleaded in support of the same claim, whether in the same or different counts, an entire verdict rendered for that claim shall not be set aside or reversed for the reason that any ground is defective, if one or more of the grounds is sufficient to sustain the verdict; nor shall the verdict be set aside or reversed for the reason that the evidence in support of any ground is insufficient to sustain a recovery thereon, unless before the case was submitted to the jury a motion was made to withdraw that ground from the jury on account of insufficient evidence and it appears that the denial of the motion was prejudicial.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1202

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1202) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1202)
    Sec. 2-1202. Reserved ruling on motion for directed verdict - Post-trial motions in jury cases. (a) If at the close of the evidence, and before the case is submitted to the jury, any party moves for a directed verdict the court may (1) grant the motion or (2) deny the motion or reserve its ruling thereon and submit the case to the jury. If the court denies the motion or reserves its ruling thereon, the motion is waived unless the request is renewed in the post-trial motion.
    (b) Relief desired after trial in jury cases, heretofore sought by reserved motions for directed verdict or motions for judgment notwithstanding the verdict, in arrest of judgment or for new trial, must be sought in a single post-trial motion. Relief after trial may include the entry of judgment if under the evidence in the case it would have been the duty of the court to direct a verdict without submitting the case to the jury, even though no motion for directed verdict was made or if made was denied or ruling thereon reserved. The post-trial motion must contain the points relied upon, particularly specifying the grounds in support thereof, and must state the relief desired, as for example, the entry of a judgment, the granting of a new trial or other appropriate relief. Relief sought in post-trial motions may be in the alternative or may be conditioned upon the denial of other relief asked in preference thereto, as for example, a new trial may be requested in the event a request for judgment is denied.
    (c) Post-trial motions must be filed within 30 days after the entry of judgment or the discharge of the jury, if no verdict is reached, or within any further time the court may allow within the 30 days or any extensions thereof. A party against whom judgment is entered pursuant to post-trial motion shall have like time after the entry of the judgment within which to file a post-trial motion.
    (d) A post-trial motion filed in apt time stays enforcement of the judgment.
    (e) Any party who fails to seek a new trial in his or her post-trial motion, either conditionally or unconditionally, as herein provided, waives the right to apply for a new trial, except in cases in which the jury has failed to reach a verdict.
    (f) The court must rule upon all relief sought in all post-trial motions. Although the ruling on a portion of the relief sought renders unnecessary a ruling on other relief sought for purposes of further proceedings in the trial court, the court must nevertheless rule conditionally on the other relief sought by determining whether it should be granted if the unconditional rulings are thereafter reversed, set aside or vacated. The conditional rulings become effective in the event the unconditional rulings are reversed, set aside or vacated.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1203

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1203) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1203)
    Sec. 2-1203. Motions after judgment in non-jury cases.
    (a) In all cases tried without a jury, any party may, within 30 days after the entry of the judgment or within any further time the court may allow within the 30 days or any extensions thereof, file a motion for a rehearing, or a retrial, or modification of the judgment or to vacate the judgment or for other relief.
    (b) Except as provided in subsection (a) of Section 413 of the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act, a motion filed in apt time stays enforcement of the judgment except that a judgment granting injunctive or declaratory relief shall be stayed only by a court order that follows a separate application that sets forth just cause for staying the enforcement.
(Source: P.A. 95-902, eff. 1-1-09; 96-1072, eff. 1-1-11.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1204

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1204) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1204)
    Sec. 2-1204. Arrest of judgment. If judgment is arrested pursuant to post-trial motion for any defect in the record, the plaintiff need not commence his or her action anew. If appropriate, the court shall order new pleadings.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1205

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1205) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1205)
    Sec. 2-1205. Reduction in amount of recovery. An amount equal to the sum of (i) 50% of the benefits provided for lost wages or private or governmental disability income programs, which have been paid, or which have become payable to the injured person by any other person, corporation, insurance company or fund in relation to a particular injury, and (ii) 100% of the benefits provided for medical charges, hospital charges, or nursing or caretaking charges, which have been paid, or which have become payable to the injured person by any other person, corporation, insurance company or fund in relation to a particular injury, shall be deducted from any judgment in an action to recover for that injury based on an allegation of negligence or other wrongful act, not including intentional torts, on the part of a licensed hospital or physician; provided, however, that:
    (1) Application is made within 30 days to reduce the judgment;
    (2) Such reduction shall not apply to the extent that there is a right of recoupment through subrogation, trust agreement, lien, or otherwise;
    (3) The reduction shall not reduce the judgment by more than 50% of the total amount of the judgment entered on the verdict;
    (4) The damages awarded shall be increased by the amount of any insurance premiums or the direct costs paid by the plaintiff for such benefits in the 2 years prior to plaintiff's injury or death or to be paid by the plaintiff in the future for such benefits; and
    (5) There shall be no reduction for charges paid for medical expenses which were directly attributable to the adjudged negligent acts or omissions of the defendants found liable.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1205.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1205.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1205.1)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1205.1. Reduction in amount of recovery. In all cases on account of bodily injury or death or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, to which Section 2-1205 does not apply, the amount in excess of $25,000 of the benefits provided for medical charges, hospital charges, or nursing or caretaking charges, which have been paid, or which have become payable by the date of judgment to the injured person by any other insurance company or fund in relation to a particular injury, shall be deducted from any judgment. Provided, however, that:
    (1) Application is made within 30 days to reduce the judgment;
    (2) Such reduction shall not apply to the extent that there is a right of recoupment through subrogation, trust agreement, contract, lien, operation of law or otherwise;
    (3) The reduction shall not reduce the judgment by more than 50% of the total amount of the judgment entered on the verdict; and
    (4) The damages awarded shall be increased by the amount of any insurance premiums or the direct costs paid by the plaintiff for such benefits in the 2 years prior to plaintiff's injury or death or to be paid by the plaintiff in the future for such benefits.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1205.1. Reduction in amount of recovery. In all cases on account of bodily injury or death or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, to which Section 2-1205 does not apply, the amount in excess of $25,000 of the benefits provided for medical charges, hospital charges, or nursing or caretaking charges, which have been paid, or which have become payable by the date of judgment to the injured person by any other insurance company or fund in relation to a particular injury, shall be deducted from any judgment. Provided, however, that:
    (1) Application is made within 30 days to reduce the judgment;
    (2) Such reduction shall not apply to the extent that there is a right of recoupment through subrogation, trust agreement, contract, lien, operation of law or otherwise;
    (3) The reduction shall not reduce the judgment by more than 50% of the total amount of the judgment entered on the verdict; and
    (4) The damages awarded shall be increased by the amount of any insurance premiums or the direct costs paid by the plaintiff for such benefits in the 2 years prior to plaintiff's injury or death or to be paid by the plaintiff in the future for such benefits.
(Source: P.A. 84-1431.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1206

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1206) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1206)
    Sec. 2-1206. Assessment of damages. (a) Upon default, when the damages are to be assessed, the court may hear the evidence and assess the damages without a jury for that purpose. If interlocutory judgment is entered in an action brought upon a penal bond, or upon any instrument in writing, for the payment of money only, and the damages rest in computation, the court may refer the matter to the clerk, to assess and report the damages, and may enter judgment therefor. However, either party may have the damages assessed by a jury.
    (b) Unless a jury has been waived, the trial court shall empanel a jury to assess damages: (1) if the ruling on a post-trial motion is in favor of a party entitled to recover damages and there is no verdict assessing his or her damages; or (2) the reviewing court remands solely for the purpose of assessing damages.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1207

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1207) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1207)
    Sec. 2-1207. Punitive damages. The trial court may, in its discretion, with respect to punitive damages, determine whether a jury award for punitive damages is excessive, and if so, enter a remittitur and a conditional new trial.
    The trial court may also in its discretion, apportion the punitive damage award among the plaintiff, the plaintiff's attorney and the State of Illinois Department of Human Services. The amount of the award paid from the punitive damages to the plaintiff's attorney shall be reasonable and without regard to any contingent fee contract, except that such amount shall not exceed the amount authorized by the contingent fee contract. In apportioning punitive damages as provided in this Section, the court shall consider, among other factors it deems relevant, whether any special duty was owed by the defendant to the plaintiff.
(Source: P.A. 89-507, eff. 7-1-97.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 13

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 13 heading)
Part 13. Judgment

735 ILCS 5/2-1301

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1301) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1301)
    Sec. 2-1301. Judgments - Default - Confession. (a) The court shall determine the rights of the parties and grant to any party any affirmative relief to which the party may be entitled on the pleadings and proofs. Judgments shall be in the form required by the nature of the case and by the recovery or relief awarded. More than one judgment may be rendered in the same cause. If relief is granted against a party who upon satisfying the same in whole or in part will be entitled by operation of law to be reimbursed by another party to the action, the court may determine the rights of the parties as between themselves, and may thereafter upon motion and notice in the cause, and upon a showing that satisfaction has been made, render a final judgment against the other party accordingly.
    (b) A determination in favor of the plaintiff on an issue as to the truth or validity of any defense in abatement shall be that the defendant answer or otherwise plead.
    (c) Except as otherwise limited by this subsection (c), any person for a debt bona fide due may confess judgment by himself or herself or attorney duly authorized, without process. The application to confess judgment shall be made in the county in which the note or obligation was executed or in the county in which one or more of the defendants reside or in any county in which is located any property, real or personal, owned by any one or more of the defendants. A judgment entered by any court in any county other than those herein specified has no force or validity, anything in the power to confess to the contrary notwithstanding.
    No power to confess judgment shall be required or given after September 24, 1979 in any instrument used in a consumer transaction; any power to confess given in violation hereof is null and void and any judgment entered by a court based on such power shall be unenforceable. "Consumer transaction" as used in this Section means a sale, lease, assignment, loan, or other disposition of an item of goods, a consumer service, or an intangible to an individual for purposes that are primarily personal, family, or household.
    (d) Judgment by default may be entered for want of an appearance, or for failure to plead, but the court may in either case, require proof of the allegations of the pleadings upon which relief is sought.
    (e) The court may in its discretion, before final order or judgment, set aside any default, and may on motion filed within 30 days after entry thereof set aside any final order or judgment upon any terms and conditions that shall be reasonable.
    (f) The fact that any order or judgment is joint does not deprive the court of power to set it aside as to fewer than all the parties, and if so set aside it remains in full force and effect as to the other parties.
    (g) If any final judgment is entered against any defendant who has been served by publication with notice of the commencement of the action and who has not been served with a copy of the complaint, or received the notice required to be sent him or her by mail, or otherwise brought into court, and such defendant or his or her heirs, legatees, or personal representatives, as the case may require, shall, within 90 days after notice in writing given him or her of the judgment, or within 1 year after the judgment, if no notice has been given, appear in open court and petition to be heard touching the matter of the judgment, the court shall upon notice being given to the parties to such action who appeared therein and the purchaser at a sale made pursuant to the judgment, or their attorneys, set the petition for hearing and may allow the parties and the purchaser to answer the petition. If upon the hearing it appears that the judgment ought not to have been made against the defendant, it may be set aside, altered or amended as appears just; otherwise the petition shall be dismissed at petitioner's costs. If, however, a sale has been had under and pursuant to the final judgment, the court, in altering or amending the judgment may, upon terms just and equitable to the defendant, permit the sale to stand. If upon the hearing of the petition it appears that the defendant was entitled under the law to redeem from the sale, the court shall permit redemption to be made at any time within 90 days thereafter, upon terms that are equitable and just.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1302

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1302) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1302)
    Sec. 2-1302. Notice of entry of default order. (a) Upon the entry of an order of default, the attorney for the moving party shall immediately give notice thereof to each party who has appeared, against whom the order was entered, or such party's attorney of record. However, the failure of the attorney to give the notice does not impair the force, validity or effect of the order.
    (b) The notice shall contain the title, number, court, date of entry, name of the judge, and state that the order was one of default. The notice may be given by postal card or in any manner provided by rules.
    (c) In the case of an action for foreclosure of a mortgage or a deed in trust, in addition to the information required by subsection (b) of this Section the notice shall state that the defendant or defendants may redeem the property within the time and in the manner provided by law.
    (d) No notice of the entry of an order of dismissal for want of prosecution shall be necessary provided plaintiff has been notified in advance that the court is considering the entry of such an order, unless required by local rule.
(Source: P.A. 84-614.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1303

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1303) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1303)
    Sec. 2-1303. Interest on judgment. Judgments recovered in any court shall draw interest at the rate of 9% per annum from the date of the judgment until satisfied or 6% per annum when the judgment debtor is a unit of local government, as defined in Section 1 of Article VII of the Constitution, a school district, a community college district, or any other governmental entity. When judgment is entered upon any award, report or verdict, interest shall be computed at the above rate, from the time when made or rendered to the time of entering judgment upon the same, and included in the judgment. Interest shall be computed and charged only on the unsatisfied portion of the judgment as it exists from time to time. The judgment debtor may by tender of payment of judgment, costs and interest accrued to the date of tender, stop the further accrual of interest on such judgment notwithstanding the prosecution of an appeal, or other steps to reverse, vacate or modify the judgment.
(Source: P.A. 85-907.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1304

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1304) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1304)
    Sec. 2-1304. Orders for liens and conveyances. (a) Whenever, by any order, any party to an action is required to perform any act other than the payment of money, or to refrain from performing any act, the court may, in such order, provide that the same shall be a lien upon the real or personal estate, or both, of such party until such order is fully complied with; and such lien shall have the same force and effect, and be subject to the same limitations and restrictions, as judgments for the payment of money, including the time and manner when the same shall take effect and the time and manner when the lien upon a revival thereof shall take effect.
    (b) Whenever an order is entered, directing the execution of any deed or other writing, it shall be lawful for any judge of the court to execute or for the court to direct the sheriff to execute such deed or other writing, in case the parties under no disability fail to execute such deed or other writing, in a time to be named in the order, or on behalf of minors or persons under legal disability who have guardians; and the execution thereof shall be valid in law to pass, release or extinguish the right, title and interest of the party on whose behalf it is executed, as if executed by the party in proper person, and he or she were under no disability; and whenever any property is sold in open court, it shall be lawful for any judge to execute a deed, certificate of sale or bill of sale or for the court to direct the sheriff to execute a deed, certificate of sale or bill of sale to the purchaser thereat and the execution thereof shall be valid in law to pass, release or extinguish all right, title and interest of the parties to the action with the same force and effect as though such sale had been held by the sheriff pursuant to the court's order; and such deed or other writing, if it relates to land, shall promptly after its execution by a judge or the sheriff, be recorded in the recorder's office of the county wherein the land is situated.
(Source: P.A. 83-351.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1305

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1305) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1305)
    Sec. 2-1305. Motion to stay. A party intending to move to set aside any judgment, bond or other proceeding may apply to the court or to the judge in chamber for a certificate (which the judge may, in his or her discretion, grant) that there is probable cause for staying further proceedings until the order of the court on the motion. Service of a copy of the certificate at the time of or after the service of the notice of the motion stays all further proceedings accordingly. In no case shall the judge grant the certificate if the error complained of may, by the direction of the judge to the clerk issuing the process, be corrected, but the judge shall order and the clerk shall make the correction in the process, nor unless the applicant has given notice of the motion to the opposite party, or his or her attorney of record, if they or either of them can be found in the county where the judgment was entered.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1306

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1306)
    Sec. 2-1306. Supersedeas bonds.
    (a) In civil litigation under any legal theory involving a signatory, a successor to a signatory, or a parent or an affiliate of a signatory to the Master Settlement Agreement described in Section 6z-43 of the State Finance Act, execution of the judgment shall be stayed during the entire course of appellate review upon the posting of a supersedeas bond or other form of security in accordance with applicable laws or court rules, except that the total amount of the supersedeas bond or other form of security that is required of all appellants collectively shall not exceed $250,000,000, regardless of the amount of the judgment, provided that this limitation shall apply only if appellants file at least 30% of the total amount in the form of cash, a letter of credit, a certificate of deposit, or other cash equivalent with the court. The cash or cash equivalent shall be deposited by the clerk of the court in the account of the court, and any interest earned shall be utilized as provided by law.
    (b) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this Section, if an appellee proves by a preponderance of the evidence that an appellant is dissipating assets outside the ordinary course of business to avoid payment of a judgment, a court may require the appellant to post a supersedeas bond in an amount up to the total amount of the judgment.
    (c) This Section applies to pending actions as well as actions commenced on or after its effective date, and to judgments entered or reinstated on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 97-1145, eff. 1-18-13.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 14

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 14 heading)
Part 14. Post-Judgment

735 ILCS 5/2-1401

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1401) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1401)
    Sec. 2-1401. Relief from judgments.
    (a) Relief from final orders and judgments, after 30 days from the entry thereof, may be had upon petition as provided in this Section. Writs of error coram nobis and coram vobis, bills of review and bills in the nature of bills of review are abolished. All relief heretofore obtainable and the grounds for such relief heretofore available, whether by any of the foregoing remedies or otherwise, shall be available in every case, by proceedings hereunder, regardless of the nature of the order or judgment from which relief is sought or of the proceedings in which it was entered. Except as provided in Section 6 of the Illinois Parentage Act of 1984, there shall be no distinction between actions and other proceedings, statutory or otherwise, as to availability of relief, grounds for relief or the relief obtainable.
    (b) The petition must be filed in the same proceeding in which the order or judgment was entered but is not a continuation thereof. The petition must be supported by affidavit or other appropriate showing as to matters not of record. All parties to the petition shall be notified as provided by rule.
    (c) Except as provided in Section 20b of the Adoption Act and Section 2-32 of the Juvenile Court Act of 1987 or in a petition based upon Section 116-3 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1963, the petition must be filed not later than 2 years after the entry of the order or judgment. Time during which the person seeking relief is under legal disability or duress or the ground for relief is fraudulently concealed shall be excluded in computing the period of 2 years.
    (d) The filing of a petition under this Section does not affect the order or judgment, or suspend its operation.
    (e) Unless lack of jurisdiction affirmatively appears from the record proper, the vacation or modification of an order or judgment pursuant to the provisions of this Section does not affect the right, title or interest in or to any real or personal property of any person, not a party to the original action, acquired for value after the entry of the order or judgment but before the filing of the petition, nor affect any right of any person not a party to the original action under any certificate of sale issued before the filing of the petition, pursuant to a sale based on the order or judgment.
    (f) Nothing contained in this Section affects any existing right to relief from a void order or judgment, or to employ any existing method to procure that relief.
(Source: P.A. 95-331, eff. 8-21-07.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1401.1

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1401.1)
    Sec. 2-1401.1. Relief from default judgment; military personnel in military service.
    (a) In this Section:
    "Military service" means any full-time training or duty, no matter how described under federal or State law, for which a service member is ordered to report by the President, Governor of a state, commonwealth, or territory of the United States, or other appropriate military authority.
    "Service member" means a resident of Illinois who is a member of any component of the U.S. Armed Forces or the National Guard of any state, the District of Columbia, or commonwealth, or a territory of the United States.
    (b) Relief from and vacation of final orders and judgments after 30 days from the entry thereof entered by default against a service member that has entered military service may be had upon petition as provided in this Section. All relief heretofore obtainable and the grounds for such relief heretofore available shall be available in every case, by proceedings commenced pursuant to this Section, regardless of the nature of the order or judgment from which relief is sought or of the proceedings in which it was entered. Except as provided in Section 6 of the Illinois Parentage Act of 1984, there shall be no distinction between actions and other proceedings, statutory or otherwise, as to availability of relief, grounds for relief or the relief obtainable.
    (c) The petition must be filed in the same proceeding in which the order or judgment was entered but is not a continuation thereof. The petition must be supported by affidavit or other appropriate showing as to matters not of record and show that the service member did not appear in the proceeding, the person's military service materially affected the service member's ability to defend the case, the person has a meritorious or legal defense to the action, and the petition must be filed within 90 days after the service member's date of release from military service. All parties to the petition shall be notified as provided by rule.
    (d) Except as provided in Section 20b of the Adoption Act and Section 2-32 of the Juvenile Court Act of 1987 or in a petition based upon Section 116-3 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1963, the petition must be filed not later than 90 days after the service member's release from military service. Time during which the person seeking relief is under legal disability or duress or the ground for relief is fraudulently concealed shall be excluded in computing the period for filing.
    (e) The filing of a petition under this Section does not affect the order or judgment, or suspend its operation.
    (f) Unless lack of jurisdiction affirmatively appears from the record proper, the vacation or modification of an order or judgment pursuant to the provisions of this Section does not affect the right, title or interest in or to any real or personal property of any person, not a party to the original action, acquired for value after the entry of the order or judgment but before the filing of the petition, nor affect any right of any person not a party to the original action under any certificate of sale issued before the filing of the petition, pursuant to a sale based on the order or judgment.
    (g) Nothing contained in this Section affects any existing right to relief from a void order or judgment, or to employ any existing method to procure that relief.
(Source: P.A. 97-913, eff. 1-1-13.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1402

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1402) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1402)
    Sec. 2-1402. Supplementary proceedings.
    (a) A judgment creditor, or his or her successor in interest when that interest is made to appear of record, is entitled to prosecute supplementary proceedings for the purposes of examining the judgment debtor or any other person to discover assets or income of the debtor not exempt from the enforcement of the judgment, a deduction order or garnishment, and of compelling the application of non-exempt assets or income discovered toward the payment of the amount due under the judgment. A supplementary proceeding shall be commenced by the service of a citation issued by the clerk. The procedure for conducting supplementary proceedings shall be prescribed by rules. It is not a prerequisite to the commencement of a supplementary proceeding that a certified copy of the judgment has been returned wholly or partly unsatisfied. All citations issued by the clerk shall have the following language, or language substantially similar thereto, stated prominently on the front, in capital letters: "IF YOU FAIL TO APPEAR IN COURT AS DIRECTED IN THIS NOTICE, YOU MAY BE ARRESTED AND BROUGHT BEFORE THE COURT TO ANSWER TO A CHARGE OF CONTEMPT OF COURT, WHICH MAY BE PUNISHABLE BY IMPRISONMENT IN THE COUNTY JAIL." The court shall not grant a continuance of the supplementary proceeding except upon good cause shown.
    (b) Any citation served upon a judgment debtor or any other person shall include a certification by the attorney for the judgment creditor or the judgment creditor setting forth the amount of the judgment, the date of the judgment, or its revival date, the balance due thereon, the name of the court, and the number of the case, and a copy of the citation notice required by this subsection. Whenever a citation is served upon a person or party other than the judgment debtor, the officer or person serving the citation shall send to the judgment debtor, within three business days of the service upon the cited party, a copy of the citation and the citation notice, which may be sent by regular first-class mail to the judgment debtor's last known address. In no event shall a citation hearing be held sooner than five business days after the mailing of the citation and citation notice to the judgment debtor, except by agreement of the parties. The citation notice need not be mailed to a corporation, partnership, or association. The citation notice shall be in substantially the following form:
"CITATION NOTICE
        (Name and address of Court)
        Name of Case: (Name of Judgment Creditor),
            Judgment Creditor v.
            (Name of Judgment Debtor),
            Judgment Debtor.
        Address of Judgment Debtor: (Insert last known
            address)
        Name and address of Attorney for Judgment
            Creditor or of Judgment Creditor (If no
            attorney is listed): (Insert name and address)
        Amount of Judgment: $ (Insert amount)
        Name of Person Receiving Citation: (Insert name)
        Court Date and Time: (Insert return date and time
            specified in citation)
    NOTICE: The court has issued a citation against the person named above. The citation directs that person to appear in court to be examined for the purpose of allowing the judgment creditor to discover income and assets belonging to the judgment debtor or in which the judgment debtor has an interest. The citation was issued on the basis of a judgment against the judgment debtor in favor of the judgment creditor in the amount stated above. On or after the court date stated above, the court may compel the application of any discovered income or assets toward payment on the judgment.
    The amount of income or assets that may be applied toward the judgment is limited by federal and Illinois law. The JUDGMENT DEBTOR HAS THE RIGHT TO ASSERT STATUTORY EXEMPTIONS AGAINST CERTAIN INCOME OR ASSETS OF THE JUDGMENT DEBTOR WHICH MAY NOT BE USED TO SATISFY THE JUDGMENT IN THE AMOUNT STATED ABOVE:
        (1) Under Illinois or federal law, the exemptions of
    
personal property owned by the debtor include the debtor's equity interest, not to exceed $4,000 in value, in any personal property as chosen by the debtor; Social Security and SSI benefits; public assistance benefits; unemployment compensation benefits; worker's compensation benefits; veteran's benefits; circuit breaker property tax relief benefits; the debtor's equity interest, not to exceed $2,400 in value, in any one motor vehicle, and the debtor's equity interest, not to exceed $1,500 in value, in any implements, professional books, or tools of the trade of the debtor.
        (2) Under Illinois law, every person is entitled to
    
an estate in homestead, when it is owned and occupied as a residence, to the extent in value of $15,000, which homestead is exempt from judgment.
        (3) Under Illinois law, the amount of wages that may
    
be applied toward a judgment is limited to the lesser of (i) 15% of gross weekly wages or (ii) the amount by which disposable earnings for a week exceed the total of 45 times the federal minimum hourly wage or, under a wage deduction summons served on or after January 1, 2006, the Illinois minimum hourly wage, whichever is greater.
        (4) Under federal law, the amount of wages that may
    
be applied toward a judgment is limited to the lesser of (i) 25% of disposable earnings for a week or (ii) the amount by which disposable earnings for a week exceed 30 times the federal minimum hourly wage.
        (5) Pension and retirement benefits and refunds may
    
be claimed as exempt under Illinois law.
    The judgment debtor may have other possible exemptions under the law.
    THE JUDGMENT DEBTOR HAS THE RIGHT AT THE CITATION HEARING TO DECLARE EXEMPT CERTAIN INCOME OR ASSETS OR BOTH. The judgment debtor also has the right to seek a declaration at an earlier date, by notifying the clerk in writing at (insert address of clerk). When so notified, the Clerk of the Court will obtain a prompt hearing date from the court and will provide the necessary forms that must be prepared by the judgment debtor or the attorney for the judgment debtor and sent to the judgment creditor and the judgment creditor's attorney regarding the time and location of the hearing. This notice may be sent by regular first class mail."
    (b-1) Any citation served upon a judgment debtor who is a natural person shall be served by personal service or abode service as provided in Supreme Court Rule 105 and shall include a copy of the Income and Asset Form set forth in subsection (b-5).
    (b-5) The Income and Asset Form required to be served by the judgment creditor in subsection (b-1) shall be in substantially the following form:
 
INCOME AND ASSET FORM
        To Judgment Debtor: Please complete this form and
    
bring it with you to the hearing referenced in the enclosed citation notice. You should also bring to the hearing any documents you have to support the information you provide in this form, such as pay stubs and account statements. The information you provide will help the court determine whether you have any property or income that can be used to satisfy the judgment entered against you in this matter. The information you provide must be accurate to the best of your knowledge.
        If you fail to appear at this hearing, you could be
    
held in contempt of court and possibly arrested.
        In answer to the citation and supplemental
    
proceedings served upon the judgment debtor, he or she answers as follows:

 
        Name:.....................
        Home Phone Number:.................
        Home Address:....................
        Date of Birth:......................
        Marital Status:.....................
        I have.........dependents.
        Do you have a job? YES NO
        Company's name I work for:......................
        Company's address:..............................
 
        Job:
            I earn $....... per.......
            If self employed, list here your business name
        
and address:
            ..................................................
            Income from self employment is $......... per
        
year.
            I have the following benefits with my employer:
            ..................................................
        I do not have a job, but I support myself through:
            Government Assistance $........
        
per month
            Unemployment $........ per
        
month
            Social Security $........
        
per month
            SSI $........
        
per month
            Pension $........
        
per month
            Other $........
        
per month
        Real Estate:
        Do you own any real estate? YES NO
        I own real estate at.........., with names of other
    
owners
        ......................................................
        Additional real estate I own:.........................
        I have a beneficial interest in a land trust. The
    
name and address of the trustee is:............. The beneficial interest is listed in my name and.
        There is a mortgage on my real estate. State the
    
mortgage company's name and address for each parcel of real estate owned:
        ......................................................
        An assignment of beneficial interest in the land
    
trust was signed to secure a loan from........................
        I have the following accounts:
            Checking account at ..........;
              account balance $......
            Savings account at ..........;
              account balance $......
            Money market or certificate of deposit at.........
            Safe deposit box at...............................
            Other accounts (please identify):.................
        I own:
            A vehicle (state year, make, model, and VIN):.....
            Jewelry (please specify):.........................
        Other property described as:......................
            Stocks/Bonds.....................
            Personal computer................
            DVD player.......................
            Television.......................
            Stove.......................
            Microwave.......................
            Work tools.......................
            Business equipment.......................
            Farm equipment.......................
            Other property (please specify):
            ..................................................
        Signature:....................
    (b-10) Any action properly initiated under this Section may proceed notwithstanding an absent or incomplete Income and Asset Form, and a judgment debtor may be examined for the purpose of allowing the judgment creditor to discover income and assets belonging to the judgment debtor or in which the judgment debtor has an interest.
    (c) When assets or income of the judgment debtor not exempt from the satisfaction of a judgment, a deduction order or garnishment are discovered, the court may, by appropriate order or judgment:
        (1) Compel the judgment debtor to deliver up, to be
    
applied in satisfaction of the judgment, in whole or in part, money, choses in action, property or effects in his or her possession or control, so discovered, capable of delivery and to which his or her title or right of possession is not substantially disputed.
        (2) Compel the judgment debtor to pay to the judgment
    
creditor or apply on the judgment, in installments, a portion of his or her income, however or whenever earned or acquired, as the court may deem proper, having due regard for the reasonable requirements of the judgment debtor and his or her family, if dependent upon him or her, as well as any payments required to be made by prior order of court or under wage assignments outstanding; provided that the judgment debtor shall not be compelled to pay income which would be considered exempt as wages under the Wage Deduction Statute. The court may modify an order for installment payments, from time to time, upon application of either party upon notice to the other.
        (3) Compel any person cited, other than the judgment
    
debtor, to deliver up any assets so discovered, to be applied in satisfaction of the judgment, in whole or in part, when those assets are held under such circumstances that in an action by the judgment debtor he or she could recover them in specie or obtain a judgment for the proceeds or value thereof as for conversion or embezzlement. A judgment creditor may recover a corporate judgment debtor's property on behalf of the judgment debtor for use of the judgment creditor by filing an appropriate petition within the citation proceedings.
        (4) Enter any order upon or judgment against the
    
person cited that could be entered in any garnishment proceeding.
        (5) Compel any person cited to execute an assignment
    
of any chose in action or a conveyance of title to real or personal property or resign memberships in exchanges, clubs, or other entities in the same manner and to the same extent as a court could do in any proceeding by a judgment creditor to enforce payment of a judgment or in aid of the enforcement of a judgment.
        (6) Authorize the judgment creditor to maintain an
    
action against any person or corporation that, it appears upon proof satisfactory to the court, is indebted to the judgment debtor, for the recovery of the debt, forbid the transfer or other disposition of the debt until an action can be commenced and prosecuted to judgment, direct that the papers or proof in the possession or control of the debtor and necessary in the prosecution of the action be delivered to the creditor or impounded in court, and provide for the disposition of any moneys in excess of the sum required to pay the judgment creditor's judgment and costs allowed by the court.
    (c-5) If a citation is directed to a judgment debtor who is a natural person, no payment order shall be entered under subsection (c) unless the Income and Asset Form was served upon the judgment debtor as required by subsection (b-1), the judgment debtor has had an opportunity to assert exemptions, and the payments are from non-exempt sources.
    (d) No order or judgment shall be entered under subsection (c) in favor of the judgment creditor unless there appears of record a certification of mailing showing that a copy of the citation and a copy of the citation notice was mailed to the judgment debtor as required by subsection (b).
    (d-5) If upon examination the court determines that the judgment debtor does not possess any non-exempt income or assets, then the citation shall be dismissed.
    (e) All property ordered to be delivered up shall, except as otherwise provided in this Section, be delivered to the sheriff to be collected by the sheriff or sold at public sale and the proceeds thereof applied towards the payment of costs and the satisfaction of the judgment. If the judgment debtor's property is of such a nature that it is not readily delivered up to the sheriff for public sale or if another method of sale is more appropriate to liquidate the property or enhance its value at sale, the court may order the sale of such property by the debtor, third party respondent, or by a selling agent other than the sheriff upon such terms as are just and equitable. The proceeds of sale, after deducting reasonable and necessary expenses, are to be turned over to the creditor and applied to the balance due on the judgment.
    (f)(1) The citation may prohibit the party to whom it is directed from making or allowing any transfer or other disposition of, or interfering with, any property not exempt from the enforcement of a judgment therefrom, a deduction order or garnishment, belonging to the judgment debtor or to which he or she may be entitled or which may thereafter be acquired by or become due to him or her, and from paying over or otherwise disposing of any moneys not so exempt which are due or to become due to the judgment debtor, until the further order of the court or the termination of the proceeding, whichever occurs first. The third party may not be obliged to withhold the payment of any moneys beyond double the amount of the balance due sought to be enforced by the judgment creditor. The court may punish any party who violates the restraining provision of a citation as and for a contempt, or if the party is a third party may enter judgment against him or her in the amount of the unpaid portion of the judgment and costs allowable under this Section, or in the amount of the value of the property transferred, whichever is lesser.
    (2) The court may enjoin any person, whether or not a party to the supplementary proceeding, from making or allowing any transfer or other disposition of, or interference with, the property of the judgment debtor not exempt from the enforcement of a judgment, a deduction order or garnishment, or the property or debt not so exempt concerning which any person is required to attend and be examined until further direction in the premises. The injunction order shall remain in effect until vacated by the court or until the proceeding is terminated, whichever first occurs.
    (g) If it appears that any property, chose in action, credit or effect discovered, or any interest therein, is claimed by any person, the court shall, as in garnishment proceedings, permit or require the claimant to appear and maintain his or her right. The rights of the person cited and the rights of any adverse claimant shall be asserted and determined pursuant to the law relating to garnishment proceedings.
    (h) Costs in proceedings authorized by this Section shall be allowed, assessed and paid in accordance with rules, provided that if the court determines, in its discretion, that costs incurred by the judgment creditor were improperly incurred, those costs shall be paid by the judgment creditor.
    (i) This Section is in addition to and does not affect enforcement of judgments or proceedings supplementary thereto, by any other methods now or hereafter provided by law.
    (j) This Section does not grant the power to any court to order installment or other payments from, or compel the sale, delivery, surrender, assignment or conveyance of any property exempt by statute from the enforcement of a judgment thereon, a deduction order, garnishment, attachment, sequestration, process or other levy or seizure.
    (k) (Blank).
    (k-3) The court may enter any order upon or judgment against the respondent cited that could be entered in any garnishment proceeding under Part 7 of Article XII of this Code. This subsection (k-3) shall be construed as being declarative of existing law and not as a new enactment.
    (k-5) If the court determines that any property held by a third party respondent is wages pursuant to Section 12-801, the court shall proceed as if a wage deduction proceeding had been filed and proceed to enter such necessary and proper orders as would have been entered in a wage deduction proceeding including but not limited to the granting of the statutory exemptions allowed by Section 12-803 and all other remedies allowed plaintiff and defendant pursuant to Part 8 of Article 12 of this Act.
    (k-10) If a creditor discovers personal property of the judgment debtor that is subject to the lien of a citation to discover assets, the creditor may have the court impress a lien against a specific item of personal property, including a beneficial interest in a land trust. The lien survives the termination of the citation proceedings and remains as a lien against the personal property in the same manner that a judgment lien recorded against real property pursuant to Section 12-101 remains a lien on real property. If the judgment is revived before dormancy, the lien shall remain. A lien against personal property may, but need not, be recorded in the office of the recorder or filed as an informational filing pursuant to the Uniform Commercial Code.
    (l) At any citation hearing at which the judgment debtor appears and seeks a declaration that certain of his or her income or assets are exempt, the court shall proceed to determine whether the property which the judgment debtor declares to be exempt is exempt from judgment. At any time before the return date specified on the citation, the judgment debtor may request, in writing, a hearing to declare exempt certain income and assets by notifying the clerk of the court before that time, using forms as may be provided by the clerk of the court. The clerk of the court will obtain a prompt hearing date from the court and will provide the necessary forms that must be prepared by the judgment debtor or the attorney for the judgment debtor and sent to the judgment creditor, or the judgment creditor's attorney, regarding the time and location of the hearing. This notice may be sent by regular first class mail. At the hearing, the court shall immediately, unless for good cause shown that the hearing is to be continued, shall proceed to determine whether the property which the judgment debtor declares to be exempt is exempt from judgment. The restraining provisions of subsection (f) shall not apply to any property determined by the court to be exempt.
    (m) The judgment or balance due on the judgment becomes a lien when a citation is served in accordance with subsection (a) of this Section. The lien binds nonexempt personal property, including money, choses in action, and effects of the judgment debtor as follows:
        (1) When the citation is directed against the
    
judgment debtor, upon all personal property belonging to the judgment debtor in the possession or control of the judgment debtor or which may thereafter be acquired or come due to the judgment debtor to the time of the disposition of the citation.
        (2) When the citation is directed against a third
    
party, upon all personal property belonging to the judgment debtor in the possession or control of the third party or which thereafter may be acquired or come due the judgment debtor and comes into the possession or control of the third party to the time of the disposition of the citation.
    The lien established under this Section does not affect the rights of citation respondents in property prior to the service of the citation upon them and does not affect the rights of bona fide purchasers or lenders without notice of the citation. The lien is effective for the period specified by Supreme Court Rule.
    This subsection (m), as added by Public Act 88-48, is a declaration of existing law.
    (n) If any provision of this Act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity of that provision or application does not affect the provisions or applications of the Act that can be given effect without the invalid provision or application.
    (o) The changes to this Section made by this amendatory Act of the 97th General Assembly apply only to supplementary proceedings commenced under this Section on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 97th General Assembly. The requirements or limitations set forth in subsections (b-1), (b-5), (b-10), (c-5), and (d-5) do not apply to the enforcement of any order or judgment resulting from an adjudication of a municipal ordinance violation that is subject to Supreme Court Rules 570 through 579, or from an administrative adjudication of such an ordinance violation.
(Source: P.A. 97-350, eff. 1-1-12; 97-848, eff. 7-25-12; 98-557, eff. 1-1-14.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1403

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1403) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1403)
    Sec. 2-1403. Judgment debtor as beneficiary of trust. No court, except as otherwise provided in this Section, shall order the satisfaction of a judgment out of any property held in trust for the judgment debtor if such trust has, in good faith, been created by, or the fund so held in trust has proceeded from, a person other than the judgment debtor.     The income or principal of a trust shall be subject to withholding for the purpose of securing collection of unpaid child support obligations owed by the beneficiary as provided in Section 4.1 of the "Non-Support of Spouse and Children Act", Section 22 of the Non-Support Punishment Act, and similar Sections of other Acts which provide for support of a child as follows:
        (1) income may be withheld if the beneficiary is
    
entitled to a specified dollar amount or percentage of the income of the trust, or is the sole income beneficiary; and
        (2) principal may be withheld if the beneficiary has
    
a right to withdraw principal, but not in excess of the amount subject to withdrawal under the instrument, or if the beneficiary is the only beneficiary to whom discretionary payments of principal may be made by the trustee.
(Source: P.A. 91-613, eff. 10-1-99.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1404

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1404) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1404)
    Sec. 2-1404. Preservation of trust estates. In all cases where a trustee has been or shall be appointed by order of a circuit court, such court has authority to authorize the payment of interest on any mortgage which is a lien upon the trust estate, to authorize the payment of taxes and assessments levied upon or assessed against the trust estate, to authorize the payment of the insurance premiums on any policy of insurance on the buildings and personal property of the trust estate, and to authorize the making of repairs and the payment therefor, when it appears for the best interests of the estate; and where a trustee has paid any such interest, taxes, assessments, insurance premiums, or for repairs, and it appears that such payments were for the best interests of the estate and the protection and preservation thereof, the court, on application or by report, has authority to approve such payments.
(Source: P.A. 84-621.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 15

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 15 heading)
Part 15. Abolition of Writs

735 ILCS 5/2-1501

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1501) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1501)
    Sec. 2-1501. Writs abolished. The function which was, prior to January 1, 1979, performed by a writ of execution to enforce a judgment or order for the payment of money, or by the writs of mandamus, injunction, prohibition, sequestration, habeas corpus, replevin, ne exeat or attachment, or by the writ of possession in an action of ejectment, or by the writ of restitution in an action of forcible entry and detainer, or by the writ of assistance for the possession of real estate, or by a temporary restraining order, shall hereafter be performed by a copy of the order or judgment to be enforced, certified by the clerk of the court which entered the judgment or order.
    The clerk's certification shall bear a legend substantially as follows:
    I hereby certify the above to be correct.
Dated ..........................
(Seal of Clerk of Circuit Court)
................................
    Clerk of the Circuit Court of .............. Illinois.
    This order is the command of the Circuit Court and violation thereof is subject to the penalty of the law.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 16

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 16 heading)
Part 16. Revival of Judgment

735 ILCS 5/2-1601

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1601) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1601)
    Sec. 2-1601. Scire facias abolished. Any relief which heretofore might have been obtained by scire facias may be had by employing a petition filed in the case in which the original judgment was entered in accordance with Section 2-1602.
(Source: P.A. 92-817, eff. 8-21-02.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1602

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1602)
    Sec. 2-1602. Revival of judgment.
    (a) A judgment may be revived by filing a petition to revive the judgment in the seventh year after its entry, or in the seventh year after its last revival, or in the twentieth year after its entry, or at any other time within 20 years after its entry if the judgment becomes dormant. The provisions of this amendatory Act of the 96th General Assembly are declarative of existing law.
    (b) A petition to revive a judgment shall be filed in the original case in which the judgment was entered. The petition shall include a statement as to the original date and amount of the judgment, court costs expended, accrued interest, and credits to the judgment, if any.
    (c) Service of notice of the petition to revive a judgment shall be made in accordance with Supreme Court Rule 106.
    (d) An order reviving a judgment shall be for the original amount of the judgment. The plaintiff may recover interest and court costs from the date of the original judgment. Credits to the judgment shall be reflected by the plaintiff in supplemental proceedings or execution.
    (e) If a judgment debtor has filed for protection under the United States Bankruptcy Code and failed to successfully adjudicate and remove a lien filed by a judgment creditor, then the judgment may be revived only as to the property to which a lien attached before the filing of the bankruptcy action.
    (f) A judgment may be revived as to fewer than all judgment debtors, and such order for revival of judgment shall be final, appealable, and enforceable.
    (g) This Section does not apply to a child support judgment or to a judgment recovered in an action for damages for an injury described in Section 13-214.1, which need not be revived as provided in this Section and which may be enforced at any time as provided in Section 12-108.
    (h) If a judgment becomes dormant during the pendency of an enforcement proceeding against wages under Part 14 of this Article or under Article XII, the enforcement may continue to conclusion without revival of the underlying judgment so long as the enforcement is done under court supervision and includes a wage deduction order or turn over order and is against an employer, garnishee, or other third party respondent.
(Source: P.A. 97-350, eff. 1-1-12; 98-557, eff. 1-1-14.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 17

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 17 heading)
Part 17. Healing Art Malpractice

735 ILCS 5/2-1701

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1701) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1701)
    Sec. 2-1701. Application. Subject to the provisions of Section 2-1705, in all medical malpractice actions the provisions of this Act shall be applicable.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1702

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1702) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1702)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1702. Economic/Non-Economic Loss. As used in this Part, "economic loss" and "non-economic loss" are defined as in Section 2-1115.2.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-1702. Economic/Non-Economic Loss. As used in this Part :
    (a) "Economic loss" means all pecuniary harm for which damages are recoverable.
    (b) "Non-economic loss" means loss of consortium and all nonpecuniary harm for which damages are recoverable, including, without limitation, damages for pain and suffering, inconvenience, disfigurement, and physical impairment.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1703

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1703) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1703)
    Sec. 2-1703. Past/Future Damages. As used in this Part:
    (a) "Past damages" means damages that have accrued when the damages findings are made.
    (b) "Future damages" includes all damages which the trier of fact finds will accrue after the damages findings are made, including, without limitation, damages for future medical or health treatment, care or custody, loss of future earnings, loss of bodily function, future pain and suffering, and future physical impairment and inconvenience.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1704

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1704) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1704)
    Sec. 2-1704. Medical Malpractice Action. As used in this Part, "medical malpractice action" means any action, whether in tort, contract or otherwise, in which the plaintiff seeks damages for injuries or death by reason of medical, hospital, or other healing art malpractice. The term "healing art" shall not include care and treatment by spiritual means through prayer in accord with the tenets and practices of a recognized church or religious denomination.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1704.5

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1704.5)
    Sec. 2-1704.5. (Repealed).
(Source: P.A. 94-677, eff. 8-25-05. Repealed by P.A. 97-1145, eff. 1-18-13.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1705

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1705) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1705)
    Sec. 2-1705. Election for Periodic Payment. (a) In order to invoke the provisions of Section 2-1706 through 2-1718, a party to a medical malpractice action must make an effective election in accordance with this Section.
    (b) The election must be made by motion not less than 60 days before commencement of a trial involving issues of future damages unless leave of court is obtained. Any objection to the election must be made not more than 30 days after the election.
    (c) An election is effective if:
    (1) all parties have consented; or
    (2) no timely objection is filed by any party; or
    (3) a timely objection is filed, but:
    (i) the electing party is a plaintiff and shows there is a good faith claim that future damages will exceed $250,000, or
    (ii) the electing party is responding to a claim for future damages in excess of $250,000 and shows both that security in the amount of the claim for past and future damages or $500,000, whichever is less, can be provided and that future damages are likely to accrue over more than one year.
    (d) If an effective election is made prior to the commencement of trial, all actions, including third-party claims, counterclaims, and actions consolidated for trial, must be tried under Sections 2-1706 through 2-1718, unless the court finds that the purposes of these Sections would not be served by doing so or in the interest of justice a separate trial or proceeding should be held on some or all of the claims that are not subject of the election.
    (e) An effective election can be withdrawn only by consent of all parties to the claim to which the election relates.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1706

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1706) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1706)
    Sec. 2-1706. Special findings required. (a) If liability is found in a trial under Sections 2-1706 through 2-1718, the trier of fact, in addition to other appropriate findings, shall make separate findings for each plaintiff specifying the amount of:
    (1) any past damages; and
    (2) any future damages for each of the following types:
    (i) medical and other costs of health care;
    (ii) other economic loss; and
    (iii) non-economic loss.
    (b) If the trier of fact finds that certain future damages will accrue for a definite number of years, the amount of periodic payments for those damages must be calculated based on that definite number of years. Payment for such damages shall be made periodically for that number of years.
    (c) If the trier of fact finds that certain future damages will accrue for the remainder of the plaintiff's life, the trier of fact shall make a specific finding specifying the remaining life expectancy of the plaintiff and the amount of periodic payments for those damages must be calculated based on the remaining life expectancy of the plaintiff. Payment for such damages shall be made periodically and shall continue until the plaintiff's remaining life expectancy is reached or the plaintiff dies, whichever is later.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1706.5

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1706.5)
    Sec. 2-1706.5. (Repealed).
(Source: P.A. 94-677, eff. 8-25-05. Repealed by P.A. 97-1145, eff. 1-18-13.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1707

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1707) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1707)
    Sec. 2-1707. Calculation of future damages. (a) In all trials under Sections 2-1706 through 2-1718, future damages must be calculated by the trier of fact without discounting future damages to present value.
    (b) In all jury trials in which special damages findings are required under Sections 2-1706 through 2-1718, the jury must be informed that with respect to future damages:
    (1) the law takes into account the fact that those payments may be made in the future rather than in one lump sum now; and
    (2) the jury will make their findings on the assumption that appropriate adjustments for the present value of those payments will be made later and that the jury should not discount those payments to present value.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1708

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1708) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1708)
    Sec. 2-1708. Basis for determining judgment to be entered. In order to determine what judgment is to be entered on a verdict requiring findings of special damages under Sections 2-1706 through 2-1718, the court shall proceed as follows:
    (1) The court shall apply to the findings of past and future damages any applicable rules of law, including set-offs, comparative fault, additurs, and remittiturs, in calculating the respective amounts of past and future damages each plaintiff is entitled to recover and each party is obligated to pay.
    (2) The court shall calculate the equivalent lump sum value of future damages in accordance with Section 2-1712.
    (3) Any contingent attorneys' fees shall be calculated based on the sum of the past damages recoverable and equivalent lump sum value of future damages recoverable. Any judgment for periodic installments must specify payment of attorneys' fees and litigation expenses in lump sum, separate from the periodic installments payable to the plaintiff, pursuant to an agreement entered into between the plaintiff and his or her attorney.
    (4) Upon election of a subrogee, including an employer or insurer who provides workers' compensation, filed within 10 days after verdict, any part of future damages allocable to reimbursement of payments previously made by the subrogee is payable in equivalent lump sum to the subrogee.
    (5) The court shall determine the amount of future damages to be awarded in equivalent lump sum. This amount shall be that part of the equivalent lump sum value of future damages which does not exceed $250,000. In the event that the equivalent lump sum value of the total amount of future damages recoverable is $500,000 or more, the court may, upon a showing by the plaintiff that he will incur greater expenses for future damages immediately after judgment in order to secure appropriate necessities including, but not limited to, equipment, supplies, medication, residence or other items, allow additional amounts of future damages to be awarded in equivalent lump sum value so that the total amount awarded in equivalent lump sum is sufficient to secure the aforementioned items, but in no event shall any increase under this sentence cause more than 50% of the equivalent lump sum value of total future damages recoverable to be awarded in lump sum. The amount of future damages awarded in equivalent lump sum shall be added to the total amount of past damages recoverable and this total shall be known as the present award. The periodic award shall consist of the total amount of future damages without reduction to an equivalent lump sum value, reduced in the proportion that the equivalent lump sum value of the amount of future damages included in the lump sum present award bears to the equivalent lump sum value of the total amount of future damages.
    (6) Any attorneys' fees and litigation expenses shall be allocated proportionately between the amount of the present award and the amount of the periodic award.
    (7) The court shall enter judgment in lump sum for the present award including that portion of attorneys' fees and litigation expenses allocable to the present award, for amounts payable under subsection (4), and for that portion of attorneys' fees and litigation expenses allocable to the periodic award.
    (8) The court shall enter judgment in accordance with Section 2-1709 for the payment in installments of the periodic award, less that part of future damages allocable to reimbursement of payments previously made by a subrogee under subsection (4), and less that portion of attorney's fees and litigation expenses allocable to the periodic award.
    (9) In an action for wrongful death, the calculation of all amounts, values, and awards under this Section must be based on the total recovery for all beneficiaries of the action.
    (10) Upon petition of a party before entry of judgment and upon a finding of incapacity to post the required security, the court, at the election of the plaintiff or beneficiaries in an action for wrongful death, shall:
    (i) enter a judgment in accordance with subsections (7) and (8); or
    (ii) determine the equivalent lump sum value under Section 2-1712 in the amount otherwise to be paid in periodic installments under subsection (8) and enter judgment for that equivalent lump sum value and for those amounts payable under subsection (7).
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1709

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1709) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1709)
    Sec. 2-1709. Payment of periodic installment obligations. (a) Except in those cases specified in this Part concerning the death of the person receiving periodic payments, the amount of periodic payments may not be adjusted or otherwise modified following final judgment.
    (b) Unless the court directs otherwise or the parties otherwise agree, payments must be scheduled at one-month intervals. Payments for damages accruing during the scheduled intervals are due at the beginning of the intervals.
    (c) If the trier of fact has found that different elements of future damages will accrue over different periods of time the court shall direct that amounts to be periodically paid in the future be proportionately divided into the same periods of time.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1710

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1710) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1710)
    Sec. 2-1710. Form of security. (a) Security authorized or required for payment of a judgment for periodic installments entered in accordance with this Section must be in one or more of the following forms and approved as to quality by the court:
    (1) bond executed by a qualified insurer;
    (2) annuity contract executed by a qualified insurer;
    (3) evidence of applicable and collectible liability insurance with one or more qualified insurers;
    (4) an agreement by one or more qualified insurers to guarantee payment of the judgment; or
    (5) any other satisfactory form of security.
    (b) Security complying with this Section serves also as a required supersedeas bond.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1711

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1711) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1711)
    Sec. 2-1711. Posting and maintaining security. (a) If the court enters a judgment for period installments, each party liable for all or a portion of the judgment, unless found to be incapable of doing so under subsection (10) of Section 2-1708, shall separately or jointly with one or more others post security in an amount equal to the equivalent lump sum value of the unpaid judgment, including past damages, in a form prescribed in Section 2-1710, within 30 days after the date the judgment is subject to enforcement. A liability insurer having a contractual obligation and any other person adjudged to have an obligation to pay all or part of a judgment for periodic installments on behalf of a judgment debtor is obligated to post security to the extent of its contractual or adjudged obligation if the judgment debtor has not done so.
    (b) A judgment creditor or successor in interest and any party having rights under subsection (d) may move that the court find that security has not been posted and maintained with regard to a judgment obligation owing to the moving party. Upon so finding, the court shall order that security complying with this Section be posted within 30 days. If the security is not posted within that time, the court shall calculate the equivalent lump sum value of the obligation and enter a judgment for that amount in favor of the moving party.
    (c) If a judgment debtor who is the only person liable for all or a portion of a judgment requiring security under this Section fails to post and maintain security, the right to lump sum payment described in subsection (b) applies only against that judgment debtor and the portion of the judgment so owed.
    (d) If more than one party is liable for all or a portion of a judgment requiring security and the required security is posted by one or more but fewer than all of the parties liable, the security requirements are satisfied and those posting security may proceed under subsection (b) to enforce rights for security or lump sum payment to satisfy or protect rights of reimbursement from a party not posting security.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1712

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1712) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1712)
    Sec. 2-1712. Equivalent lump sum value. When required to do so under Part 17 of Article II of the "Code of Civil Procedure", the court shall determine the equivalent lump sum value in accordance with this Section.
    Non-economic loss shall not, under any Section of this Part, be subject to discounting. The only portion of damages subject to discounting in this Part is future economic loss.
    The court shall determine the equivalent lump sum value of any future economic loss by applying the discount factor, compounded annually, to those elements of damages for future economic loss, and then adding, without discounting, those elements of damages for future non-economic loss. The discount factor shall be 6%.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1713

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1713) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1713)
    Sec. 2-1713. Effect of death. (a) For all future damages which the trier of fact has determined will accrue for the remainder of the plaintiff's life, payment for those damages shall continue until the later of the plaintiff's death or the time when the remaining life expectancy is reached. For all future damages which the trier of fact has determined will accrue for a definite number of years, payment for those damages shall continue for that number of years irrespective of the plaintiff's death.
    (b) If, in an action for wrongful death, a judgment for periodic installments provides payments to more than one person entitled to receive benefits for losses that do not terminate under subsection (a) and one or more but fewer than all of them die, the surviving beneficiaries succeed to the shares of the deceased beneficiaries. The surviving beneficiaries are entitled to shares proportionate to their shares in the periodic installments not yet paid, but they are not entitled to receive payments beyond the respective periods specified for them in the judgment.
    (c) If, in an action other than one for wrongful death, a judgment for period installments is entered and a person entitled to receive benefits for losses that do not terminate under subsection (a) under the judgment dies and is survived by one or more qualifying survivors, any periodic installments not yet due at the death must be shared equitably by those survivors.
    (d) "Qualifying survivor" means a person who, had the death been caused under circumstances giving rise to a cause of action for wrongful death, would have qualified as a beneficiary at the time of death according to the law that would have applied in an action for wrongful death by the jurisdiction under which the issue of liability was resolved in entering the judgment for periodic installments.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1714

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1714) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1714)
    Sec. 2-1714. Liability insurance policy limits. (a) In determining whether or to what extent a judgment for periodic installments exceeds limits under a liability insurance policy, the present equivalent lump sum value of future periodic payments must be added to the amount of the judgment awarded in lump sum. The sum so calculated must be compared to applicable limits under the policy.
    (b) If the sum calculated under subsection (a) does not exceed applicable policy limits when the judgment is entered, amounts due by reason of future periodic payments are entirely within those limits.
    (c) If the sum calculated under subsection (a) exceeds applicable policy limits when the judgment is entered, the future periodic payments must be allocated proportionately to amounts within and amounts in excess of those limits.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1715

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1715) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1715)
    Sec. 2-1715. Assignment of periodic installments. An assignment of or an agreement to assign any right to periodic installments for future damages contained in a judgment is enforceable only as to amounts:
    (1) to secure payment of alimony, maintenance, or child support;
    (2) for the costs of products, services, or accommodations provided or to be provided by the assignee for medical or other health care; or
    (3) for attorney's fees and other expenses of litigation incurred in securing the judgment.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1716

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1716) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1716)
    Sec. 2-1716. Exemption of benefits. Periodic installments for future damages for loss of earnings are exempt from garnishment, attachment, execution, and any other process or claim to the extent that wages or earnings are exempt under any applicable law. Except to the extent that they may be assigned under Section 2-1715, periodic installments for all future damages are exempt from garnishment, attachment, execution, and any other process or claim.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1717

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1717) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1717)
    Sec. 2-1717. Settlement agreements and consent judgments. (a) Parties to a medical malpractice action may file with the clerk of the court in which the action is pending or, if none is pending, with the clerk of a court of competent jurisdiction over the claim, a settlement agreement for future damages payable in periodic installments. The settlement agreement may provide that one or more of Sections 2-1705 through 2-1718 apply to it.
    (b) Upon petition of the parties, a court of competent jurisdiction may enter a consent judgment adopting one or more of Sections 2-1705 through 2-1718.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1718

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1718) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1718)
    Sec. 2-1718. Satisfaction of judgments. If security is posted in accordance with Section 2-1711 and approved under a final judgment, the judgment is satisfied and the judgment debtor on whose behalf the security is posted is discharged.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1719

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1719) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1719)
    Sec. 2-1719. Duties of Director of Insurance. The Director of Insurance shall establish rules and procedures:
    (1) for determining which insurers, self-insurers, plans, arrangements, reciprocals or other entities under his or her regulation are financially qualified to provide the security required under Section 2-1711 and to be designated as qualified insurers;
    (2) to require insurers to post security under Section 2-1711 if found by the court to be obligated and capable of posting security; and
    (3) for publishing prior to January 1 of each year the rate of discount per annum set out in subsection (c) of Section 2-1709.
(Source: P.A. 84-7.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 18

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 18 heading)
Part 18. Mittimus

735 ILCS 5/2-1801

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1801) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1801)
    Sec. 2-1801. Mittimus. (a) In all cases, including criminal, quasi-criminal and civil, when a person is imprisoned, incarcerated, confined or committed to the custody of a sheriff, warden, Department of Corrections or other executive officer by virtue of a judgment or order which is signed by a judge, a copy of such judgment or order shall, in each case, constitute the mittimus, and no separate mittimus need be issued.
    (b) Where no written judgment or order was signed by a judge, the practice heretofore prevailing in such cases in the courts of this State shall be followed.
(Source: P.A. 84-622.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 19

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 19 heading)
Part 19. Lis Pendens

735 ILCS 5/2-1901

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1901) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1901)
    Sec. 2-1901. Lis Pendens - Operative date of notice. Except as otherwise provided in Section 15-1503, every condemnation proceeding, proceeding to sell real estate of decedent to pay debts, or other action seeking equitable relief, affecting or involving real property shall, from the time of the filing in the office of the recorder in the county where the real estate is located, of a notice signed by any party to the action or his attorney of record or attorney in fact, on his or her behalf, setting forth the title of the action, the parties to it, the court where it was brought and a description of the real estate, be constructive notice to every person subsequently acquiring an interest in or a lien on the property affected thereby, and every such person and every person acquiring an interest or lien as above stated, not in possession of the property and whose interest or lien is not shown of record at the time of filing such notice, shall, for the purposes of this Section, be deemed a subsequent purchaser and shall be bound by the proceedings to the same extent and in the same manner as if he or she were a party thereto. If in any such action plaintiff or petitioner neglects or fails for the period of 6 months after the filing of the complaint or petition to cause notice to be given the defendant or defendants, either by service of summons or publication as required by law, then such notice shall cease to be such constructive notice until service of summons or publication as required by law is had.
    This Section authorizes a notice of any of these actions concerning real property pending in any United States district court to be recorded and indexed in the same manner and in the same place as herein provided with respect to notices of such actions pending in courts of this State.
    However, no such action or proceeding shall be constructive notice, either before or after service of summons or publication, as to property subject to the provisions of "An Act concerning land titles", approved May 1, 1897, as amended, until the provisions of Section 84 of that Act are complied with.
    At any time during the pendency of an action or proceeding initiated after July 1, 1959, which is constructive notice, the court, upon motion, may for good cause shown, provided a finding of specific performance is not necessary for final judgment in the action or proceeding, and upon such terms and conditions, including the posting of suitable bond, if any, as it may deem equitable, authorize the making of a deed, mortgage, lease or other conveyance of any or all of the real estate affected or involved, in which event the party to whom the deed, mortgage, lease or other conveyance of the real estate is made and those claiming under him or her shall not be bound by such action or proceeding.
(Source: P.A. 85-907.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1902

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1902) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1902)
    Sec. 2-1902. Lis Pendens - Bankruptcy. A certified copy of a petition, with schedules omitted, commencing a proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act of the United States or of the order of adjudication in such proceeding, or of the order approving the bond of the trustee appointed in the proceedings, may be filed, indexed and recorded in the office of the recorder where conveyances of real estate are recorded in the same manner as deeds. It shall be the duty of the recorder to file, index under the name of the bankrupt, and record such certified copies filed for record in the same manner as deeds, for which services the recorder shall be entitled to the same fees as are provided by law for filing, indexing and recording deeds.
(Source: P.A. 84-1308.)

735 ILCS 5/2-1903

    (735 ILCS 5/2-1903) (from Ch. 110, par. 2-1903)
    Sec. 2-1903. Lis Pendens - Limitation as to Public Officers. In the absence of a permanent or preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order of a court, the bringing or pendency of any action alone, heretofore, or hereafter brought, to defeat or enjoin the disbursement by public officers of public funds to the persons, uses, or purposes for which they are appropriated or set apart, including the payment of the salaries and wages of all officers and employees of the State, or of any county, city, village, town or other municipality of the State, shall in no way change the liability of any public officer in the disbursement of public funds on account of any notice of matters contained in the pleadings in any action, but such liability shall remain the same, insofar as the bringing or pendency of any such action alone is concerned, as if no such action had been brought.
(Source: P.A. 84-1308.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 20

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 20 heading)
Part 20. Crime Victims

735 ILCS 5/2-2001

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2001)
    Sec. 2-2001. Crime victims. A victim of crime as defined in Section 2.3 of the Criminal Victims' Asset Discovery Act shall have a cause of action against a defendant who has been convicted of a crime, or found not guilty by reason of insanity or guilty but mentally ill of a crime, to recover damages suffered by the victim of the crime.
    The Civil Practice Law shall apply in the proceedings, and the case shall be tried as in other civil cases. If the victim is deceased, the next of kin may maintain the action.
(Source: P.A. 88-378.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 21

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 21 heading)
Part 21. Product Liability

735 ILCS 5/2-2101

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2101)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2101. Definitions. For purposes of this Part, the terms listed have the following meanings:
    "Clear and convincing evidence" means that measure or degree of proof that will produce in the mind of the trier of fact a high degree of certainty as to the truth of the allegations sought to be established. This evidence requires a greater degree of persuasion than is necessary to meet the preponderance of the evidence standard.
    "Harm" means (i) damage to property other than the product itself; (ii) personal physical injury, illness, or death; (iii) mental anguish or emotional harm to the extent recognized by applicable law; (iv) any loss of consortium or services; or (v) other loss deriving from any type of harm described in item (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv).
    "Manufacturer" means (i) any person who is engaged in a business to design or formulate and to produce, create, make, or construct any product or component part of a product; (ii) a product seller with respect to all component parts of a product or a component part of a product that is created or affected when, before placing the product in the stream of commerce, the product seller designs or formulates and produces, creates, makes, or constructs an aspect of a product or a component part of a product made by another; or (iii) any product seller not described in (ii) that holds itself out as a manufacturer to the user of the product.
    "Product liability action" means a civil action brought on any theory against a manufacturer or product seller for harm caused by a product.
    "Product seller" means a person who, in the course of a business conducted for that purpose, sells, distributes, leases, installs, prepares, blends, packages, labels, markets, repairs, maintains, or otherwise is involved in placing a product in the stream of commerce.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2102

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2102)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2102. Effect on other laws. Except as may be provided by other laws, any civil action that conforms to the definition of a product liability action as defined in Section 2-2101 of this Part shall be governed by the provisions of this Part.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2103

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2103)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2103. Federal and State standards; presumption. In a product liability action, a product or product component shall be presumed to be reasonably safe if the aspect of the product or product component that allegedly caused the harm was specified or required, or if the aspect is specifically exempted for particular applications or users, by a federal or State statute or regulation promulgated by an agency of the federal or State government responsible for the safety or use of the product before the product was distributed into the stream of commerce.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2104

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2104)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2104. No practical and feasible alternative design; presumption. If the design of a product or product component is in issue in a product liability action, the design shall be presumed to be reasonably safe unless, at the time the product left the control of the manufacturer, a practical and technically feasible alternative design was available that would have prevented the harm without significantly impairing the usefulness, desirability, or marketability of the product. An alternative design is practical and feasible if the technical, medical, or scientific knowledge relating to safety of the alternative design was, at the time the product left the control of the manufacturer, available and developed for commercial use and acceptable in the marketplace.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2105

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2105)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2105. Changes in design or warning; inadmissibility. When measures are taken which, if taken previously, would have made an event less likely to occur, evidence of the subsequent measures is not admissible to prove a defect in a product, negligence, or culpable conduct in connection with the event. In a product liability action brought under any theory or doctrine, if the feasibility of a design change or change in warnings is not controverted, then a subsequent design change or change in warnings shall not be admissible into evidence. This rule does not require the exclusion of evidence of subsequent measures when offered for another purpose such as proving ownership, control, or impeachment.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2106

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2106)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2106. Provision of written warnings to users of product; nonliability.
    (a) The warning, instructing, or labeling of a product or specific product component shall be deemed to be adequate if pamphlets, booklets, labels, or other written warnings were provided that gave adequate notice to reasonably anticipated users or knowledgeable intermediaries of the material risks of injury, death, or property damage connected with the reasonably anticipated use of the product and instructions as to the reasonably anticipated uses, applications, or limitations of the product anticipated by the defendant.
    (b) In the defense of a product liability action, warnings, instructions or labeling shall be deemed to be adequate if the warnings, instructions or labels furnished with the product were in conformity with the generally recognized standards in the industry at the time the product was distributed into the stream of commerce.
    (c) Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b), a defendant shall not be liable for failure to warn of material risks that were obvious to a reasonably prudent product user and material risks that were a matter of common knowledge to persons in the same position as or similar positions to that of the plaintiff in a product liability action.
    (d) In any product liability action brought against a manufacturer or product seller for harm allegedly caused by a failure to provide adequate warnings or instructions, a defendant manufacturer or product seller shall not be liable if, at the time the product left the control of the manufacturer, the knowledge of the danger that caused the harm was not reasonably available or obtainable in light of existing scientific, technical, or medical information.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2106.5

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2106.5)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2106.5. Inherent characteristics of products; nonliability. In a product liability action, a manufacturer or product seller shall not be liable for harm allegedly caused by a product if the alleged harm was caused by an inherent characteristic of the product which is a generic aspect of the product that cannot be eliminated without substantially compromising the product's usefulness or desirability and which is recognized by the ordinary person with the ordinary knowledge common to the community.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2107

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2107)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2107. Punitive damages. In a product liability action, punitive damages shall not be awarded against a manufacturer or product seller if the conduct of the defendant manufacturer, seller, or reseller that allegedly caused the harm was approved by or was in compliance with standards set forth in an applicable federal or State statute or in a regulation or other administrative action promulgated by an agency of the federal or State government responsible for the safety or use of the product, which statute or regulation was in effect at the time of the manufacturer's or product seller's alleged misconduct, unless the plaintiff proves by clear and convincing evidence that the manufacturer or product seller intentionally withheld from or misrepresented to Congress, the State legislature, or the relevant federal or State agency material information relative to the safety or use of the product that would or could have resulted in a changed decision relative to the law, standard, or other administrative action.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2108

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2108)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2108. No cause of action created. Nothing in this Part shall be construed to create a cause of action.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2109

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2109)
    (This Section was added by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 2-2109. This amendatory Act of 1995 adding Part 21 to the Code of Civil Procedure applies to causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 22

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 22 heading)
Part 22. Insurance Placement Liability

735 ILCS 5/2-2201

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2201)
    Sec. 2-2201. Ordinary care; civil liability.
    (a) An insurance producer, registered firm, and limited insurance representative shall exercise ordinary care and skill in renewing, procuring, binding, or placing the coverage requested by the insured or proposed insured.
    (b) No cause of action brought by any person or entity against any insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative concerning the sale, placement, procurement, renewal, binding, cancellation of, or failure to procure any policy of insurance shall subject the insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative to civil liability under standards governing the conduct of a fiduciary or a fiduciary relationship except when the conduct upon which the cause of action is based involves the wrongful retention or misappropriation by the insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative of any money that was received as premiums, as a premium deposit, or as payment of a claim.
    (c) The provisions of this Section are not meant to impair or invalidate any of the terms or conditions of a contractual agreement between an insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative and a company that has authority to transact the kinds of insurance defined in Class 1 or clause (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (h), (i), or (k) of Class 2 of Section 4 of the Illinois Insurance Code.
    (d) While limiting the scope of liability of an insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative under standards governing the conduct of a fiduciary or a fiduciary relationship, the provisions of this Section do not limit or release an insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative from liability for negligence concerning the sale, placement, procurement, renewal, binding, cancellation of, or failure to procure any policy of insurance.
(Source: P.A. 89-638, eff. 1-1-97.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 23

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 23 heading)
Part 23. Settlement
(Source: P.A. 98-548, eff. 1-1-14.)

735 ILCS 5/2-2301

    (735 ILCS 5/2-2301)
    Sec. 2-2301. Settlement of claims; payment.
    (a) In a personal injury, property damage, wrongful death, or tort action involving a claim for money damages, a release must be tendered to the plaintiff by the settling defendant within 14 days of written confirmation of the settlement. Written confirmation includes all communication by written means.
    (b) In a personal injury, property damage, wrongful death, or tort action involving a claim for money damages in which the law requires court approval of a settlement, the plaintiff shall tender to the defendant a copy of the court order approving the settlement.
    (c) In a personal injury, property damage, wrongful death, or tort action involving a claim for money damages in which there is a known third-party right of recovery or subrogation interest (including attorney's liens, healthcare provider liens, or rights of recovery claimed by Medicare, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, or private health insurance companies), the plaintiff may protect the third-party's right of recovery or subrogation interest, where applicable, by tendering to the defendant:
        (1) A signed release of the attorney's lien.
        (2) Either:
            (i) a signed release of a healthcare provider
        
lien; or
            (ii) a letter from the plaintiff's attorney
        
agreeing to hold the full amount of the claimed lien in the plaintiff's attorney's client fund account pending final resolution of the lien amount; or
            (iii) an offer that the defendant hold the full
        
amount of the claimed right to recovery pending final resolution of the amount of the right of recovery; or
            (iv) documentation of any other method of
        
resolution of the liens as agreed by the parties.
        (3) Either:
            (i) documentation of the agreement between the
        
plaintiff and Medicare, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services, or the private health insurance company as to the amount of the settlement that will be accepted in satisfaction of right of recovery; or
            (ii) a letter from the plaintiff's attorney
        
agreeing to hold the full amount of the claimed right to recovery in the plaintiff's attorney's client fund account pending final resolution of the amount of the right to recovery; or
            (iii) an offer that the defendant hold the full
        
amount of the claimed right to recovery pending final resolution of the amount of the right of recovery; or
            (iv) documentation of any other method of
        
resolution of the liens as agreed by the parties.
    (d) A settling defendant shall pay all sums due to the plaintiff within 30 days of tender by the plaintiff of the executed release and all applicable documents in compliance with subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this Section.
    (e) If, after a hearing, the court having jurisdiction over the parties finds that timely payment has not been made by a defendant pursuant to subsection (d) of this Section, judgment shall be entered against that defendant for the amount set forth in the executed release, plus costs incurred in obtaining the judgment and interest at the rate specified under Section 2-1303 of this Code, calculated from the date of the tender by the plaintiff under subsection (d) of this Section.
    (f) As used in this Section, "tender" means personal delivery or delivery by a means providing a return receipt.
    (g) This Section applies to all personal injury, property damage, wrongful death, and tort actions involving a claim for money damages, except as otherwise agreed by the parties. This Section does not apply to:
        (1) the State of Illinois;
        (2) any State agency, board, or Commission, as
    
defined in Section 1-7 of the Illinois State Auditing Act;
        (3) any State officer or employee sued in his or her
    
official capacity;
        (4) any person or entity that is being represented by
    
the Attorney General and provided indemnification by the State pursuant to the State Employee Indemnification Act;
        (5) any municipality or unit of local government as
    
defined under Article VII of the Illinois Constitution; and
        (6) class action lawsuits.
(Source: P.A. 98-548, eff. 1-1-14.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. III

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. III heading)
ARTICLE III
ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW

735 ILCS 5/3-101

    (735 ILCS 5/3-101) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-101)
    Sec. 3-101. Definitions. For the purpose of this Act:
    "Administrative agency" means a person, body of persons, group, officer, board, bureau, commission or department (other than a court or judge) of the State, or of any political subdivision of the State or municipal corporation in the State, having power under law to make administrative decisions.
    "Administrative decision" or "decision" means any decision, order or determination of any administrative agency rendered in a particular case, which affects the legal rights, duties or privileges of parties and which terminates the proceedings before the administrative agency. In all cases in which a statute or a rule of the administrative agency requires or permits an application for a rehearing or other method of administrative review to be filed within a specified time (as distinguished from a statute which permits the application for rehearing or administrative review to be filed at any time before judgment by the administrative agency against the applicant or within a specified time after the entry of such judgment), and an application for such rehearing or review is made, no administrative decision of such agency shall be final as to the party applying therefor until such rehearing or review is had or denied. However, if the particular statute permits an application for rehearing or other method of administrative review to be filed with the administrative agency for an indefinite period of time after the administrative decision has been rendered (such as permitting such application to be filed at any time before judgment by the administrative agency against the applicant or within a specified time after the entry of such judgment), then the authorization for the filing of such application for rehearing or review shall not postpone the time when the administrative decision as to which such application shall be filed would otherwise become final, but the filing of the application for rehearing or review with the administrative agency in this type of case shall constitute the commencement of a new proceeding before such agency, and the decision rendered in order to dispose of such rehearing or other review proceeding shall constitute a new and independent administrative decision. If such new and independent decision consists merely of the denial of the application for rehearing or other method of administrative review, the record upon judicial review of such decision shall be limited to the application for rehearing or other review and the order or decision denying such application and shall not include the record of proceedings had before the rendering of the administrative decision as to which the application for rehearing or other administrative review shall have been filed unless the suit for judicial review is commenced within the time in which it would be authorized by this Act to have been commenced if no application for rehearing or other method of administrative review had been filed. On the other hand, if the rehearing or other administrative review is granted by the administrative agency, then the record on judicial review of the resulting administrative decision rendered pursuant to the rehearing or other administrative review may consist not only of the record of proceedings had before the administrative agency in such rehearing or other administrative review proceeding, but also of the record of proceedings had before such administrative agency prior to its rendering of the administrative decision as to which the rehearing or other administrative review shall have been granted. The term "administrative decision" or "decision" does not mean or include rules, regulations, standards, or statements of policy of general application issued by an administrative agency to implement, interpret, or make specific the legislation enforced or administered by it unless such a rule, regulation, standard or statement of policy is involved in a proceeding before the agency and its applicability or validity is in issue in such proceeding, nor does it mean or include regulations concerning the internal management of the agency not affecting private rights or interests.
(Source: P.A. 92-651, eff. 7-11-02.)

735 ILCS 5/3-102

    (735 ILCS 5/3-102) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-102)
    Sec. 3-102. Scope of Article. Article III of this Act shall apply to and govern every action to review judicially a final decision of any administrative agency where the Act creating or conferring power on such agency, by express reference, adopts the provisions of Article III of this Act or its predecessor, the Administrative Review Act. This Article shall be known as the "Administrative Review Law". In all such cases, any other statutory, equitable or common law mode of review of decisions of administrative agencies heretofore available shall not hereafter be employed.
    Unless review is sought of an administrative decision within the time and in the manner herein provided, the parties to the proceeding before the administrative agency shall be barred from obtaining judicial review of such administrative decision. In an action to review any final decision of any administrative agency brought under Article III, if a judgment is reversed or entered against the plaintiff, or the action is voluntarily dismissed by the plaintiff, or the action is dismissed for want of prosecution, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for lack of jurisdiction, neither the plaintiff nor his or her heirs, executors, or administrators may commence a new action within one year or within the remaining period of limitation, whichever is greater. All proceedings in the court for revision of such final decision shall terminate upon the date of the entry of any Order under either Section 2-1009 or Section 13-217. Such Order shall cause the final administrative decision of any administrative agency to become immediately enforceable. If under the terms of the Act governing the procedure before an administrative agency an administrative decision has become final because of the failure to file any document in the nature of objections, protests, petition for hearing or application for administrative review within the time allowed by such Act, such decision shall not be subject to judicial review hereunder excepting only for the purpose of questioning the jurisdiction of the administrative agency over the person or subject matter.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-103

    (735 ILCS 5/3-103) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-103)
    Sec. 3-103. Commencement of action. Every action to review a final administrative decision shall be commenced by the filing of a complaint and the issuance of summons within 35 days from the date that a copy of the decision sought to be reviewed was served upon the party affected by the decision, except that in municipalities with a population of 500,000 or less a complaint filed within the time limit established by this Section may be subsequently amended to add a police chief or a fire chief in cases brought under the Illinois Municipal Code's provisions providing for the discipline of fire fighters and police officers.
    The method of service of the decision shall be as provided in the Act governing the procedure before the administrative agency, but if no method is provided, a decision shall be deemed to have been served either when a copy of the decision is personally delivered or when a copy of the decision is deposited in the United States mail, in a sealed envelope or package, with postage prepaid, addressed to the party affected by the decision at his or her last known residence or place of business.
    The form of the summons and the issuance of alias summons shall be according to rules of the Supreme Court.
    This amendatory Act of 1993 applies to all cases involving discipline of fire fighters and police officers pending on its effective date and to all cases filed on or after its effective date.
    The changes to this Section made by this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly apply to all actions filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 95-831, eff. 8-14-08.)

735 ILCS 5/3-104

    (735 ILCS 5/3-104) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-104)
    Sec. 3-104. Jurisdiction and venue. Jurisdiction to review final administrative decisions is vested in the Circuit Courts, except as to a final order of the Illinois Educational Labor Relations Board in which case jurisdiction to review a final order is vested in the Appellate Court of a judicial district in which the Board maintains an office. If the venue of the action to review a final administrative decision is expressly prescribed in the particular statute under authority of which the decision was made, such venue shall control, but if the venue is not so prescribed, an action to review a final administrative decision may be commenced in the Circuit Court of any county in which (1) any part of the hearing or proceeding culminating in the decision of the administrative agency was held, or (2) any part of the subject matter involved is situated, or (3) any part of the transaction which gave rise to the proceedings before the agency occurred. The court first acquiring jurisdiction of any action to review a final administrative decision shall have and retain jurisdiction of the action until final disposition of the action.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-105

    (735 ILCS 5/3-105) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-105)
    Sec. 3-105. Service of summons. Summons issued in any action to review the final administrative decision of any administrative agency shall be served by registered or certified mail on the administrative agency and on each of the other defendants except in the case of a review of a final administrative decision of the regional board of school trustees, regional superintendent of schools, or State Superintendent of Education, as the case may be, when a committee of 10 has been designated as provided in Section 7-6 of the School Code, and in such case only the administrative agency involved and each of the committee of 10 shall be served. The method of service shall be as provided in the Act governing the procedure before the administrative agency, but if no method is provided, summons shall be deemed to have been served either when a copy of the summons is personally delivered or when a copy of the decision is deposited in the United States mail, in a sealed envelope or package, with postage prepaid, addressed to the party affected by the decision at his or her last known residence or place of business. The form of the summons and the issuance of alias summons shall be according to rules of the Supreme Court. No action for administrative review shall be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction based upon the failure to serve summons on an employee, agent, or member of an administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity, acting in his or her official capacity, where the administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity has been served as provided in this Section. Service on the director or agency head, in his or her official capacity, shall be deemed service on the administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity. No action for administrative review shall be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction based upon the failure to serve summons on an administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity, acting, where the director or agency head, in his or her official capacity, has been served as provided in this Section. Service on the administrative agency shall be made by the clerk of the court by sending a copy of the summons addressed to the agency at its main office in the State. The clerk of the court shall also mail a copy of the summons to each of the other defendants, addressed to the last known place of residence or principal place of business of each such defendant. The plaintiff shall, by affidavit filed with the complaint, designate the last known address of each defendant upon whom service shall be made. The certificate of the clerk of the court that he or she has served such summons in pursuance of this Section shall be evidence that he or she has done so.
    The changes to this Section made by this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly apply to all actions filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 95-831, eff. 8-14-08.)

735 ILCS 5/3-106

    (735 ILCS 5/3-106) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-106)
    Sec. 3-106. Appearance of defendants. In any action to review any final decision of any administrative agency, the agency shall appear by filing an answer consisting of a record of the proceedings had before it, or a written motion in the cause or a written appearance. All other defendants desiring to appear shall appear by filing a written appearance. Every appearance shall be filed within the time fixed by rule of the Supreme Court, and shall state with particularity an address where service of notices or papers may be made upon the defendant so appearing, or his or her attorney.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-107

    (735 ILCS 5/3-107) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-107)
    Sec. 3-107. Defendants.
    (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c), in any action to review any final decision of an administrative agency, the administrative agency and all persons, other than the plaintiff, who were parties of record to the proceedings before the administrative agency shall be made defendants. The method of service of the decision shall be as provided in the Act governing the procedure before the administrative agency, but if no method is provided, a decision shall be deemed to have been served either when a copy of the decision is personally delivered or when a copy of the decision is deposited in the United States mail, in a sealed envelope or package, with postage prepaid, addressed to the party affected by the decision at his or her last known residence or place of business. The form of the summons and the issuance of alias summons shall be according to rules of the Supreme Court.
    No action for administrative review shall be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction based upon the failure to name an employee, agent, or member, who acted in his or her official capacity, of an administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity, where the administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity, has been named as a defendant as provided in this Section. Naming the director or agency head, in his or her official capacity, shall be deemed to include as defendant the administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity that the named defendants direct or head. No action for administrative review shall be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction based upon the failure to name an administrative agency, board, committee, or government entity, where the director or agency head, in his or her official capacity, has been named as a defendant as provided in this Section.
    If, during the course of a review action, the court determines that an agency or a party of record to the administrative proceedings was not made a defendant as required by the preceding paragraph, then the court shall grant the plaintiff 35 days from the date of the determination in which to name and serve the unnamed agency or party as a defendant. The court shall permit the newly served defendant to participate in the proceedings to the extent the interests of justice may require.
    (b) With respect to actions to review decisions of a zoning board of appeals in a municipality with a population of 500,000 or more inhabitants under Division 13 of Article 11 of the Illinois Municipal Code, "parties of record" means only the zoning board of appeals and applicants before the zoning board of appeals. The plaintiff shall send a notice of filing of the action by certified mail to each other person who appeared before and submitted oral testimony or written statements to the zoning board of appeals with respect to the decision appealed from. The notice shall be mailed within 2 days of the filing of the action. The notice shall state the caption of the action, the court in which the action is filed, and the names of the plaintiff in the action and the applicant to the zoning board of appeals. The notice shall inform the person of his or her right to intervene. Each person who appeared before and submitted oral testimony or written statements to the zoning board of appeals with respect to the decision appealed from shall have a right to intervene as a defendant in the action upon application made to the court within 30 days of the mailing of the notice.
    (c) With respect to actions to review decisions of a hearing officer or a county zoning board of appeals under Division 5-12 of Article 5 of the Counties Code, "parties of record" means only the hearing officer or the zoning board of appeals and applicants before the hearing officer or the zoning board of appeals. The plaintiff shall send a notice of filing of the action by certified mail to each other person who appeared before and submitted oral testimony or written statements to the hearing officer or the zoning board of appeals with respect to the decision appealed from. The notice shall be mailed within 2 days of the filing of the action. The notice shall state the caption of the action, the court in which the action is filed, and the name of the plaintiff in the action and the applicant to the hearing officer or the zoning board of appeals. The notice shall inform the person of his or her right to intervene. Each person who appeared before and submitted oral testimony or written statements to the hearing officer or the zoning board of appeals with respect to the decision appealed from shall have a right to intervene as a defendant in the action upon application made to the court within 30 days of the mailing of the notice. This subsection (c) applies to zoning proceedings commenced on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
    (d) The changes to this Section made by this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly apply to all actions filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 95-321, eff. 8-21-07; 95-831, eff. 8-14-08.)

735 ILCS 5/3-108

    (735 ILCS 5/3-108) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-108)
    Sec. 3-108. Pleadings and record on review.
    (a) Complaint. The complaint shall contain a statement of the decision or part of the decision sought to be reviewed. It shall specify whether the transcript of evidence, if any, or what portion thereof, shall be filed by the agency as part of the record. Upon motion of any defendant, or upon its own motion, the court may require of the plaintiff a specification of the errors relied upon for reversal.
    (b) Answer. Except as herein otherwise provided, the administrative agency shall file an answer which shall consist of the original or a certified copy of the entire record of proceedings under review, including such evidence as may have been heard by it and the findings and decisions made by it. By order of court or by stipulation of all parties to the review, the record may be shortened by the elimination of any portion thereof. If the complaint specifies that none or only a part of the transcript of evidence shall be filed as part of the answer and if the administrative agency or any other defendant objects thereto, the court shall hear the parties upon this question and make a finding as to whether all, or if less than all, what parts of the transcript shall be included in the answer. No pleadings other than as herein enumerated shall be filed by any party unless required by the court.
    (c) Record after remandment. If the cause is remanded to the administrative agency and a review shall thereafter be sought of the administrative decision, the original and supplemental record, or so much thereof as shall be determined by court order or the stipulation of all the parties, shall constitute the record on review.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-109

    (735 ILCS 5/3-109) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-109)
    Sec. 3-109. Costs of preparing and certifying record of proceedings before agency. If the statute under authority of which the administrative decision was entered provides or requires that the plaintiff in the review proceeding shall pay to the agency the costs of preparing and certifying the record of proceedings before the agency, the failure to make that payment shall relieve the agency of the necessity of filing the answer required in Section 3-108 of this Act and shall be authority for the entry of an order by the court, on motion therefor by the agency or any other defendant, dismissing the complaint and (in the case of an administrative decision which requires the payment of money) entering a judgment against the plaintiff and in favor of the administrative agency for the amount shown by the administrative decision that is involved to be due, and for costs.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-110

    (735 ILCS 5/3-110) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-110)
    Sec. 3-110. Scope of review. Every action to review any final administrative decision shall be heard and determined by the court with all convenient speed. The hearing and determination shall extend to all questions of law and fact presented by the entire record before the court. No new or additional evidence in support of or in opposition to any finding, order, determination or decision of the administrative agency shall be heard by the court. The findings and conclusions of the administrative agency on questions of fact shall be held to be prima facie true and correct.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-111

    (735 ILCS 5/3-111) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-111)
    Sec. 3-111. Powers of circuit court.
    (a) The Circuit Court has power:
        (1) with or without requiring bond (except if
    
otherwise provided in the particular statute under authority of which the administrative decision was entered), and before or after answer filed, upon notice to the agency and good cause shown, to stay the decision of the administrative agency in whole or in part pending the final disposition of the case. For the purpose of this subsection, "good cause" requires the applicant to show (i) that an immediate stay is required in order to preserve the status quo without endangering the public, (ii) that it is not contrary to public policy, and (iii) that there exists a reasonable likelihood of success on the merits;
        (2) to make any order that it deems proper for the
    
amendment, completion or filing of the record of proceedings of the administrative agency;
        (3) to allow substitution of parties by reason of
    
marriage, death, bankruptcy, assignment or other cause;
        (4) to dismiss parties, to correct misnomers, to
    
realign parties, or to join agencies or parties;
        (5) to affirm or reverse the decision in whole or in
    
part;
        (6) where a hearing has been held by the agency, to
    
reverse and remand the decision in whole or in part, and, in that case, to state the questions requiring further hearing or proceedings and to give such other instructions as may be proper;
        (7) where a hearing has been held by the agency, to
    
remand for the purpose of taking additional evidence when from the state of the record of the administrative agency or otherwise it shall appear that such action is just. However, no remandment shall be made on the ground of newly discovered evidence unless it appears to the satisfaction of the court that such evidence has in fact been discovered subsequent to the termination of the proceedings before the administrative agency and that it could not by the exercise of reasonable diligence have been obtained at such proceedings; and that such evidence is material to the issues and is not cumulative;
        (8) in case of affirmance or partial affirmance of an
    
administrative decision which requires the payment of money, to enter judgment for the amount justified by the record and for costs, which judgment may be enforced as other judgments for the recovery of money;
        (9) when the particular statute under authority of
    
which the administrative decision was entered requires the plaintiff to file a satisfactory bond and provides for the dismissal of the action for the plaintiff's failure to comply with this requirement unless the court is authorized by the particular statute to enter, and does enter, an order imposing a lien upon the plaintiff's property, to take such proofs and to enter such orders as may be appropriate to carry out the provisions of the particular statute. However, the court shall not approve the bond, nor enter an order for the lien, in any amount which is less than that prescribed by the particular statute under authority of which the administrative decision was entered if the statute provides what the minimum amount of the bond or lien shall be or provides how said minimum amount shall be determined. No such bond shall be approved by the court without notice to, and an opportunity to be heard thereon by, the administrative agency affected. The lien, created by the entry of a court order in lieu of a bond, shall not apply to property exempted from the lien by the particular statute under authority of which the administrative decision was entered. The lien shall not be effective against real property whose title is registered under the provisions of the Registered Titles (Torrens) Act until the provisions of Section 85 of that Act are complied with.
    (b) Technical errors in the proceedings before the administrative agency or its failure to observe the technical rules of evidence shall not constitute grounds for the reversal of the administrative decision unless it appears to the court that such error or failure materially affected the rights of any party and resulted in substantial injustice to him or her.
    (c) On motion of either party, the circuit court shall make findings of fact or state the propositions of law upon which its judgment is based.
    (d) The changes to this Section made by this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly apply to all actions filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 95-831, eff. 8-14-08.)

735 ILCS 5/3-112

    (735 ILCS 5/3-112) (from Ch. 110, par. 3-112)
    Sec. 3-112. Appeals. A final decision, order, or judgment of the Circuit Court, entered in an action to review a decision of an administrative agency, is reviewable by appeal as in other civil cases.
(Source: P.A. 88-1.)

735 ILCS 5/3-113

    (735 ILCS 5/3-113)
    Sec. 3-113. Direct review of administrative orders by the appellate court.
    (a) Unless another time is provided specifically by the law authorizing the review, an action for direct review of a final administrative decision of an administrative agency by the appellate court shall be commenced by the filing of a petition for review in the appellate court within 35 days from the date that a copy of the decision sought to be reviewed was served upon the party affected by the decision. The method of service of the decision shall be as provided in the Act governing the procedure before the administrative agency, but if no method is provided, a decision shall be deemed to have been served either when a copy of the decision is personally delivered or when a copy of the decision is deposited in the United States mail, in a sealed envelope or package, with postage prepaid, addressed to the party affected by the decision at his or her last known residence or place of business.
    (b) The petition for review shall be filed in the appellate court and shall specify the parties seeking review and shall designate the respondent and the order or part thereof to be reviewed. The administrative agency and all persons, other than the petitioner, who were parties of record to the proceedings before the administrative agency shall be made respondents. The method of service of the decision shall be as provided in the Act governing the procedure before the administrative agency, but if no method is provided, a decision shall be deemed to have been served either when a copy of the decision is personally delivered or when a copy of the decision is deposited in the United States mail, in a sealed envelope or package, with postage prepaid, addressed to the party affected by the decision at his or her last known residence or place of business. The form of the summons and the issuance of alias summons shall be according to rules of the Supreme Court.
    If, during the course of a review action, the court determines that an agency or a party of record to the administrative proceedings was not made a defendant as required by the preceding paragraph, then the court shall grant the plaintiff 35 days from the date of the determination in which to name and serve the unnamed agency or party as a defendant. The court shall permit the newly served defendant to participate in the proceedings to the extent the interests of justice may require.
    (c) The changes to this Section made by this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly apply to all actions filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 95-831, eff. 8-14-08.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. IV

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. IV heading)
ARTICLE IV
ATTACHMENT

735 ILCS 5/Art. IV Pt. 1

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. IV Pt. 1 heading)
Part 1. In General

735 ILCS 5/4-101

    (735 ILCS 5/4-101) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-101)
    Sec. 4-101. Cause. In any court having competent jurisdiction, a creditor having a money claim, whether liquidated or unliquidated, and whether sounding in contract or tort, or based upon a statutory cause of action created by law in favor of the People of the State of Illinois, or any agency of the State, may have an attachment against the property of his or her debtor, or that of any one or more of several debtors, either at the time of commencement of the action or thereafter, when the claim exceeds $20, in any one of the following cases:
        1. Where the debtor is not a resident of this State.
        2. When the debtor conceals himself or herself or
    
stands in defiance of an officer, so that process cannot be served upon him or her.
        3. Where the debtor has departed from this State with
    
the intention of having his or her effects removed from this State.
        4. Where the debtor is about to depart from this
    
State with the intention of having his or her effects removed from this State.
        5. Where the debtor is about to remove his or her
    
property from this State to the injury of such creditor.
        6. Where the debtor has within 2 years preceding the
    
filing of the affidavit required, fraudulently conveyed or assigned his or her effects, or a part thereof, so as to hinder or delay his or her creditors.
        7. Where the debtor has, within 2 years prior to the
    
filing of such affidavit, fraudulently concealed or disposed of his or her property so as to hinder or delay his or her creditors.
        8. Where the debtor is about fraudulently to conceal,
    
assign, or otherwise dispose of his or her property or effects, so as to hinder or delay his or her creditors.
        9. Where the debt sued for was fraudulently
    
contracted on the part of the debtor. The statements of the debtor, his or her agent or attorney, which constitute the fraud, shall have been reduced to writing, and his or her signature attached thereto, by himself or herself, agent or attorney.
        10. When the debtor is a person convicted of first
    
degree murder, a Class X felony, or aggravated kidnapping, or found not guilty by reason of insanity or guilty but mentally ill of first degree murder, a Class X felony, or aggravated kidnapping, against the creditor and that crime makes the creditor a "victim" under the Criminal Victims' Asset Discovery Act.
        11. When the debtor is referred by the Department of
    
Corrections to the Attorney General under Section 3-7-6 of the Unified Code of Corrections to recover the expenses incurred as a result of that debtor's cost of incarceration.
(Source: P.A. 93-508, eff. 1-1-04.)

735 ILCS 5/4-102

    (735 ILCS 5/4-102) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-102)
    Sec. 4-102. Construed for detection of fraud. This Act shall be construed in all courts in the most liberal manner for the detection of fraud.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-103

    (735 ILCS 5/4-103) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-103)
    Sec. 4-103. Venue. The venue provisions applicable to other civil cases shall apply to attachment proceedings; and in addition thereto, attachment proceedings may be brought in the county where property or credits of the debtor are found.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-104

    (735 ILCS 5/4-104) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-104)
    Sec. 4-104. Affidavit. A plaintiff seeking the entry of an order for attachment shall file with the court an affidavit based upon the personal knowledge of the affiant and showing:
    1. the amount of the claim, so far as practicable, after allowing all just credits and set-offs;
    2. facts establishing any one or more of the causes set forth in Section 4-101 of this Act;
    3. the place of residence of the defendant, if known, and if not known, that upon diligent inquiry the affiant has been unable to ascertain the place of residence; and
    4. facts establishing the cause of action against the defendant.
    The plaintiff shall file an additional statement in writing, either embodied in such affidavit or separately, to the effect that the action invoked by such affidavit does or does not sound in tort and a designation of the return day for the summons to be issued in the action; and the court, if it is satisfied that the affidavit has established a prima facie case, shall enter an order for attachment.
    In all actions sounding in tort, before an order for attachment is entered, the plaintiff, his or her agent or attorney, shall apply to the circuit court of the county in which the action is to be brought or is pending and be examined, under oath, by the court concerning the cause of action; and, thereupon, the court shall indorse upon the affidavit the amount of damages for which the order for attachment shall be entered, and no greater amount shall be claimed.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-105

    (735 ILCS 5/4-105) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-105)
    Sec. 4-105. Form of affidavit. Affidavits for attachment in courts may be substantially in the following form:
STATE OF ILLINOIS,      )
                        ) ss.
......... County        )
    A B, being duly sworn, says: That (here state if affiant is agent or attorney of the creditor; if the action is by an individual or corporation, the name of the individual or corporation, and if the action is by a firm, the name of the partners) has a just claim against (name of debtor), on account of (here state facts giving rise to the cause of action and amount of the claim), and the affiant believes (the name of the creditor) is entitled to recover of (name of debtor), after allowing all just credits and set-offs .... dollars and .... cents, which is now due, and that he, she or it has good reason to believe and does believe that (name of debtor) (here state facts which give rise to some one or more of the causes which authorize an attachment). (name of debtor) resides at (here state the residence of the debtor if known, or if not, that the affiant has made diligent inquiry and cannot ascertain his or her or its place of residence.)
    Affiant has personal knowledge that the foregoing statements are true.
.....
    Subscribed and sworn to before me on this .... day of ....,....,
.....
    My commission expires ....,....,
    (If action sounds in tort here include the endorsement of the court as to amount of damages for which order shall be entered)
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-106

    (735 ILCS 5/4-106) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-106)
    Sec. 4-106. Designation of names. It shall be sufficient, in all cases of attachment, to designate defendants by their reputed names, by surnames, and joint defendants by their separate or partnership names, or by such names, styles or titles as they are usually known; and heirs, executors and administrators of deceased defendants shall be subject to the provisions of Part 1 of Article IV of this Act, in all cases in which it may be applicable to them.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-107

    (735 ILCS 5/4-107) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-107)
    Sec. 4-107. Bond. Before the entry of an order for attachment, as hereinabove stated, the court shall take bond and sufficient security, payable to the People of the State of Illinois, for the use of the person or persons interested in the property attached, in double the sum sworn to be due, conditioned for satisfying all costs which may be awarded to such defendant, or to any others interested in the proceedings, and all damages and costs which shall be recovered against the plaintiff, for wrongfully obtaining the attachment order, which bond, with affidavit of the party complaining, or his, her or its agent or attorney, shall be filed in the court entering the order for attachment. Every order for attachment entered without a bond and affidavit taken, is hereby declared illegal and void, and shall be dismissed. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to require the State of Illinois, or any Department of Government thereof, or any State officer, to file a bond as plaintiff in any proceeding instituted under Part 1 of Article IV of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-108

    (735 ILCS 5/4-108) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-108)
    Sec. 4-108. Fixing of bond. The court, upon ex parte motion, without notice, supported by affidavit of the plaintiff, his or her agent or attorney, substantially describing the property to be attached, and the value thereof, may, if satisfied of the bona fides of the application and sufficiency of the bond under the circumstances of the case, including proposed garnishments, fix the amount of the bond in double the value of the property to be attached, instead of double the sum sworn to be due, and in such event the order shall direct the officer to attach such specifically described property, but the value of such property to be attached shall not be in excess of an amount sufficient to satisfy the debt claimed and costs. The court may require that such affidavit be supplemented by additional showing, by appraisal or otherwise, as to the value of such property, and may, upon motion of any party to the action claiming an interest in such property, either before or after actual attachment, require additional security, or order release of the attachment to the extent not covered by adequate double security.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-109

    (735 ILCS 5/4-109) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-109)
    Sec. 4-109. Condition of bond. The condition of the bond shall be applicable to additional certified copies of the order for attachment as well as to the first certified copy of the order for attachment and shall be substantially in the following form:
    The condition of this obligation is such, that whereas the plaintiff has on (insert date) applied for an order for attachment in the above entitled action of .... against the estate of the above named ..... Now, if the .... shall prosecute the action with effect, or in the case of failure therein shall satisfy all costs which may be awarded to .... or to any person or persons interested in the property attached, and all damages and costs which shall be recovered against the plaintiff for wrongfully obtaining the order for attachment, then the above obligation to be void; otherwise to remain in full force and effect.
    Additional bonds shall not be required for obtaining additional certified copies, except as provided in Section 4-115 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 91-357, eff. 7-29-99.)

735 ILCS 5/4-110

    (735 ILCS 5/4-110) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-110)
    Sec. 4-110. Order for attachment. The order for attachment required in the preceding section shall be directed to the sheriff (and, for purpose only of service of summons, to any person authorized to serve summons), or in case the sheriff is interested, or otherwise disqualified or prevented from acting, to the coroner of the county in which the action is commenced, and shall be made returnable on a return day designated by the plaintiff, which day shall not be less than 10 days or more than 60 days after its date. Such order shall order the officer to attach so much of the estate, real or personal, of the defendant, to be found in the county, as shall be of value sufficient to satisfy the debt and costs, according to the affidavit, but in case any specific property of the defendant, found in the county, shall be described in the order, then the officer shall attach the described property only, and no other property. Such estate or property shall be so attached in the possession of the officer to secure, or so to provide, that the same may be liable to further proceedings thereupon, according to law. The order shall also direct that the officer summon the defendant to appear and answer the complaint of the plaintiff in court at a specified time or, at defendant's option, to appear at any time prior thereto and move the court to set a hearing on the order for the attachment or affidavit; and that the officer also summon any specified garnishees, to be and appear in court at a specified time to answer to what may be held by them for the defendant.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-111

    (735 ILCS 5/4-111) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-111)
    Sec. 4-111. Attachment against joint debtors. In all cases where two or more persons are jointly indebted, either as partners or otherwise, and an affidavit is filed as provided in Part 1 of Article IV of this Act, so as to bring one or more of such joint debtors within its provisions, and amenable to an action for attachment, then the order for attachment shall be entered against the property and the effects of such as are so brought within the provisions of Part 1 of Article IV of this Act; and the officer shall be also directed to summon, all defendants to the action, whether the action for attachment is against them or not, to answer the action, as in other cases of joint defendants.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-112

    (735 ILCS 5/4-112) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-112)
    Sec. 4-112. Serving of order. Such officer shall without delay serve the order for attachment upon the property described in the order, or in the absence of such description, upon the lands, tenements, goods, chattels, rights, credits, moneys and effects of the debtor, or upon any lands and tenements in and to which such debtor has or may claim any equitable interest or title, of sufficient value to satisfy the claim sworn to, with costs of the action.
    Except as provided in Section 4-116 of this Act, the order for attachment may be levied only in the county in which the order is entered, and by a proper officer of that county.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-113

    (735 ILCS 5/4-113) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-113)
    Sec. 4-113. Certificate of levy. When an order for attachment is levied upon any real estate, in any case, it shall be the duty of the officer making the levy to file a certificate of such fact with the recorder of the county where such land is situated; and from and after the filing of the same, such levy shall take effect, as to creditors and bona fide purchasers, without notice, and not before.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-114

    (735 ILCS 5/4-114) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-114)
    Sec. 4-114. Serving defendant. The officer shall also serve a certified copy of the order upon the defendant therein, if he or she can be found, in like manner as provided for service of summons in other civil cases. Such service upon the defendant shall be made as soon as possible after the entry of the order for attachment upon the property described in the order, but in no event later than 5 days thereafter. Failure to make such service upon the defendant within the time provided shall in the absence of good cause shown for such delay, be ground for vacating of the attachment order upon motion of the defendant made at any time. The return of the order shall state the particular manner in which the order was served. If the certified copy of the order is served upon the defendant less than 10 days before the return day thereof, the defendant shall not be compelled to appear or plead until 15 days after the return day designated in the order. The certified copy of the order for attachment may be served as a summons upon defendants wherever they may be found in the State, by any person authorized to serve process in like manner as summons in other civil cases.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-115

    (735 ILCS 5/4-115) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-115)
    Sec. 4-115. Additional certified copies. (a) When it appears by the return of the officer that the defendant or property of the defendant is not found, or that a garnishee designated by the order for attachment has not been served, additional certified copies of the order for attachment may be issued by the clerk of court on the application of the plaintiff.
    (b) Additional certified copies of the order for attachment may also issue on the application of the plaintiff where the property attached, or the property found to be in the possession of the garnishee or garnishees, is not of a value sufficient to satisfy the claim sworn to, with costs of the action. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable to cases in which the court order describes specific property to be attached.
    (c) When the order for attachment is directed against specific property of the defendant and only a portion of the property described is attached, or the property found to be in the possession of the garnishee or garnishees, is not of a value sufficient to satisfy the claim sworn to, with costs of action, a certified copy of the order for attachment against the remainder of the property described, may be issued by the clerk of court upon the application of the plaintiff. A certified copy of the order for attachment may also issue where additional specific property is desired to be attached, but before such certified copy shall issue the plaintiff shall furnish an additional bond in accordance with Section 4-108 of this Act, in double the value of the additional specific property. Where an order for attachment covering specific property has been entered, a certified copy of the order for attachment may be issued by the clerk of court on the application of the plaintiff directing the sheriff to attach sufficient property of the defendant, which, together with the specific property already attached, if any, will equal the amount of the plaintiff's claim, and before such certified copy shall issue the plaintiff shall furnish in accordance with Section 4-107 of this Act an additional bond in amount double the value of the additional property to be attached.
    (d) When an additional certified copy is issued, the defendant shall be served, if he or she can be found, and return shall be made, and the same proceedings shall be had, as though such additional certified copy was the original certified copy.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-116

    (735 ILCS 5/4-116) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-116)
    Sec. 4-116. Pursuit of property. If the defendant, or any person for him or her, shall be in the act of removing any personal property, the officer may pursue and take the same in any county in this State, and return the same to the county from which such order for attachment issued.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-117

    (735 ILCS 5/4-117) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-117)
    Sec. 4-117. Serving on Sunday. If it shall appear, by the affidavit, that a debtor is actually absconding, or concealed, or stands in defiance of an officer duly authorized to arrest him or her on civil process, or has departed this State with the intention of having his or her effects and personal estate removed out of the State, or intends to depart with such intention, it shall be lawful for the clerk to issue, and sheriff or other officer to serve a certified copy of the order for attachment against such debtor, on a Sunday as on any other day.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-118

    (735 ILCS 5/4-118) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-118)
    Sec. 4-118. Certified copies of order to other county. The creditor may, at the same time, or at any time before judgment, cause a certified copy of an order for attachment to be issued to any other county in the State where the debtor may have property liable to be attached, which shall be levied as other certified copies of orders for attachment.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-119

    (735 ILCS 5/4-119) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-119)
    Sec. 4-119. Forthcoming bond. The officer serving the order for attachment shall take and retain the custody and possession of the property attached, to answer and abide by the judgment of the court, unless the person in whose possession the same is found shall enter into bond and security to the officer, to be approved by the officer, in double the value of the property so attached with condition that the estate and property shall be forthcoming to answer the judgment of the court in the action. The sheriff, or other officer shall return such bond to the court in which the action was brought, on the day to which such order for attachment is returnable.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-120

    (735 ILCS 5/4-120) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-120)
    Sec. 4-120. Bond or recognizance to pay judgment. Any defendant in attachment, desiring the return of property attached, may, at his or her option, instead of or in substitution for the bond required in the preceding section, give like bond and security, in a sum sufficient to cover the amount due sworn to in behalf of the plaintiff, with all interest, damages and costs of the action, conditioned that the defendant will pay the plaintiff the amount of the judgment and costs which may be entered against him or her in that action, on a final trial, within 90 days after such judgment shall be entered or a recognizance, in substance hereinabove stated, may be taken by the court, and filed of record, in which case the court shall approve of the security and the recognizance made to the plaintiff, and upon a forfeiture of such recognizance judgment may be entered and enforced as in other cases of recognizance. In either case, the attachment shall be dissolved, and the property taken restored, and all previous proceedings, either against the sheriff or against the garnishees, set aside, and the cause shall proceed as if the defendant had been seasonably served with a summons.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-121

    (735 ILCS 5/4-121) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-121)
    Sec. 4-121. Neglect of officer to take bond. If the sheriff fails to return a bond taken by virtue of the provisions of Part 1 of Article IV of this Act, or has neglected to take one when he or she ought to have done so, in any attachment entered under any of the provisions of Part 1 of Article IV of this Act, the plaintiff in the attachment may cause a rule to be entered at any time during the first 10 days after the day on which the order is returnable requiring the sheriff to return the bond; or in case no bond has been taken, to show cause why such bond was not taken. If the sheriff does not return the bond within one day thereafter, or show legal and sufficient cause why the bond has not been taken, judgment shall be entered against the sheriff for the amount of the plaintiff's claim, with costs of the action. Enforcement may thereupon be had after judgment is entered against the defendant in the attachment action.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-122

    (735 ILCS 5/4-122) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-122)
    Sec. 4-122. Neglect to return sufficient bond. The plaintiff may, within 30 days after the return of such bond, except to the sufficiency thereof, reasonable notice of such exception having been given to the sheriff or other officer who took the same, and if, upon hearing, the court shall adjudge such security insufficient, such sheriff shall be subject to the same judgment and recovery and have the same liberty of defense as if the sheriff had been made defendant in the attachment, unless good and sufficient security shall be given within such time as may be directed by the court, and enforcement may be had thereupon as in other cases of judgment for the payment of money. Whenever the judgment of the plaintiff, or any part thereof shall be paid or satisfied by any such sheriff, he or she shall have the same remedy against the defendant for the amount so paid by him or her as is now provided by law for bail against their principal where a judgment is paid or satisfied by them.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-123

    (735 ILCS 5/4-123) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-123)
    Sec. 4-123. Action on bond. If the plaintiff does not object to the bond taken by the sheriff, or the objections are not sustained, and such bond is forfeited, the plaintiff in the attachment may bring an action thereon in his or her own name, the same as if such bond had been assigned to him or her, and judgment shall be entered for the plaintiff against the obligors in the bond for the value of the property, or if the property is greater than the amount due upon the judgment, then for the amount due and costs of the action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-124

    (735 ILCS 5/4-124) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-124)
    Sec. 4-124. Live stock. When any sheriff or other officer enforces an order for attachment by taking possession of horses, cattle or live stock, and the same are not immediately replevied or restored to the debtor, such officer shall provide sufficient sustenance for the support of such live stock until the live stock is sold or discharged from such attachment. The sheriff or other officer shall receive therefor a reasonable compensation, to be ascertained and determined by the court in which the attachment order was entered, and charged in the fee bill of such officer, and shall be collectible as part of the costs.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-125

    (735 ILCS 5/4-125) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-125)
    Sec. 4-125. Perishable property. When any goods and chattels are levied on by virtue for any order of attachment, and the sheriff or other officer having custody of such goods and chattels is of the opinion that they are of a perishable nature and in danger of immediate waste or decay, such sheriff or other officer shall demand that the plaintiff in such attachment obtain from the court which entered the order for attachment an order permitting such property to be sold not later than 24 hours after the levy has been made, upon due notice of sale to the defendant and to the public as the court in its order shall require. The money derived from such sale shall be applied to satisfy the judgment entered in the attachment action, and deposited with the clerk of the court to which the certified copy of the order for attachment is returnable.
    If the plaintiff in the attachment fails or refuses to obtain such an order for sale of perishable property, the sheriff or other officer making the levy shall be absolved of all responsibility to any person for loss occasioned by the failure to sell or care for such perishable property. The demand of the sheriff or other officer shall be in writing and shall be delivered to the plaintiff or his or her attorney or agent, and to the defendant if found. If defendant is not found, a copy of the demand shall be posted on the premises where the perishable items are located. Plaintiff's motion for an order of sale of perishable property shall be treated as an emergency motion.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-126

    (735 ILCS 5/4-126) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-126)
    Sec. 4-126. Summoning garnishees. The sheriff or any other person authorized to serve summons shall, in like manner as summons are served in ordinary civil cases, summon, wherever they may be found in the State, the persons mentioned in such order for attachment as garnishees and all other persons whom the creditor shall designate as having any property, effects, choses in action or credits in their possession or power, belonging to the defendant, or who are in anyway indebted to such defendant, the same as if their names had been inserted in such order for attachment. The persons so summoned shall be considered as garnishees. The return shall state the names of all persons so summoned, and the date of such service on each.
    Persons summoned as garnishees shall thereafter hold any property, effects, choses in action or credits in their possession or power belonging to the defendant which are not exempt, subject to the court's order in such proceeding, and shall not pay to the defendant any indebtedness owed to him or her subject to such order, and such property, effects, choses in action, credits and debts shall be considered to have been attached and the plaintiff's claim to have become a lien thereon pending such action.
(Source: P.A. 89-364, eff. 1-1-96.)

735 ILCS 5/4-127

    (735 ILCS 5/4-127) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-127)
    Sec. 4-127. Notice by publication and mail. When it shall appear by the affidavit filed or by the return of the officer, that a defendant in any attachment action is not a resident of this State, or the defendant has departed from this State, or on due inquiry cannot be found, or is concealed within this State, so that the order for attachment cannot be served upon him or her, and that property of the defendant has been attached, or that persons having such property or effects, choses in action or credits belonging to defendant, or owing debts to him or her, have been summoned as garnishees, it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court in which the action is pending to give notice, by publication at least once in each week for 3 weeks successively, in some newspaper published in this State, most convenient to the place where the court is held, of such attachment or garnishment, and at whose action, against whose estate, for what sum, and before what court the same is pending, and that unless the defendant shall appear, give bail, and plead within the time limited for his or her appearance in such case, judgment will be entered, and the estate so attached or garnisheed sold or otherwise disposed of as provided by law. Such clerk shall, within 10 days after the first publication of such notice, send a copy thereof by mail, addressed to such defendant, if the place of residence is stated in such affidavit; and the certificate of the clerk that he or she has sent such notice in pursuance of this section, shall be evidence of that fact.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-128

    (735 ILCS 5/4-128) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-128)
    Sec. 4-128. Default. No default or proceeding shall be taken against any defendant not served with summons within the State and not appearing, unless the first publication or personal service outside of the State be at least 30 days prior to the day at which such default or proceeding is proposed to be taken.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-129

    (735 ILCS 5/4-129) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-129)
    Sec. 4-129. Continuance for want of publication. If for want of due publication or service the cause is continued, the same proceedings shall be had at a subsequent return day to be fixed by the court, as might have been had at the return day at which the certified copy of the order for attachment was returnable.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-130

    (735 ILCS 5/4-130) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-130)
    Sec. 4-130. Filing complaint. The complaint shall be filed 10 days before the return day of the certified copy of the order for attachment, and if so filed the defendant, subject to the provisions of Section 4-114 of this Act, shall file his or her answer or otherwise plead on or before that day. If the complaint is not so filed the defendant shall not be compelled to appear or answer until 15 days after the return day designated in the order for attachment and if the complaint is not filed within 5 days after the return day designated in the order for attachment the defendant may, in the discretion of the court have the action dismissed.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-131

    (735 ILCS 5/4-131) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-131)
    Sec. 4-131. Pleadings. The defendant may answer, denying the facts stated in the affidavit upon which the order for attachment was entered which answer shall be verified by affidavit; and if, upon the trial thereon, the issue is found for the plaintiff, the defendant may answer the complaint or file a motion directed thereto as in other civil cases, but if found for the defendant, the order for attachment shall be set aside, and the costs of the attachment shall be adjudged against the plaintiff, but the action shall proceed to final judgment as in other civil cases.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-132

    (735 ILCS 5/4-132) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-132)
    Sec. 4-132. Amendments. Subject to the requirements of Section 4-137 of this Act, no order for attachment shall be vacated, nor the property taken thereon restored, nor any garnishee discharged, nor any bond by him or her given canceled, nor any rule entered against the sheriff discharged, on account of any insufficiency of the original affidavit, order for attachment or attachment bond, if the plaintiff, or some credible person for him, her or it shall cause a legal and sufficient affidavit or attachment bond to be filed, or the order to be amended, in such time and manner as the court shall direct; and in that event the cause shall proceed as if such proceedings had originally been sufficient.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-133

    (735 ILCS 5/4-133) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-133)
    Sec. 4-133. Seeking wrong remedy not fatal. Where relief is sought under Part 1 of Article IV of this Act and the court determines, on motion directed to the pleadings, or on motion for summary judgment or upon trial, that the plaintiff has pleaded or established facts which entitle the plaintiff to relief but that the plaintiff has sought the wrong remedy, the court shall permit the pleadings to be amended, on just and reasonable terms, and the court shall grant the relief to which plaintiff is entitled on the amended pleadings or upon the evidence. In considering whether a proposed amendment is just and reasonable, the court shall consider the right of the defendant to assert additional defenses, to demand a trial by jury, to plead a counterclaim or third party complaint, and to order the plaintiff to take additional steps which were not required under the pleadings as previously filed.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-134

    (735 ILCS 5/4-134) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-134)
    Sec. 4-134. Intervention. In all cases of attachment, any person, other than the defendant, claiming the property attached, or garnisheed may intervene, verifying his or her petition by affidavit, without giving bond, but such property shall not thereby be replevied; and the court shall immediately (unless good cause be shown by either party for a continuance) direct a jury to be impaneled to inquire into the right of the property. In all cases where the jury finds for the claimant, and that such claimant is also entitled to the possession of all or any part of such property, the court shall enter judgment for such claimant accordingly and order the property attached or garnisheed to which such claimant is entitled to be delivered to such claimant, and the payment of his or her costs in such action. In cases where the jury finds for a claimant but further finds that such claimant is not then entitled to the possession of any such property, such claimant shall be entitled to his or her costs; and where the jury find for the plaintiff in the attachment, such plaintiff shall recover his or her costs against such claimant. If such claimant is a non-resident of the State he or she shall file security for costs as in cases of non-resident plaintiffs.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-135

    (735 ILCS 5/4-135) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-135)
    Sec. 4-135. Counterclaim. Any defendant against whom an order for attachment is entered under Part 1 of Article IV of this Act, may avail himself or herself of any counterclaim as provided in Section 2-608 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-136

    (735 ILCS 5/4-136) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-136)
    Sec. 4-136. Substitution of parties. The provisions in regard to joinder, nonjoinder or misjoinder of parties applicable to other civil cases, shall be applicable to attachment proceedings; and when any action has been commenced in the name of the wrong party as plaintiff, the court, if satisfied that it has been so commenced through mistake, and that it is necessary for the determination of the real matter in dispute so to do, may allow any other party or parties to be substituted.
    No change of parties made, or any other amendment made by order of court, shall impair any previous attachment of the estate of any defendant remaining in the action, nor impair any recognizance or bond given by any party remaining either as against the defendant, defendants, his, hers, its, or their sureties. No sureties shall be released by reason of any amendment made by order of court.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-137

    (735 ILCS 5/4-137) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-137)
    Sec. 4-137. Prompt hearing. At any time after the entry of an order for attachment, upon motion of the defendant, the court shall set a hearing on the order or affidavit. The hearing shall be held as soon as possible after the motion by the defendant, but shall not be more than 5 days after service of notice on the plaintiff.
    At the hearing, either party may introduce affidavits or oral testimony. The order for attachment shall be vacated unless the plaintiff shows by a preponderance of evidence that a cause for the entry of the order exists, and unless the plaintiff demonstrates to the court the probability that he, she or it will ultimately prevail in the action.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-138

    (735 ILCS 5/4-138) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-138)
    Sec. 4-138. Proceedings in aid. Upon the return of certified copies of orders for attachment issued in aid of actions pending, unless it shall appear that the defendant or defendants have been served with process in the original action, notice of the pendency of the action, and of the issue and levy of the order for attachment, shall be given as is required in cases of original attachment; and such notification shall be sufficient to entitle the plaintiff to judgment, and the right to proceed thereon against the property and estate attached, and against garnishees, in the same manner and with like effect as if the action had been commenced as an original action for attachment.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-139

    (735 ILCS 5/4-139) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-139)
    Sec. 4-139. Effect of judgment. When the defendant has been served with the order for attachment, or appears in the action, the judgment shall have the same force and effect as in other civil cases; and enforcement may be had thereon, not only against the property attached, but the other property of the defendant.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-140

    (735 ILCS 5/4-140) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-140)
    Sec. 4-140. Judgment by default. When the defendant is notified as hereinabove stated, but not served with an order for attachment within the State, and does not appear and answer the action, judgment by default may be entered, which may be proceeded upon to final judgment as in other cases of default, but in no case shall judgment be entered against the defendant for a greater sum than appears, by the affidavit of the plaintiff, to have been due at the time of obtaining the order for attachment, with interest, damages and costs; and such judgment shall bind, and enforcement had against the property, credits and effects attached, and such judgment shall not be enforced from any other property of the defendant; nor shall such judgment be any evidence of debt against the defendant in any subsequent cases.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-141

    (735 ILCS 5/4-141) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-141)
    Sec. 4-141. Property levied upon. The property attached may be levied upon by judgment entered in the attachment action, whether in the possession of the officer or secured by bond as provided in Part 1 of Article IV of this Act, and shall be sold as other property levied upon for the enforcement of a judgment for the payment of money.
(Source: P.A. 82-783.)

735 ILCS 5/4-142

    (735 ILCS 5/4-142) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-142)
    Sec. 4-142. Division of proceeds. All judgments for the payment of money in actions for attachment against the same defendant, returnable on the same day, and all judgments in other civil cases or orders for attachment against such defendant, recovered within 30 days from the day when the judgment in the first attachment upon which judgment is recovered is entered, shall share pro rata, according to the amount of the several judgments, in the proceeds of the property attached, either in the possession of a garnishee or otherwise. If the property is attached while the defendant is removing the same or after the same has been removed from the county, and the same is overtaken and returned, or while the same is secreted by the defendant, or placed out of his or her possession for the purpose of defrauding his or her creditors, the court may allow the creditor or creditors through whose diligence the same has been secured a priority over other attachment or judgment creditors.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-143

    (735 ILCS 5/4-143) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-143)
    Sec. 4-143. Officer to divide proceeds. Upon issuing a certified copy of a judgment for the enforcement thereof against any property attached, the proceeds of which shall be required to be divided, the clerk shall, at the same time, prepare and deliver to the sheriff or other officer to whom the certified copy of the judgment is delivered, a statement of all judgments, with the costs thereon, which shall be entitled to share in such proceeds, and when any judgment creditor shall have been allowed a priority over the other judgment creditors, the same shall be stated. Upon the receipt of such proceeds by the sheriff or other officer, he or she shall divide and pay over the same to the several judgment creditors entitled to share in the same in the proportion they shall be entitled thereto.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-144

    (735 ILCS 5/4-144) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-144)
    Sec. 4-144. Payment into court. The court may, at any time before the proceeds of any attached property have been paid over to the judgment creditors, order the whole or any part thereof to be deposited with the clerk of the court, and the court may enter any and all orders concerning the same as it deems just.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-145

    (735 ILCS 5/4-145) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-145)
    Sec. 4-145. Sale of live stock. When any live stock is levied upon in any attachment proceeding, the plaintiff may apply to the court in which the action is pending for an order of sale thereof, and if it shall appear that the stock is fit for market, or that if not sold will depreciate in value, then the court shall order a sale of the property on such terms as shall seem proper, and the proceeds shall be deposited with the clerk of the court in which the action is pending until determined by the court, and then be paid to the successful party in the action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. IV Pt. 2

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. IV Pt. 2 heading)
Part 2. Watercraft

735 ILCS 5/4-201

    (735 ILCS 5/4-201) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-201)
    Sec. 4-201. Liens in general. Every sail vessel, steamboat, steam dredge, tug boat, scow, canal boat, barge, lighter, and other water craft of above five tons burthen, used or intended to be used in navigating the waters or canals of this State, or used in trade and commerce between ports and places within this State, or having their home port in this State, shall be subject to a lien thereon, which lien shall extend to the tackle, apparel and furniture of such craft, as follows:
        1. For all debts contracted by the owner or part
    
owner, master, clerk, steward, agent or ship's husband of such craft, on account of supplies and provisions furnished for the use of such water craft, on account of work done or services rendered on board of such craft by any seaman, master or other employee thereof, or on account of work done or materials furnished by mechanics, tradesmen or others, in or about the building, repairing, fitting, furnishing or equipping such craft.
        2. For all sums due for wharfage, anchorage or dock
    
hire, including the use of dry docks.
        3. For sums due for towage, labor at pumping out or
    
raising, when sunk or disabled, and to shipshusband or agent of such water craft, for disbursement due by the owner on account of such water craft.
        4. For all damages arising for the nonperformance of
    
any contract of affreightment, or of any contract touching the transportation of property entered into by the master, owner, agent or consignee of such water craft, where any such contract is made in this state.
        5. For all damages arising from injuries done to
    
persons or property by such water craft, whether the same are aboard said vessel or not, where the same shall have occurred through the negligence or misconduct of the owner, agent, master or employee thereon; but the craft shall not be liable for any injury or damage received by one of the crew from another member of the crew.
(Source: P.A. 95-331, eff. 8-21-07.)

735 ILCS 5/4-202

    (735 ILCS 5/4-202) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-202)
    Sec. 4-202. Lien on goods for freight. There shall also be a lien upon the goods, wares and merchandise shipped, taken in and put aboard any such water craft for sums due for freight, advanced charges and demurrage, which shall be collected against the goods, wares and merchandise in the same manner as hereinafter provided in Part 2 of Article IV of this Act, in cases of sums due against such water craft.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-203

    (735 ILCS 5/4-203) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-203)
    Sec. 4-203. Limitation. Any such lien may be enforced in the manner herein provided at any time within 5 years. However, no creditor shall be allowed to enforce such lien as against, or to the prejudice of any other creditor or subsequent incumbrancer, or bona fide purchaser, unless proceedings are instituted to enforce such lien within 9 months after the indebtedness accrues or becomes due.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-204

    (735 ILCS 5/4-204) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-204)
    Sec. 4-204. Complaint. The person claiming to have a lien under the provisions of Part 2 of Article IV of this Act may file in the circuit court, in the county where any such water craft may be found, a complaint, setting forth the nature of his or her claim, the amount due after allowing all payments and just offsets, the name of the water craft, and the name and residence of each owner known to the plaintiff; and when any owner or his or her place of residence is not known to the plaintiff, he or she shall so state, and that he or she has made inquiry and is unable to ascertain the same, which complaint shall be verified by the affidavit of the plaintiff or his or her agent or attorney. If the claim is upon an account or instrument in writing, a copy of the same shall be attached to the complaint.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-205

    (735 ILCS 5/4-205) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-205)
    Sec. 4-205. Bond. The plaintiff, or his or her agent or attorney, shall also file with such complaint a bond, payable to the owner of the craft to be attached, or, if unknown, to the unknown owners thereof, in at least double the amount of the claim, with security to be approved by the court, conditioned that the plaintiff shall prosecute his or her action with effect, or, in case of failure therein, will pay all costs and damages which the owner or other person interested in such water craft may sustain, in consequence of the wrongful suing out of such attachment, which bond may be sued by any owner or person interested, in the same manner as if it had been given to such person by his or her proper name. Only such persons shall be required to join in such suit as have a joint interest. Others may allege breaches and have assessment of damages, as in other actions on penal bonds.
(Source: P.A. 84-631.)

735 ILCS 5/4-206

    (735 ILCS 5/4-206) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-206)
    Sec. 4-206. Designation of defendants. Upon the filing of such complaint and bond, the court shall enter an order for attachment against the owners of such water craft, directed to the sheriff of the county, or other officer if the sheriff is disqualified or unavailable to attach such water craft. Such owners may be designated by their reputed names, by surnames, and joint defendants by their separate or partnership names, or by such names, styles or titles as they are usually known. If the name of any owner is unknown, he or she may be designated as unknown owner.
(Source: P.A. 84-631.)

735 ILCS 5/4-207

    (735 ILCS 5/4-207) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-207)
    Sec. 4-207. Order. The order shall command the sheriff or other officer to attach the vessel, its tackle, apparel and furniture, to satisfy such claim and costs, and all such claims as shall be exhibited against such vessel according to law, and having attached the same, to summon the owners of such vessel, to be and appear before the court on a specified date to answer what may be claimed against them and the vessel.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-208

    (735 ILCS 5/4-208) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-208)
    Sec. 4-208. Serving of order. The sheriff or other officer to whom such order for attachment is directed shall forthwith serve a certified copy of the order upon such defendant as summons is served in other civil cases, and attaching the vessel, her tackle, apparel and furniture, and shall keep the same until disposed of as hereinafter provided. The sheriff or other officer shall also, on or before the return day in such order, or at any time after the service thereof, make a return to the court, stating therein particularly his or her doings in the premises, and shall make, subscribe and annex thereto a just and true inventory of all the property so attached.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-209

    (735 ILCS 5/4-209) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-209)
    Sec. 4-209. Only one attachment. Whenever such order for attachment is entered and served, no other order for attachment shall be entered against the same water craft, unless the first attachment is discharged, or the vessel is bonded.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-210

    (735 ILCS 5/4-210) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-210)
    Sec. 4-210. Notice by publication and mail. Upon return being made to such order, unless the vessel has been bonded, as hereinafter provided, the clerk shall immediately cause notice to be given in the same manner as required in other cases of attachment. The notice shall contain, in addition to that required in other cases of attachment, a notice to all persons to intervene for their interests on a day certain, or that the claim will be heard ex parte.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-211

    (735 ILCS 5/4-211) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-211)
    Sec. 4-211. Seeking wrong remedy not fatal. Where relief is sought under Part 2 of Article IV of this Act and the court determines, on motion directed to the pleadings, or on motion for summary judgment or upon trial, that the plaintiff has pleaded or established facts which entitle the plaintiff to relief but that the plaintiff has sought the wrong remedy, the court shall permit the pleadings to be amended, on just and reasonable terms, and the court shall grant the relief to which the plaintiff is entitled on the amended pleadings or upon the evidence. In considering whether a proposed amendment is just and reasonable, the court shall consider the right of the defendant to assert additional defenses, to demand a trial by jury, to plead a counterclaim or third party complaint, and to order the plaintiff to take additional steps which were not required under the pleadings as previously filed.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-212

    (735 ILCS 5/4-212) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-212)
    Sec. 4-212. Intervention. Any person having a lien upon or any interest in the water craft attached, may intervene to protect such interest, by filing a petition, entitled an intervening petition; and any person interested may be made a defendant at his or her request, or that of any party to the action, and may defend any petition by filing an answer as hereinafter provided, and giving security, satisfactory to the court, to pay any costs arising from such defense; and upon the filing of any intervening petition, a summons, as hereinbefore provided, shall issue; and if the same shall be returned not served, notice by publication may be given as hereinabove stated and several intervening petitioners may be united with each other, or the original, in one notice.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-213

    (735 ILCS 5/4-213) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-213)
    Sec. 4-213. Bond by intervenor. Any person intervening to enforce any lien or claims adverse to the owners of the craft attached shall, at the time of filing the petition, file with the clerk a bond as in the case of original attachment.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-214

    (735 ILCS 5/4-214) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-214)
    Sec. 4-214. Intervening petition. Intervening petitions may be filed at any time before the vessel is bonded, as provided in Section 4-216 of this Act, or, if the same is not so bonded, before order for distribution of the proceeds of the sale of the craft, and the same proceeding shall thereupon be had as in the case of claims filed before sale.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-215

    (735 ILCS 5/4-215) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-215)
    Sec. 4-215. Liens not filed cease. All liens upon any water craft which are not filed hereunder before sale under judgment, as hereinafter provided, shall cease.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-216

    (735 ILCS 5/4-216) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-216)
    Sec. 4-216. Bonding vessel. The owner, his or her agent or attorney, or any other person interested in such water craft, desiring the return of the property attached, having first given notice to the plaintiff, his or her agent or attorney, of his or her intention to bond the same, may, at any time before judgment, file with the court in which the action is pending, a bond to the parties, having previously filed a complaint or intervening petition against such craft, in a penalty at least double the aggregate of all sums alleged to be due the several plaintiffs or intervening petitioners, with security to be approved by the court, conditioned that the obligors will pay all moneys adjudged to be due such claimants, with costs of the action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-217

    (735 ILCS 5/4-217) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-217)
    Sec. 4-217. Appraisement - Restitution - Sale. If the owner, his or her agent or attorney, or other party in interest, so elect, in place of bonding, as heretofore provided, such person may apply to the court upon like notice, for an order of appraisement of such water-craft so seized, by three competent persons to be appointed by the court and named in the order, and upon such party depositing with the clerk the amount of such appraisement in money, or executing or filing with the clerk a bond for such amount, executed as provided in the preceding section, the court shall enter an order of restitution, as provided in the next section, and if the claimant of such water-craft shall decline any such application, or neglect within 20 days to accept such appraisement and make the deposit, or give bond as hereinabove stated, or the property seized shall be liable to decay, depreciation or injury from delay, the court, in its discretion, may order the same or part thereof to be sold, and the proceeds thereof to be brought into court to abide the results of the action.
(Source: P.A. 84-631.)

735 ILCS 5/4-218

    (735 ILCS 5/4-218) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-218)
    Sec. 4-218. Order of restitution. Upon receiving a bond or deposit, as provided in either of the foregoing sections, the court shall enter an order of restitution, directing the officer who attached the water-craft to deliver the same to the person from whose possession it was taken, and the water-craft shall be discharged from all the liens secured by such bond or deposit, unless the court, upon motion, orders it again into custody on account of the insufficiency or insolvency of the surety.
(Source: P.A. 84-631.)

735 ILCS 5/4-219

    (735 ILCS 5/4-219) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-219)
    Sec. 4-219. Additional security. If any plaintiff or intervening petitioner, at any time, deems his or her security insufficient, or has become imperiled, he or she may, by motion supported by affidavit filed, and upon notice served with copy of such affidavit and motion, move the court to direct the giving of additional security, which motion shall be promptly heard and determined, and such order made therein as justice shall require; and the court may enforce all orders so made by attachment for contempt against persons, or by orders against such water-craft, or otherwise.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-220

    (735 ILCS 5/4-220) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-220)
    Sec. 4-220. Answer - Default. Within 3 days after the return day of summons - if personally served 10 days before the day on which it is returnable, or within 13 days after such return day, if personally served less than 10 days prior thereto, or if not personally served, then within the time prescribed in the published notice - the owner or any person interested adversely to the claims mentioned in the notice, unless on cause shown, further time shall be allowed by the court, shall plead to the complaint as in other civil cases. If an answer is filed, the answer shall respond completely and distinctly to each allegation of the complaint, and shall be supported by affidavit. If no such answer or motion, together with an affidavit is filed within the time above specified, the plaintiff is entitled to an order of default, and the claim may be proved and judgment entered as in other civil cases.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-221

    (735 ILCS 5/4-221) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-221)
    Sec. 4-221. Judgment when vessel discharged. If, after trial, judgment is entered in favor of the plaintiff, and the water craft has been discharged from custody as herein provided, the judgment shall be entered against the principal and sureties in the bond. In no case shall the judgment exceed the penalty of the bond, and the subsequent proceedings shall be the same as now provided by law in actions in personam. If the release has been upon deposit, the judgment shall be paid out of the deposit.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-222

    (735 ILCS 5/4-222) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-222)
    Sec. 4-222. Judgment when vessel in custody. In case the water craft has not been discharged from custody, the judgment shall be that the same, with the appurtenances, be sold at public sale by the sheriff, after notice of the time and place of the sale, published as herein required in cases of seizure, at least 10 days before such sale. In case of petition filed prior to distribution, the judgment shall be for payment out of the proceeds of sale, and in case of claims filed against surplus proceeds, the judgment, if in favor of the petitioner, shall, in substance, affirm the claim to be sustained, and direct payment thereof from the surplus proceeds.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-223

    (735 ILCS 5/4-223) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-223)
    Sec. 4-223. Order of sale. The court shall thereupon enter an order of sale, commanding the sheriff to sell such water craft as directed in the judgment, and to return the certified copy of the order of sale within 24 hours after the sale, with his or her doings in the premises, and with proof by affidavit of the requisite notice, with a copy of such notice.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-224

    (735 ILCS 5/4-224) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-224)
    Sec. 4-224. Proceedings on sale. It shall be the duty of the sheriff, upon receiving the amount of the bid at any sale, either before or after judgment, from the purchaser, or in case the purchaser is the plaintiff or an intervenor, upon receiving so much of the bid as the court directs by order, reference being had to the relative amount of the buyer's claim, to deliver such water craft and appurtenances to the purchaser, with a bill of sale thereof, and to return and to deliver to the clerk of court the amount received on such sale.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-225

    (735 ILCS 5/4-225) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-225)
    Sec. 4-225. Bill of sale. A copy of the last enrollment, if any, of such water craft shall be recited in the bill of sale if such copy can be obtained, and a copy of the judgment, with the order of sale, or if such craft is sold pursuant to an order before judgment, a copy of such order shall also be recited in such bill of sale, certified by the clerk, under the seal of the court; and such bill of sale shall be full and complete evidence of the regularity of the judgment or order and sale, in all courts and places, and shall supersede the necessity of any other proof thereof to validate the bill of sale; and all bills of sale containing such recital, and supported by such proof, are effectual to pass the title of such water craft.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/4-226

    (735 ILCS 5/4-226) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-226)
    Sec. 4-226. Distribution. The sum delivered by the sheriff to the clerk of court as above set out, shall be distributed by the court upon motion of any party in interest of record, and due notice to the other parties, and after the following manner:
    First - The costs accruing upon all complaints filed before distribution, and on which judgment is or may be thereafter entered in favor of plaintiff.
    Second - Seamen's (which term shall include the master) wages due upon the last two voyages, or if shipped by the month the last two months.
    Third - All other claims filed prior to order of distribution on which judgment may be entered in favor of plaintiff, together with whatever balance may be due seamen.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/4-227

    (735 ILCS 5/4-227) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-227)
    Sec. 4-227. Remnants. Any portion of the sum so paid by the sheriff to the clerk, or of a deposit remaining after such distribution as hereinabove provided, shall be denominated remnants and surplus proceeds, and where any claim or complaint is filed against the same as provided in Part 2 of Article IV of this Act, distribution shall be directed by the court after judgment upon motion and notice, as provided in Section 4-226 of this Act, and after the following order:
    First - All costs upon claims passing into judgment which were filed after distribution.
    Second - All other liens enforceable under Part 2 of Article IV of this Act against the water craft prior to distribution.
    Third - All claims upon mortgages of such water craft or other incumbrances by the owner, in proportion to the interest they cover and priority.
    Fourth - Upon petition of the creditor, all judgments against the owner, and which ought equitably to be paid out of the proceeds in preference to the owner.
    Fifth - The owner.
(Source: P.A. 91-357, eff. 7-29-99.)

735 ILCS 5/4-228

    (735 ILCS 5/4-228) (from Ch. 110, par. 4-228)
    Sec. 4-228. Power of court in distribution. In case the sum for which the water craft is sold is sufficient to pay all the claims filed before distribution, with costs thereon, and an appeal is taken as provided by law, the court may order distribution of such portion of the sum brought on sale upon judgments unappealed from as may seem just and proper.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. V

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. V heading)
ARTICLE V
COSTS

735 ILCS 5/5-101

    (735 ILCS 5/5-101) (from Ch. 110, par. 5-101)