(735 ILCS 5/2-1008)
(from Ch. 110, par. 2-1008)
change of interest or liability; substitution of
(a) Change of interest or liability. If by reason of marriage,
bankruptcy, assignment, or any other event occurring after the
commencement of a cause or proceeding, either before or after judgment,
causing a change or transmission of interest or liability, or by reason
of any person interested coming into existence after commencement of the
action, it becomes necessary or desirable that any person not already a
party be before the court, or that any person already a party be made
party in another capacity, the action does not abate, but on motion an
order may be entered that the proper parties be substituted or added,
and that the cause or proceeding be carried on with the remaining
parties and new parties, with or without a change in the title of the
(b) Death. If a party to an action dies and the action is one which
survives, the proper party or parties may be substituted by order of
court upon motion as follows:
(1) If no petition for letters of office for the
decedent's estate has been filed, the court may appoint a special representative for the deceased for the purpose of prosecuting the action. The appointment shall be on verified motion of any party who appears entitled to participate in the deceased's estate, reciting the names and last known addresses of all known heirs and the legatees and executor named in any will that has been filed. The court's determination that a person appears entitled to participate in the deceased's estate shall be solely for purposes of this Section and not determinative of rights in final disposition. Within 90 days after appointment, the special representative shall notify the heirs and legatees of the following information by mail: that an appointment has been made, the court in which the case was filed, the caption of the case, and a description of the nature of the case. The special representative shall publish notice to unknown heirs and legatees as provided in the Probate Act of 1975. If a will is filed within 90 days after the appointment of the special representative, the same notice shall be given to any additional executors and legatees named in the will. At any time that an estate is opened with a representative other than the special representative, the court may upon motion substitute the representative for the special representative. In this case, the court shall allow disbursements and fees of the special representative and his or her attorney as a claim against any proceeds received. The proceeds of any judgment or settlement shall be distributed under the provisions of the Probate Act of 1975. This paragraph (1) does not apply to actions pending under the Wrongful Death Act.
(2) If a person against whom an action has been
brought dies, and the cause of action survives and is not otherwise barred, his or her personal representative shall be substituted as a party. If no petition has been filed for letters of office for the deceased's estate, the court, upon the motion of a person bringing an action and after the notice to the party's heirs or legatees as the court directs and without opening an estate, may appoint a special representative for the deceased party for the purposes of defending the action. If a party elects to have a special representative appointed under this paragraph (2), the recovery shall be limited to the proceeds of any liability insurance protecting the estate and shall not bar the estate from enforcing any claims that might have been available to it as counterclaims.
If a motion to substitute is not
filed within 90 days
after the death is suggested of record, the action may be dismissed as
to the deceased party.
In the event of the death of a party in an action in which the right
sought to be enforced survives only as to the remaining parties to the
action, the action does not abate. The death shall be suggested of
record and the action shall proceed in favor of or against the remaining
No action brought for the use of another abates by reason of the
death of the plaintiff whose name is used but may be maintained by the
party for whose use it was brought in his or her own name upon suggesting the
death of record and the entry of an order of substitution.
(c) Legal disability. If a party is declared to be a person under legal
disability, that fact
shall be suggested of record and the prosecution or defense shall be
maintained by his or her representative, guardian ad litem or next friend, as
may be appropriate.
(d) Trustees; public officers. If any trustee or any public officer
ceases to hold the trust or office and that fact is suggested of record,
the action shall proceed in favor of or against his or her successor.
(e) Service of process. Parties against whom relief is sought,
substituted under subsection (a) hereof, shall be brought in by service
of process. Service of process on parties substituted under subsections
(b), (c), and (d) hereof is not required, but notice shall be given as
the court may direct.
(Source: P.A. 90-111, eff. 7-14-97.)