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Illinois Compiled Statutes

Information maintained by the Legislative Reference Bureau
Updating the database of the Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) is an ongoing process. Recent laws may not yet be included in the ILCS database, but they are found on this site as Public Acts soon after they become law. For information concerning the relationship between statutes and Public Acts, refer to the Guide.

Because the statute database is maintained primarily for legislative drafting purposes, statutory changes are sometimes included in the statute database before they take effect. If the source note at the end of a Section of the statutes includes a Public Act that has not yet taken effect, the version of the law that is currently in effect may have already been removed from the database and you should refer to that Public Act to see the changes made to the current law.

CIVIL PROCEDURE
(735 ILCS 5/) Code of Civil Procedure.

735 ILCS 5/Art. XII Pt. 12

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. XII Pt. 12 heading)
Part 12. Exemption in Bankruptcy

735 ILCS 5/12-1201

    (735 ILCS 5/12-1201) (from Ch. 110, par. 12-1201)
    Sec. 12-1201. Bankruptcy exemption. In accordance with the provision of Section 522(b) of the Bankruptcy Code of 1978, (11 U.S.C. 522(b)), residents of this State shall be prohibited from using the federal exemptions provided in Section 522(d) of the Bankruptcy Code of 1978 (11 U.S.C. 522(d)), except as may otherwise be permitted under the laws of Illinois.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. XII Pt. 14

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. XII Pt. 14 heading)
Part 14. Orders to Take into Custody

735 ILCS 5/12-1401

    (735 ILCS 5/12-1401) (from Ch. 110, par. 12-1401)
    Sec. 12-1401. Orders to Take Into Custody. In any civil case where an order issues to take any person into custody for any reason, the order shall contain, if known, the name, date of birth, sex, physical description, and last known address of the person to be taken into custody. It shall also contain a statement of the reason the person is to be taken into custody and the date of issuance. However, nothing herein shall impose a duty upon the court to discern or seek out any of the information relating to the date of birth, sex, physical description, or last known address of the person to be taken into custody which is not provided by a litigant. Moreover, no order is invalid by reason of its failure to contain any of the information specified herein except as otherwise required by law.
(Source: P.A. 84-942.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. XIII

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. XIII heading)
ARTICLE XIII
LIMITATIONS

735 ILCS 5/Art. XIII Pt. 1

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. XIII Pt. 1 heading)
Part 1. Real Actions

735 ILCS 5/13-101

    (735 ILCS 5/13-101) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-101)
    Sec. 13-101. Twenty years - Recovery of land. No person shall commence an action for the recovery of lands, nor make an entry thereon, unless within 20 years after the right to bring such action or make such entry first accrued, or within 20 years after he, she or those from, by, or under whom he or she claims, have acquired title or possession of the premises, except as provided in Sections 13-102 through 13-122 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-102

    (735 ILCS 5/13-102) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-102)
    Sec. 13-102. Breach of condition subsequent. No person shall commence an action for the recovery of lands, nor make an entry thereon, by reason of the breach of a condition subsequent, unless within 7 years after the time that condition is first broken. Continuing, successive or recurring breaches shall not extend the time for commencing the action or making the entry. Possession shall be deemed to be adverse and hostile from and after the first breach of a condition subsequent, notwithstanding the occurrence of successive or recurrent breaches.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-103

    (735 ILCS 5/13-103) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-103)
    Sec. 13-103. Termination of estate upon limitation. No person shall commence an action for the recovery of lands, nor make an entry thereon, by reason of the termination of an estate upon limitation or of an estate upon conditional limitation, unless within 7 years after the termination.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-104

    (735 ILCS 5/13-104) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-104)
    Sec. 13-104. Under mortgage or lease. Nothing in Sections 13-102 and 13-103 of this Act affects the time for the enforcement of any right under or by virtue of a mortgage or lease.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-105

    (735 ILCS 5/13-105) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-105)
    Sec. 13-105. Twenty years - Computation. If such right or title first accrued to an ancestor or predecessor of the person who brings the action or makes the entry, or to any person from, by, or under whom he or she claims, the 20 years shall be computed from the time when the right or title so first accrued.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-106

    (735 ILCS 5/13-106) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-106)
    Sec. 13-106. Accrual of right of entry or to bring action. The right to make an entry or bring an action to recover land shall be deemed to have first accrued at the times respectively hereinafter provided:
    (a) When any person is wrongfully ousted from possession, his or her right of entry or of action shall be deemed to have accrued at the time of such wrongful ouster.
    (b) When he or she claims as heir or legatee of an owner in possession who died, his or her right shall be deemed to have accrued at the time of such death, unless there is an estate intervening after the death of such ancestor or testator; in which case his or her right shall be deemed to accrue when such intermediate estate expires, or when it would have expired by its own limitations.
    (c) When there is such an intermediate estate, and in all other cases when the party claims by force of any remainder or reversion, his or her right, so far as it is affected by the limitation herein prescribed, shall be deemed to accrue when the intermediate or precedent estate would have expired by its own limitation, notwithstanding any forfeiture thereof for which he or she might have entered at an earlier time.
    (d) Paragraph (c) of this Section shall not prevent a person from entering when entitled to do so by reason of any forfeiture or breach of condition; but if he or she claims under such a title, his or her right shall be deemed to have accrued when the forfeiture was incurred or the condition was broken.
    (e) In all cases not otherwise specially provided for, the right shall be deemed to have accrued when the claimant, or the person under whom he or she claims, first became entitled to the possession of the premises under the title upon which the entry or the action is founded.
(Source: P.A. 84-549.)

735 ILCS 5/13-107

    (735 ILCS 5/13-107) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-107)
    Sec. 13-107. Seven years with possession and record title. Actions brought for the recovery of any lands, tenements or hereditaments of which any person may be possessed by actual residence thereon for 7 successive years, having a connected title, deductible of record, from this State or the United States, or from any public officer or other person authorized by the laws of this State to sell such land for the non-payment of taxes, or from any sheriff, marshal, or other person authorized to sell such land for the enforcement of a judgment or under any order or judgment of any court shall be brought within 7 years next after possession is taken, but when the possessor acquires such title after taking such possession, the limitation shall begin to run from the time of acquiring title.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-108

    (735 ILCS 5/13-108) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-108)
    Sec. 13-108. Right extended to heirs. The heirs, legatees and assigns of the person having such title and possession, shall have the same benefit of the preceding Section as the person from whom the possession is derived.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-109

    (735 ILCS 5/13-109) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-109)
    Sec. 13-109. Payment of taxes with color of title. Every person in the actual possession of lands or tenements, under claim and color of title, made in good faith, and who for 7 successive years continues in such possession, and also, during such time, pays all taxes legally assessed on such lands or tenements, shall be held and adjudged to be the legal owner of such lands or tenements, to the extent and according to the purport of his or her paper title. All persons holding under such possession, by purchase, legacy or descent, before such 7 years have expired, and who continue such possession, and continue to pay the taxes as above set forth so as to complete the possession and payment of taxes for the term above set forth, are entitled to the benefit of this Section.
(Source: P.A. 88-45.)

735 ILCS 5/13-110

    (735 ILCS 5/13-110) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-110)
    Sec. 13-110. Vacant land - Payment of taxes with color of title. Whenever a person having color of title, made in good faith, to vacant and unoccupied land, pays all taxes legally assessed thereon for 7 successive years, he or she shall be deemed and adjudged to be the legal owner of such vacant and unoccupied land, to the extent and according to the purport of his or her paper title. All persons holding under such taxpayer, by purchase, legacy or descent, before such 7 years expired, and who continue to pay the taxes, as above set out, so as to complete the payment of taxes for the term, are entitled to the benefit of this Section. However, if any person, having a better paper title to such vacant and unoccupied land, during the term of 7 years, pays the taxes assessed on such land for any one or more years of the term of 7 years, then such taxpayer, his or her heirs, legatees or assigns, shall not be entitled to the benefit of this Section.
(Source: P.A. 98-756, eff. 7-16-14.)

735 ILCS 5/13-111

    (735 ILCS 5/13-111) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-111)
    Sec. 13-111. State and United States. Sections 13-109 and 13-110 of this Act shall not extend to lands or tenements owned by the United States or of this State, nor to school and seminary lands, nor to lands held for the use of religious societies, nor to lands held for any public purpose. Nor shall they extend to lands or tenements when there is an adverse title to such lands or tenements, and the holder of such adverse title is a minor, person under legal disability, imprisoned, out of the limits of the United States, and in the employment of the United States or of this State. Such person shall commence an action to recover such lands or tenements so possessed, as above set out, within 3 years after the several disabilities herein enumerated cease to exist, and shall prosecute such action to judgment, or in case of vacant and unoccupied land, shall, within the time last set out, pay to the person or persons who have paid the same, all the taxes, with interest thereon, at the rate of 12% per annum, that have been paid on such vacant and unimproved land.
    The exceptions provided in this Section shall not apply to the provisions of Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-112

    (735 ILCS 5/13-112) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-112)
    Sec. 13-112. Minors and persons under legal disability. If, at the time when such right of entry or of action upon or for lands first accrues, the person entitled to such entry or action is a minor, or person under legal disability, imprisoned or absent from the United States in the service of the United States or of this State, such person or any one claiming from, by or under him or her, may make the entry or bring the action at any time within 2 years after such disability is removed, notwithstanding the time before limited in that behalf has expired.
    The exceptions provided in this Section shall not apply to the provisions of Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-113

    (735 ILCS 5/13-113) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-113)
    Sec. 13-113. Extension to heirs. If the person first entitled to make entry or bring such action dies during the continuance of any of the disabilities mentioned in Section 13-112 of this Act, and no determination or judgment has been had of or upon the title, right or action which accrued to him or her, the entry may be made or the action brought by his or her heirs or any person claiming from, by or under him or her at any time within 2 years after his or her death, notwithstanding the time before limited in that behalf has expired.
    The exceptions provided in this Section shall not apply to the provisions of Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 90-655, eff. 7-30-98.)

735 ILCS 5/13-114

    (735 ILCS 5/13-114) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-114)
    Sec. 13-114. Seventy-five year limitation. No deed, will, estate, proof of heirship, plat, affidavit or other instrument or document, or any court proceeding, order or judgment, or any agreement, written or unwritten, sealed or unsealed, or any fact, event, or statement, or any part or copy of any of the foregoing, relating to or affecting the title to real estate in the State of Illinois, which happened, was administered, or was executed, dated, delivered, recorded or entered into more than 75 years prior to July 1, 1872, or such subsequent date as the same is offered, presented, urged, claimed, asserted, or appears against any person hereafter becoming interested in the title to any real estate, or to any agent or attorney thereof, shall adversely to the party or parties hereafter coming into possession of such real estate under claim or color of title or persons claiming under him, her or them, constitute notice, either actual or constructive of any right, title, interest or claim in and to such real estate, or any part thereof, or be, or be considered to be evidence or admissible in evidence or be held or urged to make any title unmarketable in part or in whole, or be required or allowed to be alleged or proved as a basis for any action, or any statutory proceeding affecting directly or indirectly the title to such real estate.
    The limitation of this Section, however, shall be deferred from and after the expiration of such 75 year period for an additional period of 10 years, if a claim in writing in and to real estate therein particularly described, incorporating the terms or substance of any such deed, will, estate, proof of heirship, plat, affidavit, or other instrument or document, or any court proceeding, order or judgment or any agreement, written or unwritten, sealed or unsealed, or any fact, event or statement, or any part or copy thereof in such claim, is filed in the office of the recorder in the county or counties in which such real estate is located:
    1. within 3 years prior to the expiration of such 75 year period; or
    2. after the expiration of such 75 year period, by a minor or a claimant under a legal disability who became under such disability during such 75 year period and within 2 years after the disability of such minor or of the claimant a under legal disability has been removed; or
    3. after the expiration of such 75 year period, by a guardian of a minor or person who was determined by a court to be under a legal disability during such 75 year period and within 2 years after such guardian has been appointed for such minor or person under a legal disability.
    The provisions of this Section shall not apply to or operate against the United States of America or the State of Illinois or any other state of the United States of America; or as to real estate held for a public purpose by any municipality or other political subdivision of the State of Illinois; or against any person under whom the party or parties in possession during the period herein permitted for reassertion of title claim by lease or other privity of contract; or against any person who during the entire period herein permitted for reassertion of title, or prior thereto, has not had the right to sue for and protect his or her claim, interest or title.
(Source: P.A. 99-143, eff. 7-27-15.)

735 ILCS 5/13-115

    (735 ILCS 5/13-115) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-115)
    Sec. 13-115. Foreclosure of mortgage. No person shall commence an action or make a sale to foreclose any mortgage or deed of trust in the nature of a mortgage, unless within 10 years after the right of action or right to make such sale accrues.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-116

    (735 ILCS 5/13-116) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-116)
    Sec. 13-116. Lien of mortgage, trust or vendor's lien. (a) The lien of every mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, and vendor's lien, the due date of which is stated upon the face, or ascertainable from the written terms thereof, filed for record either before or after July 16, 1941, which has not ceased by limitation before July 16, 1941, shall cease by limitation after the expiration of 20 years from the time the last payment on such mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, or vendor's lien became or becomes due upon its face and according to its written terms, unless the owner of such mortgage or vendor's lien, or the owner or trustee of such trust deed in the nature of a mortgage either
    (1) Before July 16, 1941, and within such 20 year period has filed or caused to be filed for record an extension agreement showing the time for which the payment of the indebtedness is extended, and the amount remaining unpaid on such indebtedness; or
    (2) After July 16, 1941, and within such 20 year period or within one year after July 21, 1947, provided the due date of the instrument was more than 19 years before July 21, 1947, files or causes to be filed for record, either (i) an affidavit executed by himself or herself or by some person on his or her behalf, stating the amount or amounts claimed to be unpaid on the indebtedness secured by such mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, or vendor's lien; or (ii) an extension agreement executed as hereinafter provided.
    (b) The lien of every mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, and vendor's lien, in which no due date is stated upon the face, or is ascertainable from the written terms thereof, shall cease by limitation after the expiration of 30 years from the date of the instrument creating the lien, unless the owner of such mortgage or vendor's lien, or the owner or trustee of such trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, within such 30 year period or within one year after July 21, 1947, provided the date of the instrument was more than 29 years before July 21, 1947, files or causes to be filed for record either (1) an affidavit executed by himself or herself or by some person on his or her behalf, stating the amount or amounts claimed to be unpaid on the indebtedness secured by such mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, or vendor's lien; or (2) an extension agreement executed as hereinafter provided.
    The filing for record of an affidavit provided for by this Section, within such 20 or 30 year period or one year period, as the case may be, shall extend the lien for a period of 10 years after the date on which such lien would cease if neither an affidavit nor extension agreement were filed, and no more, and a subsequent affidavit filed within the last 10 year period of the lien, as extended, shall extend the lien for an additional 10 year period, and no more, but successive affidavits may be filed, each extending the lien 10 years.
    The filing for record of an extension agreement within such 20 or 30 year period or one year period, as the case may be, whether before or after July 16, 1941, shall extend the lien for 10 years from the date the final payment becomes due under such extension agreement, and no more, but subsequent extension agreements filed before the lien, as extended, ceases, shall extend the lien for an additional 10 year period from the date the final payment becomes due under such extension agreement, and no more. The filing of an extension agreement shall not be construed in any way to cause the lien to cease before it would cease if neither an extension agreement nor an affidavit were filed. Affidavits may be followed by extension agreements, and extension agreements may be followed by affidavits.
    An extension agreement executed after July 16, 1941, to be effective for the purpose of continuing the lien of any mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, or vendor's lien shall show the time for which the payment of the indebtedness secured thereby is extended and the amount remaining unpaid on such indebtedness, and shall be executed and acknowledged by the owner of the mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, or vendor's lien, or someone on his or her behalf, and by one or more persons representing himself, herself or themselves to be the then owners of the real estate. The affidavit or extension agreement shall be effective only as to the lands within the county or counties wherein such affidavit or extension agreement, or a copy thereof, is filed for record.
    When a corporation is the owner or trustee of any such mortgage, trust deed in the nature of a mortgage, or vendor's lien, the affidavit herein described shall be deemed effective for all purposes under this Section when it has been executed by any officer of such corporation, or by any person authorized by the corporation to execute such affidavit.
    The Section shall apply to mortgages, trust deeds in the nature of mortgages, and vendor's liens on both registered and unregistered lands. "Filed for record" or "the filing for record" as used in Article XIII of this Act means filing in the office of the recorder in the county in which the lands are situated, if such lands are unregistered, or in the office of the registrar of titles for such county, if such lands are registered. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to revive the lien of any such instrument which has expired by limitation before July 16, 1941.
(Source: P.A. 83-1362.)

735 ILCS 5/13-117

    (735 ILCS 5/13-117) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-117)
    Sec. 13-117. Limitation on mortgage. The lien of every mortgage or trust deed in the nature of a mortgage of record on July 1, 1915, where more than 20 years have elapsed from the time the indebtedness secured thereby is due according to its written terms, or according to any extension agreement on record on July 1, 1915, is declared to have ceased by limitation unless the holder of the indebtedness secured thereby and the then owner of the real estate within 5 years after July 1, 1915, files in the office of the recorder where the mortgage or trust deed in the nature of a mortgage is recorded, an extension agreement showing the time for which the payment of the indebtedness is extended, the time when the indebtedness will become due by the terms of the extension agreement and the amount remaining unpaid on the indebtedness, then the mortgage or trust deed in the nature of a mortgage shall continue to be a lien upon the real estate described therein for a period of 10 years from the time the indebtedness will be due as shown by the extension agreement and no longer, unless some further extension agreement is filed of record. Such extension agreements shall be acknowledged and recorded in the same manner as mortgages and trust deeds in the nature of a mortgage are required by law to be acknowledged and recorded.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-118

    (735 ILCS 5/13-118) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-118)
    Sec. 13-118. Forty year limitation on claims to real estate. No action based upon any claim arising or existing more than 40 years before the commencement of such action shall be maintained in any court to recover any real estate in this State or to recover or establish any interest therein or claim thereto, against the holder of the record title to such real estate when such holder of the record title and his or her grantors immediate or remote are shown by the record to have held chain of title to such real estate for at least 40 years before the action is commenced, unless such claimant, by himself or herself, or by his or her attorney or agent, or if he or she is a minor or under legal disability, by his or her guardian, trustee, either parent, or any other person acting in his or her behalf shall within 40 years after the claim upon which such action is based arises, file in the office of the recorder of the county wherein such real estate is situated, a verified statement definitely describing the real estate involved, the nature and extent of the right or interest claimed, and stating the facts upon which the same is based. However, the holder of the record title to such real estate shall not be entitled to the protection of Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act if the real estate is in the adverse possession of another.
    For purposes of this Section an unborn or unascertained person may be a claimant and a verified statement may be filed on his or her behalf as provided in this Section.
    For the purposes of Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act, any person who holds title to real estate by will or descent from any person who held the title of record to such real estate at the date of his or her death or who holds title by judgment or order of any court, or by deed issued pursuant thereto, i. e., by trustee's, trustee's in bankruptcy, conservator's, guardian's, executor's, administrator's, receiver's, assignee's, master's in chancery, or sheriff's deed shall be deemed to hold chain of title the same as though holding by direct conveyance.
(Source: P.A. 83-358.)

735 ILCS 5/13-119

    (735 ILCS 5/13-119) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-119)
    Sec. 13-119. Claim index. All claims filed in the office of the recorder as provided in Section 13-118 of this Act shall be recorded and indexed in the manner provided by law. In counties where the recorder is not required to keep a tract index, he or she shall index such claims in an index labelled "Claimant's Book". Such book shall be indexed under the name of the person filing the claim and under the name of the person against whom the claim is filed, if such person is named in the claim, followed in each instance by the document number of such claim (or the book and page wherein the same is recorded) and a description of the real estate involved.
(Source: P.A. 83-358.)

735 ILCS 5/13-120

    (735 ILCS 5/13-120) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-120)
    Sec. 13-120. Limitation on sections. Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act shall not be applied:
    1. to bar any lessor or his or her successor as reversioner of his or her right to possession on the expiration of any lease or any lessee or his or her successor of his or her rights in and to any lease; or
    2. to bar or extinguish any interest created or held for any public utility purpose; or
    3. to bar or extinguish any easement or interest in the nature of an easement, or any rights granted, reserved or excepted by any instrument creating such easement or interest, the existence of which such easement or interest either is apparent from or can be proved by physical evidences of its use, whether or not such physical evidences of its use are visible from the surface; or
    4. to bar or extinguish any separate mineral estate or any rights, immunities and interests appurtenant or relating thereto; or
    5. to bar any interest of a mortgagee or interest in the nature of that of a mortgagee where the due date of the mortgage is stated on the face, or ascertainable from the written terms thereof and is not barred by Section 13-116 of this Act.
    6. to validate any encroachment on any street, highway or public waters.
    Nothing contained in Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act shall be construed to extend the period for the beginning of any action or the doing of any other required act under any statutes of limitation nor to affect the operation of any statutes or case law governing the recording or the failure to record any instruments affecting land.
    No statement recorded or action filed pursuant to the provisions of Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act shall affect real estate registered under "An Act concerning land titles" approved May 1, 1897, as amended; and real estate heretofore or hereafter registered under "An Act concerning land titles" shall be subject to the terms thereof and all subsequent amendments thereto.
    Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act shall not be deemed to affect any right, title or interest of the United States unless the Congress shall assent to its operation in that behalf.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-121

    (735 ILCS 5/13-121) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-121)
    Sec. 13-121. Construction. Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act shall be liberally construed to effect the legislative purpose of simplifying and facilitating land title transactions by allowing persons to rely on a record chain of title as described in Section 13-118 of this Act, subject to such limitations as appear in Section 13-120 of this Act. The claims extinguished by Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act include any and all interests of any nature whatsoever, however denominated, whether vested or contingent, whether present or future, whether such claims are asserted by a person sui juris or under disability or might be asserted by a person not yet in being, whether such person be within or without the State, and whether such person be natural or corporate, or private or governmental.
    Except as otherwise provided in Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act, the rule that the State of Illinois is not bound by acts of limitations shall not apply to Sections 13-118 through 13-121 of this Act, and these Sections shall serve to bar any right, title, interest or lien in land which the State of Illinois or any department, commission or political subdivision thereof would otherwise have.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-122

    (735 ILCS 5/13-122) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-122)
    Sec. 13-122. Posting of notice that right of access is by permission and subject to control of owner. No use of any land by any person or by the public generally, no matter how long continued, shall ever ripen into an easement by prescription, or be deemed to be an implied dedication, or be deemed to give rise to any other right, customary or otherwise, to be on, or to engage in activities on, such land, if the owner of such property for a continuous period posts at each entrance to the property or at intervals of not more than 200 feet along the boundary a sign reading substantially as follows: "Right of access by permission, and subject to control of owner".
    If the entrances or boundaries of the property sought to be protected are paved, the sign referred to in this Section may be embedded in the pavement, provided that the inscription is legible and in letters at least as large as 24 point type.
    The procedure provided in this Section does not constitute the exclusive method of preventing the use of land from creating an easement by prescription, an implied dedication or any other right to be on or to engage in activities on the land, but is in addition to any other methods now or hereafter provided by law. This Section shall not be applied retroactively to events which took place before October 1, 1975.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/Art. XIII Pt. 2

 
    (735 ILCS 5/Art. XIII Pt. 2 heading)
Part 2. Personal Actions

735 ILCS 5/13-201

    (735 ILCS 5/13-201) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-201)
    Sec. 13-201. Defamation - Privacy. Actions for slander, libel or for publication of matter violating the right of privacy, shall be commenced within one year next after the cause of action accrued.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-202

    (735 ILCS 5/13-202) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-202)
    Sec. 13-202. Personal injury - Penalty. Actions for damages for an injury to the person, or for false imprisonment, or malicious prosecution, or for a statutory penalty, or for abduction, or for seduction, or for criminal conversation that may proceed pursuant to subsection (a) of Section 7.1 of the Criminal Conversation Abolition Act, except damages resulting from first degree murder or the commission of a Class X felony and the perpetrator thereof is convicted of such crime, shall be commenced within 2 years next after the cause of action accrued but such an action against a defendant arising from a crime committed by the defendant in whose name an escrow account was established under the "Criminal Victims' Escrow Account Act" shall be commenced within 2 years after the establishment of such account. If the compelling of a confession or information by imminent bodily harm or threat of imminent bodily harm results in whole or in part in a criminal prosecution of the plaintiff, the 2-year period set out in this Section shall be tolled during the time in which the plaintiff is incarcerated, or until criminal prosecution has been finally adjudicated in favor of the above referred plaintiff, whichever is later. However, this provision relating to the compelling of a confession or information shall not apply to units of local government subject to the Local Governmental and Governmental Employees Tort Immunity Act.
(Source: P.A. 99-90, eff. 1-1-16.)

735 ILCS 5/13-202.1

    (735 ILCS 5/13-202.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-202.1)
    Sec. 13-202.1. No limitations on certain actions - Duties of Department of Corrections and State's Attorneys.
    (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any action for damages against a person, however the action may be designated, may be brought at any time if --
        (1) the action is based upon conduct of a person
    
which constituted the commission of first degree murder, a Class X felony, or a Class 1 felony as these terms are utilized at the time of filing of the action; and
        (2) the person was convicted of the first degree
    
murder, Class X felony, or Class 1 felony.
    (b) The provisions of this Section are fully applicable to convictions based upon defendant's accountability under Section 5-2 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012.
    (c) Paragraphs (a) and (b) above shall apply to any cause of action regardless of the date on which the defendant's conduct is alleged to have occurred or of the date of any conviction resulting therefrom. In addition, this Section shall be applied retroactively and shall revive causes of actions which otherwise may have been barred under limitations provisions in effect prior to the enactment and/or effect of P.A. 84-1450.
    (d) Whenever there is any settlement, verdict or judgment in excess of $500 in any court against the Department of Corrections or any past or present employee or official in favor of any person for damages incurred while the person was committed to the Department of Corrections, the Department within 14 days of the settlement, verdict or judgment shall notify the State's Attorney of the county from which the person was committed to the Department. The State's Attorney shall in turn within 14 days after receipt of the notice send the same notice to the person or persons who were the victim or victims of the crime for which the offender was committed, at their last known address, along with the information that the victim or victims should contact a private attorney to advise them of their rights under the law.
    (e) Whenever there is any settlement, verdict or judgment in excess of $500 in any court against any county or county sheriff or any past or present employee or official in favor of any person for damages incurred while the person was incarcerated in any county jail, the county or county sheriff, within 14 days of the settlement, verdict or judgment shall notify the State's Attorney of the county from which the person was incarcerated in the county jail. The State's Attorney shall within 14 days of receipt of the notice send the same notice to the person or persons who were the victim or victims of the crime for which the offender was committed, at their last known address, along with the information that the victim or victims should contact a private attorney to advise them of their rights under the law.
    (f) No civil action may be brought by anyone against the Department of Corrections, a State's Attorney, a County, a county sheriff, or any past or present employee or agent thereof for any alleged violation by any such entity or person of the notification requirements imposed by paragraph (d) or (e).
(Source: P.A. 97-1150, eff. 1-25-13.)

735 ILCS 5/13-202.2

    (735 ILCS 5/13-202.2) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-202.2)
    Sec. 13-202.2. Childhood sexual abuse.
    (a) In this Section:
    "Childhood sexual abuse" means an act of sexual abuse that occurs when the person abused is under 18 years of age.
    "Sexual abuse" includes but is not limited to sexual conduct and sexual penetration as defined in Section 11-0.1 of the Criminal Code of 2012.
    (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an action for damages for personal injury based on childhood sexual abuse must be commenced within 20 years of the date the limitation period begins to run under subsection (d) or within 20 years of the date the person abused discovers or through the use of reasonable diligence should discover both (i) that the act of childhood sexual abuse occurred and (ii) that the injury was caused by the childhood sexual abuse. The fact that the person abused discovers or through the use of reasonable diligence should discover that the act of childhood sexual abuse occurred is not, by itself, sufficient to start the discovery period under this subsection (b). Knowledge of the abuse does not constitute discovery of the injury or the causal relationship between any later-discovered injury and the abuse.
    (c) If the injury is caused by 2 or more acts of childhood sexual abuse that are part of a continuing series of acts of childhood sexual abuse by the same abuser, then the discovery period under subsection (b) shall be computed from the date the person abused discovers or through the use of reasonable diligence should discover both (i) that the last act of childhood sexual abuse in the continuing series occurred and (ii) that the injury was caused by any act of childhood sexual abuse in the continuing series. The fact that the person abused discovers or through the use of reasonable diligence should discover that the last act of childhood sexual abuse in the continuing series occurred is not, by itself, sufficient to start the discovery period under subsection (b). Knowledge of the abuse does not constitute discovery of the injury or the causal relationship between any later-discovered injury and the abuse.
    (d) The limitation periods under subsection (b) do not begin to run before the person abused attains the age of 18 years; and, if at the time the person abused attains the age of 18 years he or she is under other legal disability, the limitation periods under subsection (b) do not begin to run until the removal of the disability.
    (d-1) The limitation periods in subsection (b) do not run during a time period when the person abused is subject to threats, intimidation, manipulation, or fraud perpetrated by the abuser or by any person acting in the interest of the abuser.
    (e) This Section applies to actions pending on the effective date of this amendatory Act of 1990 as well as to actions commenced on or after that date. The changes made by this amendatory Act of 1993 shall apply only to actions commenced on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of 1993. The changes made by this amendatory Act of the 93rd General Assembly apply to actions pending on the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 93rd General Assembly as well as actions commenced on or after that date. The changes made by this amendatory Act of the 96th General Assembly apply to actions commenced on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 96th General Assembly if the action would not have been time barred under any statute of limitations or statute of repose prior to the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 96th General Assembly.
    (f) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an action for damages based on childhood sexual abuse may be commenced at any time; provided, however, that the changes made by this amendatory Act of the 98th General Assembly apply to actions commenced on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 98th General Assembly if the action would not have been time barred under any statute of limitations or statute of repose prior to the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 98th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 97-1150, eff. 1-25-13; 98-276, eff. 1-1-14.)

735 ILCS 5/13-202.3

    (735 ILCS 5/13-202.3)
    Sec. 13-202.3. For an action arising out of an injury caused by "sexual conduct" or "sexual penetration" as defined in Section 11-0.1 of the Criminal Code of 2012, the limitation period in Section 13-202 does not run during a time period when the person injured is subject to threats, intimidation, manipulation, or fraud perpetrated by the perpetrator or by a person the perpetrator knew or should have known was acting in the interest of the perpetrator. This Section applies to causes of action arising on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 95th General Assembly or to causes of action for which the limitation period has not yet expired.
(Source: P.A. 96-1551, eff. 7-1-11; 97-1150, eff. 1-25-13.)

735 ILCS 5/13-203

    (735 ILCS 5/13-203) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-203)
    Sec. 13-203. Loss of consortium - Injury to person. Actions for damages for loss of consortium or other actions, including actions for the medical expenses of minors or persons under legal disability, deriving from injury to the person of another, except damages resulting from first degree murder or the commission of a Class X felony, shall be commenced within the same period of time as actions for damages for injury to such other person. Where the time in which the cause of action of the injured person whose injuries give rise to the cause of action brought under this Section is tolled or otherwise extended by any other Section of this Act, including Sections 13-211, 13-212 and 13-215, the time in which the cause of action must be brought under this Section is also tolled or extended to coincide with the period of time in which the injured person must commence his or her cause of action.
(Source: P.A. 88-22.)

735 ILCS 5/13-203.1

    (735 ILCS 5/13-203.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-203.1)
    Sec. 13-203.1. Loss of means of support or parental relationships. Actions for damages for loss of means of support or loss of parental or in loco parentis relationships sustained by a minor resulting from an injury described in Section 13-214.1 may be commenced no later than 10 years after the person who inflicted such injury has completed his sentence therefor.
(Source: P.A. 84-1043.)

735 ILCS 5/13-204

    (735 ILCS 5/13-204) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-204)
    Sec. 13-204. Contribution and indemnity.
    (a) In instances where no underlying action seeking recovery for injury to or death of a person or injury or damage to property has been filed by a claimant, no action for contribution or indemnity may be commenced with respect to any payment made to that claimant more than 2 years after the party seeking contribution or indemnity has made the payment in discharge of his or her liability to the claimant.
    (b) In instances where an underlying action has been filed by a claimant, no action for contribution or indemnity may be commenced more than 2 years after the party seeking contribution or indemnity has been served with process in the underlying action or more than 2 years from the time the party, or his or her privy, knew or should reasonably have known of an act or omission giving rise to the action for contribution or indemnity, whichever period expires later.
    (c) The applicable limitations period contained in subsection (a) or (b) shall apply to all actions for contribution or indemnity and shall preempt, as to contribution and indemnity actions only, all other statutes of limitation or repose, but only to the extent that the claimant in an underlying action could have timely sued the party from whom contribution or indemnity is sought at the time such claimant filed the underlying action, or in instances where no underlying action has been filed, the payment in discharge of the obligation of the party seeking contribution or indemnity is made before any such underlying action would have been barred by lapse of time.
    (d) The provisions of this Section, as amended by Public Act 88-538, shall be applied retroactively when substantively applicable, including all pending actions without regard to when the cause of action accrued; provided, however, that this amendatory Act of 1994 shall not operate to affect statutory limitations or repose rights of any party which have fully vested prior to its effective date.
    (e) The provisions of this Section shall not apply to any action for damages in which contribution or indemnification is sought from a party who is alleged to have been negligent and whose negligence has been alleged to have resulted in injuries or death by reason of medical or other healing art malpractice.
(Source: P.A. 88-538; 89-626, eff. 8-9-96.)

735 ILCS 5/13-205

    (735 ILCS 5/13-205) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-205)
    Sec. 13-205. Five year limitation. Except as provided in Section 2-725 of the "Uniform Commercial Code", approved July 31, 1961, as amended, and Section 11-13 of "The Illinois Public Aid Code", approved April 11, 1967, as amended, actions on unwritten contracts, expressed or implied, or on awards of arbitration, or to recover damages for an injury done to property, real or personal, or to recover the possession of personal property or damages for the detention or conversion thereof, and all civil actions not otherwise provided for, shall be commenced within 5 years next after the cause of action accrued.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-206

    (735 ILCS 5/13-206) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-206)
    Sec. 13-206. Ten year limitation. Except as provided in Section 2-725 of the "Uniform Commercial Code", actions on bonds, promissory notes, bills of exchange, written leases, written contracts, or other evidences of indebtedness in writing and actions brought under the Illinois Wage Payment and Collection Act shall be commenced within 10 years next after the cause of action accrued; but if any payment or new promise to pay has been made, in writing, on any bond, note, bill, lease, contract, or other written evidence of indebtedness, within or after the period of 10 years, then an action may be commenced thereon at any time within 10 years after the time of such payment or promise to pay. For purposes of this Section, with regard to promissory notes dated on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of 1997, a cause of action on a promissory note payable at a definite date accrues on the due date or date stated in the promissory note or the date upon which the promissory note is accelerated. With respect to a demand promissory note dated on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of 1997, if a demand for payment is made to the maker of the demand promissory note, an action to enforce the obligation of a party to pay the demand promissory note must be commenced within 10 years after the demand. An action to enforce a demand promissory note is barred if neither principal nor interest on the demand promissory note has been paid for a continuous period of 10 years and no demand for payment has been made to the maker during that period.
(Source: P.A. 95-209, eff. 8-16-07.)

735 ILCS 5/13-207

    (735 ILCS 5/13-207) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-207)
    Sec. 13-207. Counterclaim or set-off. A defendant may plead a set-off or counterclaim barred by the statute of limitation, while held and owned by him or her, to any action, the cause of which was owned by the plaintiff or person under whom he or she claims, before such set-off or counterclaim was so barred, and not otherwise. This section shall not affect the right of a bona fide assignee of a negotiable instrument assigned before due.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/13-208

    (735 ILCS 5/13-208) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-208)
    Sec. 13-208. Absence from State. (a) If, when the cause of action accrues against a person, he or she is out of the state, the action may be commenced within the times herein limited, after his or her coming into or return to the state; and if, after the cause of action accrues, he or she departs from and resides out of the state, the time of his or her absence is no part of the time limited for the commencement of the action.
    (b) For purposes of subsection (a) of this Section no person shall be considered to be out of the State or to have departed from the State or to reside outside of the State during any period when he or she is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State with respect to that cause of action pursuant to Sections 2-208 and 2-209 of this Act, Section 10-301 of "The Illinois Vehicle Code", Section 5.25 of the "Business Corporation Act of 1983", or any other statute authorizing service of process which would subject that person to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State. If a person files an action in a court of this State and attempts to secure service of process upon a defendant pursuant to a statute referred to in the preceding sentence, but does not obtain service of process upon such defendant, such defendant shall not be considered to be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State at the time such action was filed, for purposes of the preceding sentence of this section. This subsection (b) of Section 13-208 of this Act shall apply only to actions commenced after October 1, 1973.
(Source: P.A. 83-1362.)

735 ILCS 5/13-209

    (735 ILCS 5/13-209) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-209)
    Sec. 13-209. Death of party.
    (a) If a person entitled to bring an action dies before the expiration of the time limited for the commencement thereof, and the cause of action survives:
        (1) an action may be commenced by his or her
    
representative before the expiration of that time, or within one year from his or her death whichever date is the later;
        (2) if no petition for letters of office for the
    
decedent's estate has been filed, the court may appoint a special representative for the deceased for the purpose of prosecuting the action. The appointment shall be on verified motion of any party who appears entitled to participate in the deceased's estate, reciting the names and last known addresses of all known heirs and the legatees and executor named in any will that has been filed. The court's determination that a person appears entitled to participate in the deceased's estate shall be solely for purposes of this Section and not determinative of rights in final disposition. Within 90 days after appointment, the special representative shall notify the heirs and legatees of the following information by mail: that an appointment has been made, the court in which the case was filed, the caption of the case, and a description of the nature of the case. The special representative shall publish notice to unknown heirs and legatees as provided in the Probate Act of 1975. If a will is filed within 90 days after the appointment of the special representative, the same notice shall be given to any additional executors and legatees named in the will. At any time that an estate is opened with a representative other than the special representative, the court may upon motion substitute the representative for the special representative. In this case, the court shall allow disbursements and fees of the special representative and his or her attorney as a claim against any proceeds received. The proceeds of any judgment or settlement shall be distributed under the provisions of the Probate Act of 1975.
    (b) If a person against whom an action may be brought dies before the expiration of the time limited for the commencement thereof, and the cause of action survives, and is not otherwise barred:
        (1) an action may be commenced against his or her
    
personal representative after the expiration of the time limited for the commencement of the action, and within 6 months after the person's death;
        (2) if no petition has been filed for letters of
    
office for the deceased's estate, the court, upon the motion of a person entitled to bring an action and after the notice to the party's heirs or legatees as the court directs and without opening an estate, may appoint a special representative for the deceased party for the purposes of defending the action. If a party elects to have a special representative appointed under this paragraph (2), the recovery shall be limited to the proceeds of any liability insurance protecting the estate and shall not bar the estate from enforcing any claims that might have been available to it as counterclaims.
    (c) If a party commences an action against a deceased person whose death is unknown to the party before the expiration of the time limited for the commencement thereof, and the cause of action survives, and is not otherwise barred, the action may be commenced against the deceased person's personal representative if all of the following terms and conditions are met:
        (1) After learning of the death, the party proceeds
    
with reasonable diligence to move the court for leave to file an amended complaint, substituting the personal representative as defendant.
        (2) The party proceeds with reasonable diligence to
    
serve process upon the personal representative.
        (3) If process is served more than 6 months after the
    
issuance of letters of office, liability of the estate is limited as to recovery to the extent the estate is protected by liability insurance.
        (4) In no event can a party commence an action under
    
this subsection (c) unless a personal representative is appointed and an amended complaint is filed within 2 years of the time limited for the commencement of the original action.
(Source: P.A. 90-111, eff. 7-14-97.)

735 ILCS 5/13-210

    (735 ILCS 5/13-210) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-210)
    Sec. 13-210. Foreign limitation. When a cause of action has arisen in a state or territory out of this State, or in a foreign country, and, by the laws thereof, an action thereon cannot be maintained by reason of the lapse of time, an action thereon shall not be maintained in this State.
(Source: P.A. 83-707.)

735 ILCS 5/13-211

    (735 ILCS 5/13-211) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-211)
    Sec. 13-211. Minors and persons under legal disability.
    (a) If the person entitled to bring an action, specified in Sections 13-201 through 13-210 of this Code, at the time the cause of action accrued, is under the age of 18 years or is under a legal disability, then he or she may bring the action within 2 years after the person attains the age of 18 years, or the disability is removed.
    (b) If the person entitled to bring an action specified under Sections 13-201 through 13-210 of this Code is not under a legal disability at the time the cause of action accrues, but becomes under a legal disability before the period of limitations otherwise runs, the period of limitations is stayed until the disability is removed. This subsection (b) does not invalidate any statute of repose provisions contained in Sections 13-201, 13-202, 13-202.1, 13-202.2, 13-202.3, 13-203, 13-203.1, 13-204, 13-207, 13-208, 13-209, and 13-210 of this Code. In no event shall the period of limitations for a cause of action under Section 13-205 or 13-206 of this Code be stayed in excess of 10 years from the date of the adjudication of legal disability. This subsection (b) applies to actions commenced or pending on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 98th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 98-1077, eff. 1-1-15.)

735 ILCS 5/13-212

    (735 ILCS 5/13-212) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-212)
    Sec. 13-212. Physician or hospital.
    (a) Except as provided in Section 13-215 of this Act, no action for damages for injury or death against any physician, dentist, registered nurse or hospital duly licensed under the laws of this State, whether based upon tort, or breach of contract, or otherwise, arising out of patient care shall be brought more than 2 years after the date on which the claimant knew, or through the use of reasonable diligence should have known, or received notice in writing of the existence of the injury or death for which damages are sought in the action, whichever of such date occurs first, but in no event shall such action be brought more than 4 years after the date on which occurred the act or omission or occurrence alleged in such action to have been the cause of such injury or death.
    (b) Except as provided in Section 13-215 of this Act, no action for damages for injury or death against any physician, dentist, registered nurse or hospital duly licensed under the laws of this State, whether based upon tort, or breach of contract, or otherwise, arising out of patient care shall be brought more than 8 years after the date on which occurred the act or omission or occurrence alleged in such action to have been the cause of such injury or death where the person entitled to bring the action was, at the time the cause of action accrued, under the age of 18 years; provided, however, that in no event may the cause of action be brought after the person's 22nd birthday. If the person was under the age of 18 years when the cause of action accrued and, as a result of this amendatory Act of 1987, the action is either barred or there remains less than 3 years to bring such action, then he or she may bring the action within 3 years of July 20, 1987.
    (c) If the person entitled to bring an action described in this Section is, at the time the cause of action accrued, under a legal disability other than being under the age of 18 years, then the period of limitations does not begin to run until the disability is removed.
    (d) If the person entitled to bring an action described in this Section is not under a legal disability at the time the cause of action accrues, but becomes under a legal disability before the period of limitations otherwise runs, the period of limitations is stayed until the disability is removed. This subsection (d) does not invalidate any statute of repose provisions contained in this Section. This subsection (d) applies to actions commenced or pending on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 98th General Assembly.
(Source: P.A. 98-1077, eff. 1-1-15.)

735 ILCS 5/13-213

    (735 ILCS 5/13-213) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-213)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 13-213. Product liability; statute of repose.
    (a) As used in this Section, the term:
        (1) "Alteration, modification or change" or "altered,
    
modified, or changed" means an alteration, modification or change that was made in the original makeup characteristics, function or design of a product or in the original recommendations, instructions and warnings given with respect to a product including the failure properly to maintain and care for a product.
        (2) "Product" means any tangible object or goods
    
distributed in commerce, including any service provided in connection with the product. Where the term "product unit" is used, it refers to a single item or unit of a product.
        (3) "Product liability action" means any action based
    
on any theory or doctrine brought against the seller of a product on account of personal injury, (including illness, disease, disability and death) or property, economic or other damage allegedly caused by or resulting from the manufacture, construction, preparation, assembly, installation, testing, makeup, characteristics, functions, design, formula, plan, recommendation, specification, prescription, advertising, sale, marketing, packaging, labeling, repair, maintenance or disposal of, or warning or instruction regarding any product. This definition excludes actions brought by State or federal regulatory agencies pursuant to statute.
        (4) "Seller" means one who, in the course of a
    
business conducted for the purpose, sells, distributes, leases, assembles, installs, produces, manufactures, fabricates, prepares, constructs, packages, labels, markets, repairs, maintains, or otherwise is involved in placing a product in the stream of commerce.
    (b) Subject to the provisions of subsections (c) and (d) no product liability action based on any theory or doctrine shall be commenced except within the applicable limitations period and, in any event, within 12 years from the date of first sale, lease or delivery of possession by a seller or 10 years from the date of first sale, lease or delivery of possession to its initial user, consumer, or other non-seller, whichever period expires earlier, of any product unit that is claimed to have injured or damaged the plaintiff, unless the defendant expressly has warranted or promised the product for a longer period and the action is brought within that period.
    (c) No product liability action based on any theory or doctrine to recover for injury or damage claimed to have resulted from an alteration, modification or change of the product unit subsequent to the date of first sale, lease or delivery of possession of the product unit to its initial user, consumer or other non-seller shall be limited or barred by subsection (b) hereof if:
        (1) the action is brought against a seller making,
    
authorizing, or furnishing materials for the accomplishment of such alteration, modification or change (or against a seller furnishing specifications or instructions for the accomplishment of such alteration, modification or change when the injury is claimed to have resulted from failure to provide adequate specifications or instructions), and
        (2) the action commenced within the applicable
    
limitation period and, in any event, within 10 years from the date such alteration, modification or change was made, unless defendant expressly has warranted or promised the product for a longer period and the action is brought within that period, and
        (3) when the injury or damage is claimed to have
    
resulted from an alteration, modification or change of a product unit, there is proof that such alteration, modification or change had the effect of introducing into the use of the product unit, by reason of defective materials or workmanship, a hazard not existing prior to such alteration, modification or change.
    (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) and paragraph (2) of subsection (c) if the injury complained of occurs within any of the periods provided by subsection (b) and paragraph (2) of subsection (c), the plaintiff may bring an action within 2 years after the date on which the claimant knew, or through the use of reasonable diligence should have known, of the existence of the personal injury, death or property damage, but in no event shall such action be brought more than 8 years after the date on which such personal injury, death or property damage occurred. In any such case, if the person entitled to bring the action was, at the time the personal injury, death or property damage occurred, under the age of 18 years, or under a legal disability, then the period of limitations does not begin to run until the person attains the age of 18 years, or the disability is removed.
    (e) Replacement of a component part of a product unit with a substitute part having the same formula or design as the original part shall not be deemed a sale, lease or delivery of possession or an alteration, modification or change for the purpose of permitting commencement of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine to recover for injury or damage claimed to have resulted from the formula or design of such product unit or of the substitute part when such action would otherwise be barred according to the provisions of subsection (b) of this Section.
    (f) Nothing in this Section shall be construed to create a cause of action or to affect the right of any person to seek and obtain indemnity or contribution.
    (g) The provisions of this Section 13-213 of this Act apply to any cause of action accruing on or after January 1, 1979, involving any product which was in or entered the stream of commerce prior to, on, or after January 1, 1979.
    (h) This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 13-213. Product liability.
    (a) As used in this Section, the term:
        (1) "Alteration, modification or change" or "altered,
    
modified, or changed" means an alteration, modification or change that was made in the original makeup characteristics, function or design of a product or in the original recommendations, instructions and warnings given with respect to a product including the failure properly to maintain and care for a product.
        (2) "Product" means any tangible object or goods
    
distributed in commerce, including any service provided in connection with the product. Where the term "product unit" is used, it refers to a single item or unit of a product.
        (3) "Product liability action" means any action based
    
on the doctrine of strict liability in tort brought against the seller of a product on account of personal injury, (including illness, disease, disability and death) or property, economic or other damage allegedly caused by or resulting from the manufacture, construction, preparation, assembly, installation, testing, makeup, characteristics, functions, design, formula, plan, recommendation, specification, prescription, advertising, sale, marketing, packaging, labeling, repair, maintenance or disposal of, or warning or instruction regarding any product. This definition excludes actions brought by State or federal regulatory agencies pursuant to statute.
        (4) "Seller" means one who, in the course of a
    
business conducted for the purpose, sells, distributes, leases, assembles, installs, produces, manufactures, fabricates, prepares, constructs, packages, labels, markets, repairs, maintains, or otherwise is involved in placing a product in the stream of commerce.
    (b) Subject to the provisions of subsections (c) and (d) no product liability action based on the doctrine of strict liability in tort shall be commenced except within the applicable limitations period and, in any event, within 12 years from the date of first sale, lease or delivery of possession by a seller or 10 years from the date of first sale, lease or delivery of possession to its initial user, consumer, or other non-seller, whichever period expires earlier, of any product unit that is claimed to have injured or damaged the plaintiff, unless the defendant expressly has warranted or promised the product for a longer period and the action is brought within that period.
    (c) No product liability action based on the doctrine of strict liability in tort to recover for injury or damage claimed to have resulted from an alteration, modification or change of the product unit subsequent to the date of first sale, lease or delivery of possession of the product unit to its initial user, consumer or other non-seller shall be limited or barred by subsection (b) hereof if:
        (1) the action is brought against a seller making,
    
authorizing, or furnishing materials for the accomplishment of such alteration, modification or change (or against a seller furnishing specifications or instructions for the accomplishment of such alteration, modification or change when the injury is claimed to have resulted from failure to provide adequate specifications or instructions), and
        (2) the action commenced within the applicable
    
limitation period and, in any event, within 10 years from the date such alteration, modification or change was made, unless defendant expressly has warranted or promised the product for a longer period and the action is brought within that period, and
        (3) when the injury or damage is claimed to have
    
resulted from an alteration, modification or change of a product unit, there is proof that such alteration, modification or change had the effect of introducing into the use of the product unit, by reason of defective materials or workmanship, a hazard not existing prior to such alteration, modification or change.
    (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) and paragraph (2) of subsection (c) if the injury complained of occurs within any of the periods provided by subsection (b) and paragraph (2) of subsection (c), the plaintiff may bring an action within 2 years after the date on which the claimant knew, or through the use of reasonable diligence should have known, of the existence of the personal injury, death or property damage, but in no event shall such action be brought more than 8 years after the date on which such personal injury, death or property damage occurred. In any such case, if the person entitled to bring the action was, at the time the personal injury, death or property damage occurred, under the age of 18 years, or under a legal disability, then the period of limitations does not begin to run until the person attains the age of 18 years, or the disability is removed.
    (e) Replacement of a component part of a product unit with a substitute part having the same formula or design as the original part shall not be deemed a sale, lease or delivery of possession or an alteration, modification or change for the purpose of permitting commencement of a product liability action based on the doctrine of strict liability in tort to recover for injury or damage claimed to have resulted from the formula or design of such product unit or of the substitute part when such action would otherwise be barred according to the provisions of subsection (b) of this Section.
    (f) Nothing in this Section shall be construed to create a cause of action or to affect the right of any person to seek and obtain indemnity or contribution.
    (g) The provisions of this Section 13-213 of this Act apply to any cause of action accruing on or after January 1, 1979, involving any product which was in or entered the stream of commerce prior to, on, or after January 1, 1979.
(Source: P.A. 85-907; 86-1329.)

735 ILCS 5/13-214

    (735 ILCS 5/13-214) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-214)
    Sec. 13-214. Construction - design management and supervision. As used in this Section "person" means any individual, any business or legal entity, or any body politic.
    (a) Actions based upon tort, contract or otherwise against any person for an act or omission of such person in the design, planning, supervision, observation or management of construction, or construction of an improvement to real property shall be commenced within 4 years from the time the person bringing an action, or his or her privity, knew or should reasonably have known of such act or omission. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, contract actions against a surety on a payment or performance bond shall be commenced, if at all, within the same time limitation applicable to the bond principal.
    (b) No action based upon tort, contract or otherwise may be brought against any person for an act or omission of such person in the design, planning, supervision, observation or management of construction, or construction of an improvement to real property after 10 years have elapsed from the time of such act or omission. However, any person who discovers such act or omission prior to expiration of 10 years from the time of such act or omission shall in no event have less than 4 years to bring an action as provided in subsection (a) of this Section. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, contract actions against a surety on a payment or performance bond shall be commenced, if at all, within the same time limitation applicable to the bond principal.
    (c) If a person otherwise entitled to bring an action could not have brought such action within the limitation periods herein solely because such person was under the age of 18 years, or a person with a developmental disability or a person with mental illness, then the limitation periods herein shall not begin to run until the person attains the age of 18 years, or the disability is removed.
    (d) Subsection (b) shall not prohibit any action against a defendant who has expressly warranted or promised the improvement to real property for a longer period from being brought within that period.
    (e) The limitations of this Section shall not apply to causes of action arising out of fraudulent misrepresentations or to fraudulent concealment of causes of action.
    (f) Subsection (b) does not apply to an action that is based on personal injury, disability, disease, or death resulting from the discharge into the environment of asbestos.
(Source: P.A. 98-1131, eff. 6-1-15.)

735 ILCS 5/13-214.1

    (735 ILCS 5/13-214.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-214.1)
    Sec. 13-214.1. Action for damages involving criminal acts. Actions for damages for an injury described in Section 13-202 or Section 13-203 arising out of first degree murder or the commission of a Class X felony by the person against whom the action is brought may be commenced no later than 10 years after the person who inflicted such injury has completed his or her sentence therefor.
(Source: P.A. 85-293.)

735 ILCS 5/13-214.2

    (735 ILCS 5/13-214.2) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-214.2)
    Sec. 13-214.2. (a) Actions based upon tort, contract or otherwise against any person, partnership or corporation registered pursuant to the Illinois Public Accounting Act, as amended, or any of its employees, partners, members, officers or shareholders, for an act or omission in the performance of professional services shall be commenced within 2 years from the time the person bringing an action knew or should reasonably have known of such act or omission.
    (b) In no event shall such action be brought more than 5 years after the date on which occurred the act or omission alleged in such action to have been the cause of the injury to the person bringing such action against a public accountant. Provided, however, that in the event that an income tax assessment is made or criminal prosecution is brought against a person, that person may bring an action against the public accountant who prepared the tax return within two years from the date of the assessment or conclusion of the prosecution.
    (c) If a person entitled to bring the action is, at the time the cause of action accrues, under the age of 18, or under a legal disability, the period of limitations shall not begin to run until the disability is removed.
    (d) This Section shall apply to all causes of action which accrue on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 85-655; 86-1329.)

735 ILCS 5/13-214.3

    (735 ILCS 5/13-214.3) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-214.3)
    Sec. 13-214.3. Attorneys.
    (a) In this Section: "attorney" includes (i) an individual attorney, together with his or her employees who are attorneys, (ii) a professional partnership of attorneys, together with its employees, partners, and members who are attorneys, and (iii) a professional service corporation of attorneys, together with its employees, officers, and shareholders who are attorneys; and "non-attorney employee" means a person who is not an attorney but is employed by an attorney.
    (b) An action for damages based on tort, contract, or otherwise (i) against an attorney arising out of an act or omission in the performance of professional services or (ii) against a non-attorney employee arising out of an act or omission in the course of his or her employment by an attorney to assist the attorney in performing professional services must be commenced within 2 years from the time the person bringing the action knew or reasonably should have known of the injury for which damages are sought.
    (c) Except as provided in subsection (d), an action described in subsection (b) may not be commenced in any event more than 6 years after the date on which the act or omission occurred.
    (d) When the injury caused by the act or omission does not occur until the death of the person for whom the professional services were rendered, the action may be commenced within 2 years after the date of the person's death unless letters of office are issued or the person's will is admitted to probate within that 2 year period, in which case the action must be commenced within the time for filing claims against the estate or a petition contesting the validity of the will of the deceased person, whichever is later, as provided in the Probate Act of 1975.
    (e) If the person entitled to bring the action is under the age of majority or under other legal disability at the time the cause of action accrues, the period of limitations shall not begin to run until majority is attained or the disability is removed.
    (f) If the person entitled to bring an action described in this Section is not under a legal disability at the time the cause of action accrues, but becomes under a legal disability before the period of limitations otherwise runs, the period of limitations is stayed until the disability is removed. This subsection (f) does not invalidate any statute of repose provisions contained in this Section. This subsection (f) applies to actions commenced or pending on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of the 98th General Assembly.
    (g) This Section applies to all causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 98-1077, eff. 1-1-15.)

735 ILCS 5/13-214.4

    (735 ILCS 5/13-214.4)
    Sec. 13-214.4. Actions against insurance producers, limited insurance representatives, and registered firms. All causes of action brought by any person or entity under any statute or any legal or equitable theory against an insurance producer, registered firm, or limited insurance representative concerning the sale, placement, procurement, renewal, cancellation of, or failure to procure any policy of insurance shall be brought within 2 years of the date the cause of action accrues.
(Source: P.A. 89-152, eff. 1-1-96.)

735 ILCS 5/13-215

    (735 ILCS 5/13-215) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-215)
    Sec. 13-215. Fraudulent concealment. If a person liable to an action fraudulently conceals the cause of such action from the knowledge of the person entitled thereto, the action may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the person entitled to bring the same discovers that he or she has such cause of action, and not afterwards.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-216

    (735 ILCS 5/13-216) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-216)
    Sec. 13-216. Stay of action. When the commencement of an action is stayed by injunction, order of a court, or statutory prohibition, the time of the continuance of the injunction or prohibition is not part of the time limited for the commencement of the action.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-217

    (735 ILCS 5/13-217) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-217)
    (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 13-217. Reversal or dismissal. In the actions specified in Article XIII of this Act or any other act or contract where the time for commencing an action is limited, if judgment is entered for the plaintiff but reversed on appeal, or if there is a verdict in favor of the plaintiff and, upon a motion in arrest of judgment, the judgment is entered against the plaintiff, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for lack of jurisdiction, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for improper venue, then, whether or not the time limitation for bringing such action expires during the pendency of such action, the plaintiff, his or her heirs, executors or administrators may commence a new action within one year or within the remaining period of limitation, whichever is greater, after such judgment is reversed or entered against the plaintiff, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for lack of jurisdiction, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for improper venue. No action which is voluntarily dismissed by the plaintiff or dismissed for want of prosecution by the court may be filed where the time for commencing the action has expired.
    This amendatory Act of 1995 applies to causes of action accruing on or after its effective date.
(Source: P.A. 89-7, eff. 3-9-95.)
 
    (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89-7, which has been held unconstitutional)
    Sec. 13-217. Reversal or dismissal. In the actions specified in Article XIII of this Act or any other act or contract where the time for commencing an action is limited, if judgment is entered for the plaintiff but reversed on appeal, or if there is a verdict in favor of the plaintiff and, upon a motion in arrest of judgment, the judgment is entered against the plaintiff, or the action is voluntarily dismissed by the plaintiff, or the action is dismissed for want of prosecution, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for lack of jurisdiction, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for improper venue, then, whether or not the time limitation for bringing such action expires during the pendency of such action, the plaintiff, his or her heirs, executors or administrators may commence a new action within one year or within the remaining period of limitation, whichever is greater, after such judgment is reversed or entered against the plaintiff, or after the action is voluntarily dismissed by the plaintiff, or the action is dismissed for want of prosecution, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for lack of jurisdiction, or the action is dismissed by a United States District Court for improper venue.
(Source: P.A. 87-1252.)

735 ILCS 5/13-218

    (735 ILCS 5/13-218) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-218)
    Sec. 13-218. Revival of judgment. A petition to revive a judgment, as provided by Section 2-1601 of this Code, may be filed no later than 20 years next after the date of entry of such judgment. The provisions of this amendatory Act of the 96th General Assembly are declarative of existing law.
(Source: P.A. 96-305, eff. 8-11-09.)

735 ILCS 5/13-219

    (735 ILCS 5/13-219) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-219)
    Sec. 13-219. Railroads and carriers. (a) All actions by railroads, motor carriers, common carriers by water, common carriers by air, the Railway Express Agency or freight forwarders for the recovery of their charges, or any part thereof, for the transportation of property moving wholly within the State of Illinois shall be filed within 3 years from the time the cause of action accrues, and not after.
    (b) All actions against railroads, motor carriers, common carriers by water, common carriers by air, the Railway Express Agency or freight forwarders for the recovery of any part of transportation charges paid to such carrier for the transportation of property moving wholly within the State of Illinois shall be filed within 3 years from the time the cause of action accrues, and not after.
    (c) If on or before the expiration of the 3 year period of limitation in subsection (b) a railroad, motor carrier, common carrier by water, common carrier by air, the Railway Express Agency or a freight forwarder files an action under subsection (a) for recovery of charges in respect of the same transportation service, or, without filing an action, collects charges in respect of that service, the period of limitation shall be extended to include 90 days from the time such action is filed or such charges are collected.
    (d) The cause of action in respect of a shipment of property shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to accrue upon delivery or tender of delivery thereof by a railroad, motor carrier, common carrier by water, common carrier by air, the Railway Express Agency, or a freight forwarder, and not after.
(Source: P.A. 82-280.)

735 ILCS 5/13-220

    (735 ILCS 5/13-220) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-220)
    Sec. 13-220. Fraud by decedents. Actions under Sections 10 to 14, both inclusive, of "An Act to revise the law in relation to frauds and perjuries", approved February 16, 1874, as amended, shall be commenced within 2 years after the death of the person who makes a fraudulent legacy as provided in that Act, or who dies intestate and leaves real estate to his or her heirs to descend according to the laws of this State, unless letters of office are applied for on his or her estate within 2 years after his or her death and the representative has complied with the provisions of Section 18-3 of the Probate Act of 1975, as amended, in regard to the giving of notice to creditors, in which case the action shall be commenced within and not after the time for presenting claims against estates of deceased persons as provided in the Probate Act of 1975, as amended.
(Source: P.A. 86-815.)

735 ILCS 5/13-221

    (735 ILCS 5/13-221) (from Ch. 110, par. 13-221)
    Sec. 13-221. Contract to make will. An action against the representative, heirs and legatees of a deceased person to enforce a contract to make a will, shall be commenced within 2 years after the death of the deceased person unless letters of office are applied for on his or her estate within 2 years after his or her death and the representative has complied with the provisions of Section 18-3 of the Probate Act of 1975, as amended, in regard to the giving of notice to creditors, in which case the action shall be commenced within and not after the time for presenting a claim against the estate of a deceased person as provided in the Probate Act of 1975, as amended.
(Source: P.A. 86-815.)