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Illinois Compiled Statutes

Information maintained by the Legislative Reference Bureau
Updating the database of the Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) is an ongoing process. Recent laws may not yet be included in the ILCS database, but they are found on this site as Public Acts soon after they become law. For information concerning the relationship between statutes and Public Acts, refer to the Guide.

Because the statute database is maintained primarily for legislative drafting purposes, statutory changes are sometimes included in the statute database before they take effect. If the source note at the end of a Section of the statutes includes a Public Act that has not yet taken effect, the version of the law that is currently in effect may have already been removed from the database and you should refer to that Public Act to see the changes made to the current law.

MENTAL HEALTH
(405 ILCS 5/) Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Code.

405 ILCS 5/Ch. II Art. I

 
    (405 ILCS 5/Ch. II Art. I heading)
ARTICLE I. RIGHTS

405 ILCS 5/2-100

    (405 ILCS 5/2-100) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-100)
    Sec. 2-100. (a) No recipient of services shall be deprived of any rights, benefits, or privileges guaranteed by law, the Constitution of the State of Illinois, or the Constitution of the United States solely on account of the receipt of such services.
    (b) A person with a known or suspected mental illness or developmental disability shall not be denied mental health or developmental services because of age, sex, race, religious belief, ethnic origin, marital status, physical or mental disability or criminal record unrelated to present dangerousness.
(Source: P.A. 86-1416.)

405 ILCS 5/2-101

    (405 ILCS 5/2-101) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-101)
    Sec. 2-101. No recipient of services shall be presumed legally disabled, nor shall such person be held legally disabled except as determined by a court. Such determination shall be separate from a judicial proceeding held to determine whether a person is subject to involuntary admission or meets the standard for judicial admission.
(Source: P.A. 85-971.)

405 ILCS 5/2-101.1

    (405 ILCS 5/2-101.1)
    Sec. 2-101.1. Counseling services; consent; costs.
    (a) Any adult under guardianship may request and receive counseling services or psychotherapy. The consent of the guardian shall not be necessary to authorize counseling or psychotherapy. The adult's guardian shall not be informed, without the consent of the adult, of such counseling or psychotherapy unless the counselor or therapist believes such disclosure is necessary. If the counselor or therapist intends to disclose the fact of counseling or psychotherapy, the adult shall be so informed. However, until the consent of the adult's guardian has been obtained, counseling or psychotherapy provided to an adult under guardianship shall be limited to not more than 5 sessions, a session lasting not more than 45 minutes.
    (b) The adult's guardian shall not be liable for the costs of counseling or psychotherapy which is received by the adult without the consent of the adult's guardian.
(Source: P.A. 97-165, eff. 1-1-12.)

405 ILCS 5/2-102

    (405 ILCS 5/2-102) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-102)
    Sec. 2-102. (a) A recipient of services shall be provided with adequate and humane care and services in the least restrictive environment, pursuant to an individual services plan. The Plan shall be formulated and periodically reviewed with the participation of the recipient to the extent feasible and the recipient's guardian, the recipient's substitute decision maker, if any, or any other individual designated in writing by the recipient. The facility shall advise the recipient of his or her right to designate a family member or other individual to participate in the formulation and review of the treatment plan. In determining whether care and services are being provided in the least restrictive environment, the facility shall consider the views of the recipient, if any, concerning the treatment being provided. The recipient's preferences regarding emergency interventions under subsection (d) of Section 2-200 shall be noted in the recipient's treatment plan.
    (a-5) If the services include the administration of electroconvulsive therapy or psychotropic medication, the physician or the physician's designee shall advise the recipient, in writing, of the side effects, risks, and benefits of the treatment, as well as alternatives to the proposed treatment, to the extent such advice is consistent with the recipient's ability to understand the information communicated. The physician shall determine and state in writing whether the recipient has the capacity to make a reasoned decision about the treatment. The physician or the physician's designee shall provide to the recipient's substitute decision maker, if any, the same written information that is required to be presented to the recipient in writing. If the recipient lacks the capacity to make a reasoned decision about the treatment, the treatment may be administered only (i) pursuant to the provisions of Section 2-107 or 2-107.1 or (ii) pursuant to a power of attorney for health care under the Powers of Attorney for Health Care Law or a declaration for mental health treatment under the Mental Health Treatment Preference Declaration Act. A surrogate decision maker, other than a court appointed guardian, under the Health Care Surrogate Act may not consent to the administration of electroconvulsive therapy or psychotropic medication. A surrogate may, however, petition for administration of such treatment pursuant to this Act. If the recipient is under guardianship and the guardian is authorized to consent to the administration of electroconvulsive therapy or psychotropic medication pursuant to subsection (c) of Section 2-107.1 of this Code, the physician shall advise the guardian in writing of the side effects and risks of the treatment, alternatives to the proposed treatment, and the risks and benefits of the treatment. A qualified professional shall be responsible for overseeing the implementation of such plan. Such care and treatment shall make reasonable accommodation of any physical disability of the recipient, including but not limited to the regular use of sign language for any hearing impaired individual for whom sign language is a primary mode of communication. If the recipient is unable to communicate effectively in English, the facility shall make reasonable efforts to provide services to the recipient in a language that the recipient understands.
    (b) A recipient of services who is an adherent or a member of any well-recognized religious denomination, the principles and tenets of which teach reliance upon services by spiritual means through prayer alone for healing by a duly accredited practitioner thereof, shall have the right to choose such services. The parent or guardian of a recipient of services who is a minor, or a guardian of a recipient of services who is not a minor, shall have the right to choose services by spiritual means through prayer for the recipient of services.
(Source: P.A. 95-172, eff. 8-14-07.)

405 ILCS 5/2-103

    (405 ILCS 5/2-103) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-103)
    Sec. 2-103. Except as provided in this Section, a recipient who resides in a mental health or developmental disabilities facility shall be permitted unimpeded, private, and uncensored communication with persons of his choice by mail, telephone and visitation.
    (a) The facility director shall ensure that correspondence can be conveniently received and mailed, that telephones are reasonably accessible, and that space for visits is available. Writing materials, postage and telephone usage funds shall be provided in reasonable amounts to recipients who reside in Department facilities and who are unable to procure such items.
    (b) Reasonable times and places for the use of telephones and for visits may be established in writing by the facility director.
    (c) Unimpeded, private and uncensored communication by mail, telephone, and visitation may be reasonably restricted by the facility director only in order to protect the recipient or others from harm, harassment or intimidation, provided that notice of such restriction shall be given to all recipients upon admission. When communications are restricted, the facility shall advise the recipient that he has the right to require the facility to notify the affected parties of the restriction, and to notify such affected party when the restrictions are no longer in effect. However, all letters addressed by a recipient to the Governor, members of the General Assembly, Attorney General, judges, state's attorneys, Guardianship and Advocacy Commission, or the Agency designated pursuant to "An Act in relation to the protection and advocacy of the rights of persons with developmental disabilities, and amending Acts therein named", approved September 20, 1985, officers of the Department, or licensed attorneys at law must be forwarded at once to the persons to whom they are addressed without examination by the facility authorities. Letters in reply from the officials and attorneys mentioned above must be delivered to the recipient without examination by the facility authorities.
    (d) No facility shall prevent any attorney who represents a recipient or who has been requested to do so by any relative or family member of the recipient, from visiting a recipient during normal business hours, unless that recipient refuses to meet with the attorney.
    (e) Whenever, as the result of the closing or the reduction in the number of units or available beds of any mental health facility operated by the Department of Human Services, the State determines to enter into a contract with any mental health facility to provide hospitalization to persons who would otherwise be served by the State-operated mental health facility, the resident shall be entitled to the same rights under this Section.
(Source: P.A. 97-1007, eff. 8-17-12.)

405 ILCS 5/2-104

    (405 ILCS 5/2-104) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-104)
    Sec. 2-104. Every recipient who resides in a mental health or developmental disabilities facility shall be permitted to receive, possess and use personal property and shall be provided with a reasonable amount of storage space therefor, except in the circumstances and under the conditions provided in this Section.
    (a) Possession and use of certain classes of property may be restricted by the facility director when necessary to protect the recipient or others from harm, provided that notice of such restriction shall be given to all recipients upon admission.
    (b) The professional responsible for overseeing the implementation of a recipient's services plan may, with the approval of the facility director, restrict the right to property when necessary to protect such recipient or others from harm.
    (c) When a recipient is discharged from the mental health or developmental disabilities facility, all of his lawful personal property which is in the custody of the facility shall be returned to him.
(Source: P.A. 80-1414.)

405 ILCS 5/2-105

    (405 ILCS 5/2-105) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-105)
    Sec. 2-105. A recipient of services may use his money as he chooses, unless he is a minor or prohibited from doing so under a court guardianship order. A recipient may deposit or cause to be deposited money in his name with a service provider or financial institution with the approval of the provider or financial institution. Money deposited with a service provider shall not be retained by the service provider. Any earnings attributable to a recipient's money shall accrue to him.
    Except where a recipient has given informed consent, no service provider nor any of its employees shall be made representative payee for his social security, pension, annuity, trust fund, or any other form of direct payment or assistance.
    When a recipient is discharged from a service provider, all of his money, including earnings, shall be returned to him.
(Source: P.A. 80-1414.)

405 ILCS 5/2-106

    (405 ILCS 5/2-106) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-106)
    Sec. 2-106. A recipient of services may perform labor to which he consents for a service provider, if the professional responsible for overseeing the implementation of the services plan for such recipient determines that such labor would be consistent with such plan. A recipient who performs labor which is of any consequential economic benefit to a service provider shall receive wages which are commensurate with the value of the work performed, in accordance with applicable federal and state laws and regulations. A recipient may be required to perform tasks of a personal housekeeping nature without compensation.
    Wages earned by a recipient of services shall be considered money which he is entitled to receive pursuant to Section 2-105, and such wages shall be paid by the service provider not less than once a month.
(Source: P.A. 80-1414.)

405 ILCS 5/2-107

    (405 ILCS 5/2-107) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-107)
    Sec. 2-107. Refusal of services; informing of risks.
    (a) An adult recipient of services or the recipient's guardian, if the recipient is under guardianship, and the recipient's substitute decision maker, if any, must be informed of the recipient's right to refuse medication or electroconvulsive therapy. The recipient and the recipient's guardian or substitute decision maker shall be given the opportunity to refuse generally accepted mental health or developmental disability services, including but not limited to medication or electroconvulsive therapy. If such services are refused, they shall not be given unless such services are necessary to prevent the recipient from causing serious and imminent physical harm to the recipient or others and no less restrictive alternative is available. The facility director shall inform a recipient, guardian, or substitute decision maker, if any, who refuses such services of alternate services available and the risks of such alternate services, as well as the possible consequences to the recipient of refusal of such services.
    (b) Psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy may be administered under this Section for up to 24 hours only if the circumstances leading up to the need for emergency treatment are set forth in writing in the recipient's record.
    (c) Administration of medication or electroconvulsive therapy may not be continued unless the need for such treatment is redetermined at least every 24 hours based upon a personal examination of the recipient by a physician or a nurse under the supervision of a physician and the circumstances demonstrating that need are set forth in writing in the recipient's record.
    (d) Neither psychotropic medication nor electroconvulsive therapy may be administered under this Section for a period in excess of 72 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, unless a petition is filed under Section 2-107.1 and the treatment continues to be necessary under subsection (a) of this Section. Once the petition has been filed, treatment may continue in compliance with subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this Section until the final outcome of the hearing on the petition.
    (e) The Department shall issue rules designed to insure that in State-operated mental health facilities psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy are administered in accordance with this Section and only when appropriately authorized and monitored by a physician or a nurse under the supervision of a physician in accordance with accepted medical practice. The facility director of each mental health facility not operated by the State shall issue rules designed to insure that in that facility psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy are administered in accordance with this Section and only when appropriately authorized and monitored by a physician or a nurse under the supervision of a physician in accordance with accepted medical practice. Such rules shall be available for public inspection and copying during normal business hours.
    (f) The provisions of this Section with respect to the emergency administration of psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy do not apply to facilities licensed under the Nursing Home Care Act, the Specialized Mental Health Rehabilitation Act of 2013, or the ID/DD Community Care Act.
    (g) Under no circumstances may long-acting psychotropic medications be administered under this Section.
    (h) Whenever psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy is refused pursuant to subsection (a) of this Section at least once that day, the physician shall determine and state in writing the reasons why the recipient did not meet the criteria for administration of medication or electroconvulsive therapy under subsection (a) and whether the recipient meets the standard for administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy under Section 2-107.1 of this Code. If the physician determines that the recipient meets the standard for administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy under Section 2-107.1, the facility director or his or her designee shall petition the court for administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy pursuant to that Section unless the facility director or his or her designee states in writing in the recipient's record why the filing of such a petition is not warranted. This subsection (h) applies only to State-operated mental health facilities.
    (i) The Department shall conduct annual trainings for all physicians and registered nurses working in State-operated mental health facilities on the appropriate use of emergency administration of psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy, standards for their use, and the methods of authorization under this Section.
(Source: P.A. 97-38, eff. 6-28-11; 97-227, eff. 1-1-12; 97-813, eff. 7-13-12; 98-104, eff. 7-22-13.)

405 ILCS 5/2-107.1

    (405 ILCS 5/2-107.1) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-107.1)
    Sec. 2-107.1. Administration of psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy upon application to a court.
    (a) (Blank).
    (a-5) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2-107 of this Code, psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy may be administered to an adult recipient of services on an inpatient or outpatient basis without the informed consent of the recipient under the following standards:
        (1) Any person 18 years of age or older, including
    
any guardian, may petition the circuit court for an order authorizing the administration of psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy to a recipient of services. The petition shall state that the petitioner has made a good faith attempt to determine whether the recipient has executed a power of attorney for health care under the Powers of Attorney for Health Care Law or a declaration for mental health treatment under the Mental Health Treatment Preference Declaration Act and to obtain copies of these instruments if they exist. If either of the above-named instruments is available to the petitioner, the instrument or a copy of the instrument shall be attached to the petition as an exhibit. The petitioner shall deliver a copy of the petition, and notice of the time and place of the hearing, to the respondent, his or her attorney, any known agent or attorney-in-fact, if any, and the guardian, if any, no later than 3 days prior to the date of the hearing. Service of the petition and notice of the time and place of the hearing may be made by transmitting them via facsimile machine to the respondent or other party. Upon receipt of the petition and notice, the party served, or the person delivering the petition and notice to the party served, shall acknowledge service. If the party sending the petition and notice does not receive acknowledgement of service within 24 hours, service must be made by personal service.
        The petition may include a request that the court
    
authorize such testing and procedures as may be essential for the safe and effective administration of the psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy sought to be administered, but only where the petition sets forth the specific testing and procedures sought to be administered.
        If a hearing is requested to be held immediately
    
following the hearing on a petition for involuntary admission, then the notice requirement shall be the same as that for the hearing on the petition for involuntary admission, and the petition filed pursuant to this Section shall be filed with the petition for involuntary admission.
        (2) The court shall hold a hearing within 7 days of
    
the filing of the petition. The People, the petitioner, or the respondent shall be entitled to a continuance of up to 7 days as of right. An additional continuance of not more than 7 days may be granted to any party (i) upon a showing that the continuance is needed in order to adequately prepare for or present evidence in a hearing under this Section or (ii) under exceptional circumstances. The court may grant an additional continuance not to exceed 21 days when, in its discretion, the court determines that such a continuance is necessary in order to provide the recipient with an examination pursuant to Section 3-803 or 3-804 of this Act, to provide the recipient with a trial by jury as provided in Section 3-802 of this Act, or to arrange for the substitution of counsel as provided for by the Illinois Supreme Court Rules. The hearing shall be separate from a judicial proceeding held to determine whether a person is subject to involuntary admission but may be heard immediately preceding or following such a judicial proceeding and may be heard by the same trier of fact or law as in that judicial proceeding.
        (3) Unless otherwise provided herein, the procedures
    
set forth in Article VIII of Chapter 3 of this Act, including the provisions regarding appointment of counsel, shall govern hearings held under this subsection (a-5).
        (4) Psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive
    
therapy may be administered to the recipient if and only if it has been determined by clear and convincing evidence that all of the following factors are present. In determining whether a person meets the criteria specified in the following paragraphs (A) through (G), the court may consider evidence of the person's history of serious violence, repeated past pattern of specific behavior, actions related to the person's illness, or past outcomes of various treatment options.
            (A) That the recipient has a serious mental
        
illness or developmental disability.
            (B) That because of said mental illness or
        
developmental disability, the recipient currently exhibits any one of the following: (i) deterioration of his or her ability to function, as compared to the recipient's ability to function prior to the current onset of symptoms of the mental illness or disability for which treatment is presently sought, (ii) suffering, or (iii) threatening behavior.
            (C) That the illness or disability has existed
        
for a period marked by the continuing presence of the symptoms set forth in item (B) of this subdivision (4) or the repeated episodic occurrence of these symptoms.
            (D) That the benefits of the treatment outweigh
        
the harm.
            (E) That the recipient lacks the capacity to make
        
a reasoned decision about the treatment.
            (F) That other less restrictive services have
        
been explored and found inappropriate.
            (G) If the petition seeks authorization for
        
testing and other procedures, that such testing and procedures are essential for the safe and effective administration of the treatment.
        (5) In no event shall an order issued under this
    
Section be effective for more than 90 days. A second 90-day period of involuntary treatment may be authorized pursuant to a hearing that complies with the standards and procedures of this subsection (a-5). Thereafter, additional 180-day periods of involuntary treatment may be authorized pursuant to the standards and procedures of this Section without limit. If a new petition to authorize the administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy is filed at least 15 days prior to the expiration of the prior order, and if any continuance of the hearing is agreed to by the recipient, the administration of the treatment may continue in accordance with the prior order pending the completion of a hearing under this Section.
        (6) An order issued under this subsection (a-5) shall
    
designate the persons authorized to administer the treatment under the standards and procedures of this subsection (a-5). Those persons shall have complete discretion not to administer any treatment authorized under this Section. The order shall also specify the medications and the anticipated range of dosages that have been authorized and may include a list of any alternative medications and range of dosages deemed necessary.
    (a-10) The court may, in its discretion, appoint a guardian ad litem for a recipient before the court or authorize an existing guardian of the person to monitor treatment and compliance with court orders under this Section.
    (b) A guardian may be authorized to consent to the administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy to an objecting recipient only under the standards and procedures of subsection (a-5).
    (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section, a guardian may consent to the administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy to a non-objecting recipient under Article XIa of the Probate Act of 1975.
    (d) Nothing in this Section shall prevent the administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy to recipients in an emergency under Section 2-107 of this Act.
    (e) Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Section, psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy may be administered pursuant to a power of attorney for health care under the Powers of Attorney for Health Care Law or a declaration for mental health treatment under the Mental Health Treatment Preference Declaration Act.
    (f) The Department shall conduct annual trainings for physicians and registered nurses working in State-operated mental health facilities on the appropriate use of psychotropic medication and electroconvulsive therapy, standards for their use, and the preparation of court petitions under this Section.
(Source: P.A. 97-375, eff. 8-15-11.)

405 ILCS 5/2-107.2

    (405 ILCS 5/2-107.2) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-107.2)
    Sec. 2-107.2. Review; notice.
    (a) Whenever any recipient, who is receiving treatment in a residential mental health facility, has been receiving psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy in that facility continuously or on a regular basis for a period of 3 months, and, if the treatment is continued while the recipient is a resident in that facility, every 6 months thereafter, for so long as the treatment shall continue, the facility director shall convene a treatment review panel to review the treatment.
    (b) At least 7 days prior to the date of the meeting, the recipient, his or her guardian, if any, and the person designated under subsection (b) of Section 2-200 shall be given written notification of the time and place of the treatment review meeting. The notice shall also advise the recipient of his or her right to designate some person to attend the meeting and assist the recipient.
    (c) If, during the course of the review, the recipient or guardian, if any, advises the committee that he no longer agrees to continue receiving the treatment, the treatment must be discontinued except that the treatment may be administered under either Section 2-107 or 2-107.1. If the recipient and guardian, if any, continues to agree to the treatment, the treatment shall be continued if the committee determines that the recipient is receiving appropriate treatment and that the benefit to the recipient outweighs any risk of harm to the recipient.
    (d) The Department shall issue rules to implement the requirements of this Section.
(Source: P.A. 95-172, eff. 8-14-07.)

405 ILCS 5/2-107.3

    (405 ILCS 5/2-107.3)
    Sec. 2-107.3. Reports. Each facility director of a State-operated mental health facility shall prepare a quarterly report stating the number of persons who were determined to meet the standard for administration of psychotropic medication or electroconvulsive therapy but for whom it was determined that the filing of such a petition was not warranted as provided for in subsection (h) of Section 2-107 of this Code and the reasons for each such determination. The Department shall prepare and publish an annual report summarizing the information received under this Section. The Department's report shall include the data from each facility filing such a report and shall separately report the data from each such facility, identified by facility.
(Source: P.A. 94-1066, eff. 8-1-06; 95-172, eff. 8-14-07.)

405 ILCS 5/2-108

    (405 ILCS 5/2-108) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-108)
    Sec. 2-108. Use of restraint. Restraint may be used only as a therapeutic measure to prevent a recipient from causing physical harm to himself or physical abuse to others. Restraint may only be applied by a person who has been trained in the application of the particular type of restraint to be utilized. In no event shall restraint be utilized to punish or discipline a recipient, nor is restraint to be used as a convenience for the staff.
    (a) Except as provided in this Section, restraint shall be employed only upon the written order of a physician, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, clinical professional counselor, or registered nurse with supervisory responsibilities. No restraint shall be ordered unless the physician, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, clinical professional counselor, or registered nurse with supervisory responsibilities, after personally observing and examining the recipient, is clinically satisfied that the use of restraint is justified to prevent the recipient from causing physical harm to himself or others. In no event may restraint continue for longer than 2 hours unless within that time period a nurse with supervisory responsibilities or a physician confirms, in writing, following a personal examination of the recipient, that the restraint does not pose an undue risk to the recipient's health in light of the recipient's physical or medical condition. The order shall state the events leading up to the need for restraint and the purposes for which restraint is employed. The order shall also state the length of time restraint is to be employed and the clinical justification for that length of time. No order for restraint shall be valid for more than 16 hours. If further restraint is required, a new order must be issued pursuant to the requirements provided in this Section.
    (b) In the event there is an emergency requiring the immediate use of restraint, it may be ordered temporarily by a qualified person only where a physician, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, clinical professional counselor, or registered nurse with supervisory responsibilities is not immediately available. In that event, an order by a nurse, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, clinical professional counselor, or physician shall be obtained pursuant to the requirements of this Section as quickly as possible, and the recipient shall be examined by a physician or supervisory nurse within 2 hours after the initial employment of the emergency restraint. Whoever orders restraint in emergency situations shall document its necessity and place that documentation in the recipient's record.
    (c) The person who orders restraint shall inform the facility director or his designee in writing of the use of restraint within 24 hours.
    (d) The facility director shall review all restraint orders daily and shall inquire into the reasons for the orders for restraint by any person who routinely orders them.
    (e) Restraint may be employed during all or part of one 24 hour period, the period commencing with the initial application of the restraint. However, once restraint has been employed during one 24 hour period, it shall not be used again on the same recipient during the next 48 hours without the prior written authorization of the facility director.
    (f) Restraint shall be employed in a humane and therapeutic manner and the person being restrained shall be observed by a qualified person as often as is clinically appropriate but in no event less than once every 15 minutes. The qualified person shall maintain a record of the observations. Specifically, unless there is an immediate danger that the recipient will physically harm himself or others, restraint shall be loosely applied to permit freedom of movement. Further, the recipient shall be permitted to have regular meals and toilet privileges free from the restraint, except when freedom of action may result in physical harm to the recipient or others.
    (g) Every facility that employs restraint shall provide training in the safe and humane application of each type of restraint employed. The facility shall not authorize the use of any type of restraint by an employee who has not received training in the safe and humane application of that type of restraint. Each facility in which restraint is used shall maintain records detailing which employees have been trained and are authorized to apply restraint, the date of the training and the type of restraint that the employee was trained to use.
    (h) Whenever restraint is imposed upon any recipient whose primary mode of communication is sign language, the recipient shall be permitted to have his hands free from restraint for brief periods each hour, except when freedom may result in physical harm to the recipient or others.
    (i) A recipient who is restrained may only be secluded at the same time pursuant to an explicit written authorization as provided in Section 2-109 of this Code. Whenever a recipient is restrained, a member of the facility staff shall remain with the recipient at all times unless the recipient has been secluded. A recipient who is restrained and secluded shall be observed by a qualified person as often as is clinically appropriate but in no event less than every 15 minutes.
    (j) Whenever restraint is used, the recipient shall be advised of his right, pursuant to Sections 2-200 and 2-201 of this Code, to have any person of his choosing, including the Guardianship and Advocacy Commission or the agency designated pursuant to the Protection and Advocacy for Developmentally Disabled Persons Act notified of the restraint. A recipient who is under guardianship may request that any person of his choosing be notified of the restraint whether or not the guardian approves of the notice. Whenever the Guardianship and Advocacy Commission is notified that a recipient has been restrained, it shall contact that recipient to determine the circumstances of the restraint and whether further action is warranted.
(Source: P.A. 98-137, eff. 8-2-13.)

405 ILCS 5/2-109

    (405 ILCS 5/2-109) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-109)
    Sec. 2-109. Seclusion. Seclusion may be used only as a therapeutic measure to prevent a recipient from causing physical harm to himself or physical abuse to others. In no event shall seclusion be utilized to punish or discipline a recipient, nor is seclusion to be used as a convenience for the staff.
    (a) Seclusion shall be employed only upon the written order of a physician, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, clinical professional counselor, or registered nurse with supervisory responsibilities. No seclusion shall be ordered unless the physician, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, clinical professional counselor, or registered nurse with supervisory responsibilities, after personally observing and examining the recipient, is clinically satisfied that the use of seclusion is justified to prevent the recipient from causing physical harm to himself or others. In no event may seclusion continue for longer than 2 hours unless within that time period a nurse with supervisory responsibilities or a physician confirms in writing, following a personal examination of the recipient, that the seclusion does not pose an undue risk to the recipient's health in light of the recipient's physical or medical condition. The order shall state the events leading up to the need for seclusion and the purposes for which seclusion is employed. The order shall also state the length of time seclusion is to be employed and the clinical justification for the length of time. No order for seclusion shall be valid for more than 16 hours. If further seclusion is required, a new order must be issued pursuant to the requirements provided in this Section.
    (b) The person who orders seclusion shall inform the facility director or his designee in writing of the use of seclusion within 24 hours.
    (c) The facility director shall review all seclusion orders daily and shall inquire into the reasons for the orders for seclusion by any person who routinely orders them.
    (d) Seclusion may be employed during all or part of one 16 hour period, that period commencing with the initial application of the seclusion. However, once seclusion has been employed during one 16 hour period, it shall not be used again on the same recipient during the next 48 hours without the prior written authorization of the facility director.
    (e) The person who ordered the seclusion shall assign a qualified person to observe the recipient at all times. A recipient who is restrained and secluded shall be observed by a qualified person as often as is clinically appropriate but in no event less than once every 15 minutes.
    (f) Safety precautions shall be followed to prevent injuries to the recipient in the seclusion room. Seclusion rooms shall be adequately lighted, heated, and furnished. If a door is locked, someone with a key shall be in constant attendance nearby.
    (g) Whenever seclusion is used, the recipient shall be advised of his right, pursuant to Sections 2-200 and 2-201 of this Code, to have any person of his choosing, including the Guardianship and Advocacy Commission notified of the seclusion. A person who is under guardianship may request that any person of his choosing be notified of the seclusion whether or not the guardian approves of the notice. Whenever the Guardianship and Advocacy Commission is notified that a recipient has been secluded, it shall contact that recipient to determine the circumstances of the seclusion and whether further action is warranted.
(Source: P.A. 98-137, eff. 8-2-13.)

405 ILCS 5/2-110

    (405 ILCS 5/2-110) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-110)
    Sec. 2-110. No recipient of services shall be subjected to any unusual, hazardous, or experimental services or psychosurgery, without his written and informed consent.
    If the recipient is a minor or is under guardianship, such recipient's parent or guardian is authorized, only with the approval of the court, to provide informed consent for participation of the ward in any such services which the guardian deems to be in the best interests of the ward.
(Source: P.A. 90-538, eff. 12-1-97.)

405 ILCS 5/2-110.1

    (405 ILCS 5/2-110.1)
    Sec. 2-110.1. Reports.
    (a) A mental hospital or facility at which electro-convulsive therapy is administered shall submit to the Department quarterly reports relating to the administration of the therapy for the purposes of reducing morbidity or mortality and improving patient care.
    (b) A report shall state the following for each quarter:
        (1) The number of persons who received the therapy,
    
including:
            (A) the number of persons who gave informed
        
consent to the therapy;
            (B) the number of persons confined as subject to
        
involuntary admission who gave informed consent to the therapy;
            (C) the number of persons who received the
        
therapy without informed consent pursuant to Section 2-107.1; and
            (D) the number of persons who received the
        
therapy on an emergency basis pursuant to subsection (d) of Section 2-107.1.
        (2) The age, sex, and race of the recipients of the
    
therapy.
        (3) The source of the treatment payment.
        (4) The average number of electro-convulsive
    
treatments administered for each complete series of treatments, but not including maintenance treatments.
        (5) The average number of maintenance
    
electro-convulsive treatments administered per month.
        (6) Any significant adverse reactions to the
    
treatment as defined by rule.
        (7) Autopsy findings if death followed within 14 days
    
after the date of the administration of the therapy.
        (8) Any other information required by the Department
    
by rule.
    (c) The Department shall prepare and publish an annual written report summarizing the information received under this Section. The report shall not contain any information that identifies or tends to identify any facility, physician, health care provider, or patient.
(Source: P.A. 90-538, eff. 12-1-97.)

405 ILCS 5/2-110.5

    (405 ILCS 5/2-110.5)
    Sec. 2-110.5. Electro-convulsive therapy for minors. If a recipient is a minor, that recipient's parent or guardian is authorized, only with the approval of the court under the procedures set out in Section 2-107.1, to provide consent for participation of the minor in electro-convulsive therapy if the parent or guardian deems it to be in the best interest of the minor. In addition to the requirements in Section 2-107.1, prior to the court entering an order approving treatment by electro-convulsive therapy, 2 licensed psychiatrists, one of which may be the minor's treating psychiatrist, who have examined the patient must concur in the determination that the minor should participate in treatment by electro-convulsive therapy.
(Source: P.A. 91-74, eff. 7-9-99.)

405 ILCS 5/2-111

    (405 ILCS 5/2-111) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-111)
    Sec. 2-111. A medical or dental emergency exists when delay for the purpose of obtaining consent would endanger the life or adversely and substantially affect the health of a recipient of services. When a medical or dental emergency exists, if a physician or licensed dentist who examines a recipient determines that the recipient is not capable of giving informed consent, essential medical or dental procedures may be performed without consent. No physician nor licensed dentist shall be liable for a non-negligent good faith determination that a medical or dental emergency exists or a non-negligent good faith determination that the recipient is not capable of giving informed consent.
(Source: P.A. 85-971.)

405 ILCS 5/2-112

    (405 ILCS 5/2-112) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-112)
    Sec. 2-112. Freedom from abuse and neglect. Every recipient of services in a mental health or developmental disability facility shall be free from abuse and neglect.
(Source: P.A. 86-1013.)

405 ILCS 5/2-113

    (405 ILCS 5/2-113) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-113)
    Sec. 2-113. (a) Upon admission, the facility shall inquire of the recipient if a spouse, family member, friend or an agency is to be notified of his admission to the facility. If the recipient consents to release of information concerning his admission, the facility shall immediately attempt to make phone contact with at least two designated persons or agencies or by mail within 24 hours.
    (b) Any person may request information from a developmental disability or mental health facility relating to whether an adult recipient or minor recipient admitted pursuant to Section 3-502 has been admitted to the facility. Any parties requesting information must submit proof of identification and list their name, address, phone number, relationship to the recipient and reason for the request.
    (c) The facility shall respond to the inquirer within 2 working days. If the recipient is located at the facility, the facility director shall inform the recipient of the request and shall advise the recipient that disclosure of his presence at the facility will not obligate the recipient to have contact with the inquirer. No information shall be disclosed unless the recipient consents in writing to the disclosure.
    (d) If the recipient has consented to the release of information the facility shall inform the requesting party that the recipient is located at the facility. The facility shall, with the recipient's consent, tell the requesting party how to contact the recipient.
    (e) When the recipient is not located at the facility or when the recipient does not consent in writing to release such information, the facility shall inform the consenting party that no information is available regarding that person.
    (f) Transactions pursuant to this Section shall be noted in the recipient's record.
(Source: P.A. 86-1417.)

405 ILCS 5/2-114

    (405 ILCS 5/2-114) (from Ch. 91 1/2, par. 2-114)
    Sec. 2-114. (a) Whenever an attorney or other advocate from the Guardianship and Advocacy Commission or the agency designated by the Governor under Section 1 of the Protection and Advocacy for Developmentally Disabled Persons Act or any other attorney advises a facility in which a recipient is receiving inpatient mental health services that he is presently representing the recipient, or has been appointed by any court or administrative agency to do so or has been requested to represent the recipient by a member of the recipient's family, the facility shall, subject to the provisions of Section 2-113 of this Code, disclose to the attorney or advocate whether the recipient is presently residing in the facility and, if so, how the attorney or advocate may communicate with the recipient.
    (b) The facility may take reasonable precautions to identify the attorney or advocate. No further information shall be disclosed to the attorney or advocate except in conformity with the authorization procedures contained in the Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Confidentiality Act.
    (c) Whenever the location of the recipient has been disclosed to an attorney or advocate, the facility director shall inform the recipient of that fact and shall note this disclosure in the recipient's records.
    (d) An attorney or advocate who receives any information under this Section may not disclose this information to anyone else without the written consent of the recipient obtained pursuant to Section 5 of the Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Confidentiality Act.
(Source: P.A. 91-357, eff. 7-29-99.)

405 ILCS 5/2-115

    (405 ILCS 5/2-115)
    Sec. 2-115. Participants in mental health courts. Subject to appropriations, the Department shall establish pilot programs to provide the clinical services necessary to serve participants in mental health courts that have been established in any judicial circuit in this State.
(Source: P.A. 92-120, eff. 1-1-02.)