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Illinois Compiled Statutes

Information maintained by the Legislative Reference Bureau
Updating the database of the Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) is an ongoing process. Recent laws may not yet be included in the ILCS database, but they are found on this site as Public Acts soon after they become law. For information concerning the relationship between statutes and Public Acts, refer to the Guide.

Because the statute database is maintained primarily for legislative drafting purposes, statutory changes are sometimes included in the statute database before they take effect. If the source note at the end of a Section of the statutes includes a Public Act that has not yet taken effect, the version of the law that is currently in effect may have already been removed from the database and you should refer to that Public Act to see the changes made to the current law.

(755 ILCS 5/) Probate Act of 1975.

755 ILCS 5/27-6

    (755 ILCS 5/27-6) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 27-6)
    Sec. 27-6. Actions which survive.) In addition to the actions which survive by the common law, the following also survive: actions of replevin, actions to recover damages for an injury to the person (except slander and libel), actions to recover damages for an injury to real or personal property or for the detention or conversion of personal property, actions against officers for misfeasance, malfeasance, nonfeasance of themselves or their deputies, actions for fraud or deceit, and actions provided in Section 6-21 of "An Act relating to alcoholic liquors".
(Source: P.A. 82-783.)

755 ILCS 5/27-7

    (755 ILCS 5/27-7) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 27-7)
    Sec. 27-7. Joint tax returns.) Unless otherwise directed by the decedent in his will, a representative may join with the spouse of the decedent or of the ward in the making of a joint federal or state income tax return for the decedent or ward and his spouse and to consent for federal or state gift tax purposes to gifts made by the spouse of the decedent or ward to the end that gifts to which consent is given are treated for federal or state gift tax purposes as made 1/2 by the decedent or ward and 1/2 by his spouse. Any liability incurred by a representative pursuant to any such joinder or consent is incurred on behalf of the estate of the decedent or ward and not individually.
(Source: P.A. 79-328.)

755 ILCS 5/27-8

    (755 ILCS 5/27-8) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 27-8)
    Sec. 27-8. Publication of notice in county in which no newspaper is published.) When a notice is required by this Act to be published in a newspaper in a particular county and there is no newspaper published in that county, the notice must be published in such other newspaper in this State as the court directs.
(Source: P.A. 79-328.)

755 ILCS 5/27-9

    (755 ILCS 5/27-9) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 27-9)
    Sec. 27-9. Publication of notice by clerk.) When the clerk of the court is required by this Act to publish a notice in a newspaper, the representative or his attorney has the right to direct in what newspaper the notice shall be published. If the clerk makes publication contrary to directions, he may not collect the costs thereof. This Section does not apply in any case where the court directs in what newspaper publication is to be made.
(Source: P.A. 79-328.)

755 ILCS 5/Art. XXVIII

    (755 ILCS 5/Art. XXVIII heading)

755 ILCS 5/28-1

    (755 ILCS 5/28-1) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-1)
    Sec. 28-1. Purpose and scope of Article.) This Article permits an executor or administrator to administer the estate without court order or filings, except to the extent that court order or filing is required by this Article or is requested by any interested person pursuant to this Article. This Article shall apply to all estates after the effective date of this Amendatory Act of 1983, whether letters of office are issued before, on or after that date. All provisions of this Act dealing with decedents' estates that are not inconsistent with this Article apply to and govern independent administration.
(Source: P.A. 83-900.)

755 ILCS 5/28-2

    (755 ILCS 5/28-2) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-2)
    Sec. 28-2. Order for independent administration - notice of appointment of independent administrator.)
    (a) Unless the will, if any, expressly forbids independent administration or supervised administration is required under subsection (b), the court shall grant independent administration (1) when an order is entered appointing a representative pursuant to a petition which does not request supervised administration and which is filed under Section 6-2, 6-9, 6-20, 7-2, 8-2, 9-4 or 9-6 and (2) on petition by the representative at any time or times during supervised administration and such notice to interested persons as the court directs. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of the preceding sentence, if there is an interested person who is a minor or person with a disability, the court may require supervised administration (or may grant independent administration on such conditions as its deems adequate to protect the ward's interest) whenever the court finds that (1) the interests of the ward are not adequately represented by a personal fiduciary acting or designated to act pursuant to Section 28-3 or by another party having a substantially identical interest in the estate and the ward is not represented by a guardian of his estate and (2) supervised administration is necessary to protect the ward's interests. When independent administration is granted, the independent representative shall include with each notice required to be mailed to heirs or legatees under Section 6-10 or Section 9-5 an explanation of the rights of heirs and legatees under this Article and the form of petition which may be used to terminate independent administration under subsection 28-4(a). The form and substance of the notice of rights and the petition to terminate shall be prescribed by rule of the Supreme Court of this State. Each order granting independent administration and the letters shall state that the representative is appointed as independent executor or independent administrator, as the case may be. The independent representative shall file proof of mailing with the clerk of the court.
    (b) If an interested person objects to the grant of independent administration under subsection (a), the court shall require supervised administration, except:
        (1) If the will, if any, directs independent
administration, supervised administration shall be required only if the court finds there is good cause to require supervised administration.
        (2) If the objector is a creditor or a legatee other
than a residuary legatee, supervised administration shall be required only if the court finds it is necessary to protect the objector's interest, and instead of ordering supervised administration, the court may require such other action as it deems adequate to protect the objector's interest.
(Source: P.A. 99-143, eff. 7-27-15.)

755 ILCS 5/28-3

    (755 ILCS 5/28-3) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-3)
    Sec. 28-3. Protection of persons under disability during independent administration.)
    (a) A personal fiduciary acting pursuant to this Article has full power and the responsibility to protect the interests of his ward during independent administration and to do all acts necessary or appropriate for that purpose which the ward might do if not under disability. Approval of any act of the independent representative or of his final report by the personal fiduciary, or failure of the personal fiduciary to object after notice pursuant to this Article, binds the ward. Unless the ward is bound under the preceding sentence, the independent representative is accountable to the ward for damages incurred as a consequence of willful default by the independent representative until the expiration of a period of 6 months after the ward's disability is removed, and any action must be commenced before the expiration of that period. Upon the entry of an order pursuant to Section 28-4 terminating independent administration status, the personal fiduciary's powers and responsibility for continuing to protect the ward's interest terminate. The fact that a personal fiduciary is acting does not limit the right of any person as next friend of the ward to inform the court of any circumstances that may adversely affect the ward's interests in the estate.
    (b) The following persons are entitled to act as personal fiduciary for a ward in the order of preference indicated:
        (1) The representative of the ward's estate acting in
Illinois or, if none, the representative of the ward's estate acting in any other jurisdiction.
        (2) The person designated as personal fiduciary in
the decedent's will, if any.
        (3) The person designated as personal fiduciary by
the independent representative in a petition for letters of office or other instrument filed with the clerk of the court.
    No person may act as personal fiduciary who is a minor or person with a disability, who has been convicted of a felony or whose interests conflict with the ward's interests in the decedent's estate. A personal fiduciary designated under subparagraph (3) above shall be a spouse, descendant, parent, grandparent, brother, sister, uncle or aunt of the ward, a guardian of the person of the ward or a party having an interest in the estate substantially identical to that of the ward. The responsibility of a personal fiduciary begins on delivery of his written acceptance of the office to the independent representative. Any personal fiduciary may refuse to act or may resign at any time by instrument delivered to the independent representative. When a personal fiduciary has been appointed and there is a change of personal fiduciary or a vacancy in that office, the independent representative shall inform the court; and the court may designate any suitable person as personal fiduciary when there is a vacancy that has not been filled by the independent representative in accordance with this Section 28-3.
    (c) A personal fiduciary is entitled to such reasonable compensation for his services as may be approved by the independent representative or, in the absence of approval, as may be fixed by the court, to be paid out of the estate as an expense of administration.
    (d) A personal fiduciary is liable to the ward only for willful default and not for errors in judgment.
(Source: P.A. 99-143, eff. 7-27-15.)

755 ILCS 5/28-4

    (755 ILCS 5/28-4) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-4)
    Sec. 28-4. Termination of independent administration status.) (a) Upon petition by any interested person, mailed or delivered to the clerk of the court, the court shall enter an order terminating the independent administration status of the estate, except:
    (1) If the will, if any, directs independent administration, independent administration status shall be terminated only if the court finds there is good cause to require supervised administration.
    (2) If the petitioner is a creditor or a legatee other than a residuary legatee, independent administration status shall be terminated only if the court finds that termination is necessary to protect the petitioner's interest, and instead of terminating independent administration status, the court may require such other action as it deems adequate to protect the petitioner's interest. Upon termination of independent administration, the representative must mail notice of the termination to all interested persons whose names and post office addresses are known to the representative and file proof of mailing with the clerk of the court.
    (b) After entry of an order terminating independent administration status, the representative shall be governed by all provisions of the Act applicable to the estate in supervised administration, and the order of termination shall direct the representative as to the time and manner for the performance of any acts (such as the filing of an inventory or account) which would have been required to be done earlier in supervised administration.
    (c) After entry of an order terminating independent administration status, the independent representative may not exercise any power pursuant to this Article and is liable for any damages caused by any such exercise, but the validity of the independent representative's actions pursuant to this Article after termination with respect to any person other than beneficiaries and creditors of the estate will not be affected by termination of independent administration unless such person has actual knowledge of termination.
(Source: P.A. 81-1453.)

755 ILCS 5/28-5

    (755 ILCS 5/28-5) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-5)
    Sec. 28-5. Court proceedings during independent administration.) At any time or times during independent administration any interested person may petition the court for a hearing and order as to any matter germane to the administration of the estate, and the provisions of this Act other than this Article shall govern any such court proceedings in the same manner as under supervised administration. If the independent representative petitions the court for instructions as to the exercise of any discretionary power, he renounces his discretion with respect to the matter before the court and the court shall substitute its judgment for his.
(Source: P.A. 81-213.)

755 ILCS 5/28-6

    (755 ILCS 5/28-6) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-6)
    Sec. 28-6. Service of inventory.) (a) Not less than 30 days prior to filing of the verified report required by Section 28-11, an independent representative shall mail or deliver a copy of an inventory of the estate to each interested person; provided, however, that prior to that time any interested person shall be given a copy of an inventory upon written request. An independent representative need not file the inventory with the court.
    (b) Within 90 days after issuance of letters of office to an independent administrator, said administrator shall provide to the surety on the bond, by certified mail, a copy of the inventory of the real and personal estate which has come to his knowledge. The same procedure shall apply to property coming to his knowledge after the original inventory is completed. Failure to comply with this provision may result in termination of independent administration status under the provisions of Section 28-4.
(Source: P.A. 84-555; 84-690.)

755 ILCS 5/28-7

    (755 ILCS 5/28-7) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-7)
    Sec. 28-7. Spouse and child awards.) (a) When an award under Section 15-1 or 15-2 is allowable and is not waived or barred, an independent representative may pay the award determined under Section 15-1 or 15-2 without application to the court unless the aggregate of all awards exceeds 5% of the gross value of the estate at the date of death, as determined by the independent representative; but the minimum amount of any award under Section 15-1 or 15-2 may be paid in any event without application to the court.
    (b) The independent representative shall give notice of the allowance of the award as provided in subsection 15-3(a). When an independent representative makes an award without application to the court, each person having a right of selection of goods and chattels under Section 15-4 may file his selection with the independent representative within 30 days after he is notified in writing of the allowance of the award.
(Source: P.A. 81-213.)

755 ILCS 5/28-8

    (755 ILCS 5/28-8) (from Ch. 110 1/2, par. 28-8)
    Sec. 28-8. Administrative powers. An independent representative acting reasonably for the best interests of the estate has the powers granted in the will and the following powers, all exercisable without court order, except to the extent that the following powers are inconsistent with the will:
        (a) To lease, sell at public or private sale, for
cash or on credit, mortgage or pledge the personal estate of the decedent and to distribute in kind any personal estate the sale of which is not necessary;
        (b) To borrow money with or without security;
        (c) To mortgage or pledge agricultural commodities as
provided in Section 19-3;
        (d) To continue the decedent's unincorporated
business without personal liability except for malfeasance or misfeasance for losses incurred; and obligations incurred or contracts entered into by the independent representative with respect to the business are entitled to priority of payment out of the assets of the business but, without approval of the court first obtained, do not involve the estate beyond those assets;
        (e) To settle, compound or compromise any claim or
interest of the decedent in any property or exchange any such claim or interest for other claims or property; and to settle compound or compromise and pay all claims against the estate as provided in Sections 18-11 and 18-13, but claims of the independent representative or his attorney shall be subject to Section 18-8;
        (f) To perform any contract of the decedent;
        (g) To employ agents, accountants and counsel,
including legal and investment counsel; to delegate to them the performance of any act of administration, whether or not discretionary; and to pay them reasonable compensation;
        (h) To hold stocks, bonds and other personal property
in the name of a nominee as provided in Section 19-12;
        (i) To take possession, administer and grant
possession of the decedent's real estate, which term in this subsection includes oil, gas, coal and other mineral interests therein; to pay taxes on decedent's real estate whether or not in possession of the representative; to lease the decedent's real estate upon such terms and for such length of time as he deems advisable; to sell at public or private sale, for cash or on credit, or mortgage any real estate or interest therein to which the decedent had claim or title, but real estate specifically bequeathed shall not be leased, sold or mortgaged without the written consent of the legatee; and to confirm the title of any heir or legatee to real estate by recording and delivering to the heir or legatee an instrument releasing the estate's interest; and
        (j) To retain property properly acquired, without
regard to its suitability for original purchase; and to invest money of the estate (1) in any one or more of the investments described in Section 21-1 or (2) if the independent representative determines that the estate is solvent and all interested persons other than creditors approve, in any investments authorized for trustees under the prudent investor rule stated in Article 9 of the Illinois Trust Code.
(Source: P.A. 101-48, eff. 1-1-20.)