Section 890.120  Definitions


For the purpose of administering and enforcing this Part, the following terms, which consist of words or expressions that have a precise meaning in plumbing, shall have the meaning indicated.  Refer to Appendix A for standards applicable to plumbing appurtenances and fixtures defined in this Section.


            "Abut" or "Abutting":   To border, to touch, to terminate at point of contact, adjacent.


            "Accessible":  Easily approached or entered with minor modifications, such as the removal of an access panel, door or similar obstruction (e.g., drywall, gypsum board, plasterboard, or paneling).  Concrete, asphalt and ceramic tile are not considered accessible.


            "Air Break" (See "Air Gap".)


            "Air Gap":  The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank or plumbing fixture and the flood-level rim of the receptacle.  An air gap in a drainage system is a piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a point above the flood level rim.  (See Appendix B.Illustrations A and B.)


            "Anchor":  An approved support for securing pipe, fixtures and equipment to walls, ceilings, floors or any other structural members.


            "Antimicrobial":  An additive or surface coating that prohibits the growth of bacteria or staphylococci.


            "Anti-siphon Ballcock":  A device consisting of a float valve with a flow-splitter to provide for tank and trap refill that has an integral vacuum breaker and that is used in conjunction with water closet flush tanks.


            "Approved":  Accepted or acceptable under an applicable specification stated or cited in this Part or accepted as suitable for the proposed use.


            "Area Drain":  A drain placed in the floor of a basement areaway, a depressed or basement entry way, a loading platform, or a paved driveway that cannot otherwise be drained.


            "Aspirator":  A device supplied with water under positive pressure that passes through an integral orifice, causing a partial vacuum and resulting in movement of fluid by siphonage. 


            "Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker":  A device consisting of a soft disc, reaction cup, fully guided stem guide, air vent port, and air port shield or hood to prevent fouling of the vent port, used for protection against back siphonage.


            "Authorities Having Jurisdiction":  Any entity that the Illinois Plumbing License Law authorizes to enforce the Law.


            "Back Pressure":  A condition caused when a force is exerted and reverses the flow of gas, water or air in a direction opposite the intended normal direction of flow. 


            "Back Siphonage":  A condition caused when a negative force or vacuum is exerted and reverses the flow of gas, water or air to a direction opposite the intended normal direction of flow. 


            "Back Siphonage Preventer":  A device designed to prevent reverse flow in a water system, specifically back siphonage.  The device should be used only where no back pressure may occur.


            "Back Water Valve":  A device or valve that is installed in a sanitary sewer, storm drain or storm sewer to prevent sewage or drainage from backing up.


            "Backflow":  The reversal of flow from that normally intended.  Hydraulic conditions that cause backflow include back siphonage, back pressure and aspiration.


            "Backflow Preventer":  A device or an assembly used to prevent contamination of the potable water supply through an actual or potential cross-connection. 


            "Backflow Preventer, Double Check Valve Backflow Preventer Assembly" or "DCV": A plumbing appurtenance consisting of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves that operate normally in the closed position; two tight-closing, resilient seated shut-off valves; and four test cocks.


            "Backflow Preventer, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Vent":  A plumbing appurtenance consisting of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves, designed to operate normally in the closed position, separated by an intermediate chamber able to automatically vent to atmosphere. 


            "Backflow Preventer, Double Check Detector Backflow Prevention Assembly" or "DCDA":  A plumbing appurtenance consisting of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves, designed to operate normally in the closed position; two tight-closing, resilient seated shut-off valves; and four test cocks.  The assembly must include a bypass line with a water meter and double check assembly.   


            "Backflow Preventer, Dual Check Valve Type":  A plumbing appurtenance consisting of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves, designed to operate normally in the closed position.   


            "Backflow Preventer, Dual Check Valves, Post-Mix Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Type": A plumbing appurtenance used to prevent carbonated water or carbon dioxide from backflow into a potable water system.  The assembly consists of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves, designed to operate normally in the closed position, residing in a common body.


            "Backflow Preventer, Reduced Pressure Detector Backflow Prevention Assembly" or "RPDA":  A plumbing appurtenance consisting of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves, designed to operate normally in the closed position, separated by an intermediate zone that includes an internally force loaded hydraulic operated relief for venting to atmosphere, designed to operate normally in the open position, two tight-closing, resilient seated shut-off valves, four test cocks, and a metered reduced pressure backflow prevention assembly bypass.


            "Backflow Preventer, Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly" or "RPZ": A plumbing appurtenance consisting of two internally force loaded, independently acting check valves, designed to operate normally in the closed position, separated by an intermediate zone that includes an internally force loaded, hydraulically operated relief for venting to atmosphere, designed to operate normally in the open position, two tight-closing resilient shut-off valves, and four test cocks.


            "Ballcock":  A device consisting of a float valve equipped with a flow-splitter to provide a tank and trap refill; used in conjunction with a flush tank on a water closet.


            "Battery of Fixtures":  Any group of two or more identical adjacent fixtures that discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch.  (See Appendix B.Illustration C.)


            "Boiler Blow-Down":  A controlled outlet on a boiler to permit emptying or discharging of sediment.


            "Branch":  Any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.  (See Appendix B.Illustration D.)


            "Branch Interval":  A length of soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but in no case less than 8 feet, within which the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected to the stack.


            "Branch Vent":  A horizontal vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.  (See Appendix B.Illustration E.)


            "Building Classification":  The Department's designation of buildings into differing types based upon use or occupancy, such as residential buildings, dormitories, office buildings, food service establishments, etc.


            "Building Drain":  The part of the lowest horizontal piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building and conveys it to the building (house) sewer.  The building drain's developed length terminates 5 feet outside the building foundation wall.  (See Appendix B.Illustration F.)


            "Building Sewer":  The part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain, receives the discharge of the building drain and conveys it to a public sanitary sewer or private sewage disposal system.  The building sewer commences 5 feet outside the building foundation wall. (See Appendix B.Illustration F.)


            "Building Storm Drain":  The lowest horizontal portion of the storm drainage system used for conveying rain water, surface water, ground water, subsurface water, site drainage, condensate or cooling water inside the walls of a building to a point 5 feet beyond the outside of the building foundation wall.


            "Building Sub-drain":  The portion of a sanitary drainage system (see definition of "Drainage System") that cannot drain by gravity into the building drain.  (See Appendix B.Illustration G.)


            "Building Trap":  A device, fitting, or assembly of fittings installed in a building drain to prevent circulation of air between the drainage system of the building and the building sewer.


            "Chemical Waste System":  Piping that conveys corrosive or toxic chemical waste to the drainage system.


            "Circuit Vent":  A branch vent that serves two or more traps and extends from the front of the last fixture connection of a horizontal waste branch to the vent stack.  This type of venting applies only to floor drains and floor outlet fixtures.  (See Appendix B.Illustration H.)


            "Clear Water" or "Clear Water Waste":  Cooling water and condensate waste from refrigeration or air conditioning equipment, cooled condensate from steam heating systems, and seepage water.


            "Closed Water System":  A system that has a backflow device or assembly installed in the water supply system to contain backflow within the premises.  Other plumbing appurtenances, such as a single check valve or a water pressure regulator installed in the water supply system, may also create a closed water system. 


            "Code":  State or local statutes, ordinances, or administrative rules, e.g., requirements for plumbing methods, materials, etc.  This Part)will be referenced in this rule as "Part".  At the local level, a county, city, township, village or sanitary/water district shall adopt a plumbing ordinance or resolution and plumbing rules, and the ordinance or resolution and rule shall be filed with the clerk's office.  A standard for plumbing contained in any local rule or ordinance that has not been officially adopted can be construed only as a recommended standard.


            "Cold Water":  Water below 85 degrees Fahrenheit.


            "Combination Fixture":  A fixture combining two or more compartments or receptors.


            "Combination Waste and Vent System":  A system of waste piping with the horizontal wet venting of one or more floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.


            "Combined Building Sewer":  A sewer that receives storm water and sewage.


            "Common Vent":  A vent connecting at the junction of two fixture drains and serving as a vent for both fixtures.  (See Appendix B.Illustration I.)


            "Connection":  The joining of two pieces of pipe, or pipes and fittings, valves or other appurtenances.


            "Contaminant":  Any solid, liquid or gaseous matter that, when present in a potable water supply distribution system, may cause the water to degrade so that water quality standards are not met or physical illness, injury or death to persons consuming the water could result.


            "Contaminated Water":  Water not suitable for human use or that does not meet the water quality standards of rules of the Illinois Pollution Control Board titled Primary Drinking Water Standards. 


            "Continuous Vent":  A vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain to which it connects.  The drain may be either vertical or horizontal.  (See Appendix B.Illustration J.)


            "Continuous Waste":  A drain or waste line from two or more fixtures or sink compartments (of a single fixture), such as a combined three- compartment sink, connected to a single common trap.


            "Critical Level":  The mark on an atmospheric vacuum breaker established by the manufacturer and stamped "-CL-". This determines the minimum elevation above the flood-level rim or top of the fixture, whichever shall apply, at which the device shall be installed.  When an atmospheric vacuum breaker does not bear a critical level marking, the bottom of the vacuum breaker shall constitute the critical level.


            "Cross-Connection":  Any actual or potential connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one containing potable water and the other containing fluids or gases of any kind that do not meet potable water quality standards, in which the non-potable substances in one system may flow into the potable water system or enter it through a means such as back pressure, back siphonage or aspiration. 


            "Cross-Connection Control Assembly":  A tested and approved plumbing appurtenance, complete with shut-off valves, installed in a potable water line to prevent potable water from being mixed with any substance from a piping system containing non-potable substances, connected in any manner to the potable water supply.


            "Cross-Connection Control by Containment":  The installation of a backflow prevention device or assembly on the service line to a premises to protect water quality. 


            "Cross-Connection Control by Isolation":  The installation of a backflow prevention device or assembly at each actual or potential cross-connection within a premises to protect water quality. 


            "Cross-Connection Control" or "CCC":  The identification and elimination of all unprotected connections between a potable water system and any other substance. 


            "Cross-Connection Control Device":  A plumbing appurtenance installed in a potable water line to prevent any substance of any kind from being mixed.


            "Cross-Connection Control Device Inspector":  An individual who holds an Illinois Plumbing License and who has been certified in accordance with 35 Ill. Adm. Code 653.802 (Specific Conditions and Installation Procedures) of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency's rules titled Design, Operation and Maintenance Criteria to inspect, test, maintain and repair cross-connection control devices and assemblies.  The certification attests to an inspector's understanding of the principles of backflow and back siphonage, and the public health hazard presented by the improper installation of cross-connection control devices.


            "Cross-Connection, Non-Pressure Type":  A submerged inlet installation where a potable water pipe is connected or extended below the overflow rim of a receptacle, or an environment that contains a non-potable substance at atmospheric pressure.


            "Cross-Connection, Pressure Type":  An installation where a potable water pipe is connected to a closed vessel or piping system that contains a non-potable substance above atmospheric pressure.


            "Dead End":  A pipe that is terminated at a developed distance of 2 feet or more by means of a plug or other closed fitting, except piping serving as a cleanout extension to an accessible area.  (See Appendix B.Illustration K.)


            "Department":  The Illinois Department of Public Health.


            "Developed Length":  The length of a pipe measured along the center line of the pipe, including fittings.


            "Diameter":  The length of a straight line passing through the center of an object, e.g., a circle.  (For the diameter of a pipe, see "Pipe Diameter".)


            "Drain":  Any pipe that carries waste water in a building drainage system.  (See Appendix B.Illustration L.)


            "Drain Laying":  The laying and connecting of piping from 5 feet outside the foundation wall of a building to the public sanitary sewer system in the street or alley.


            "Drainage Fixture Unit" or "DFU":  The mathematical factor used by the plumbing industry to estimate the probable load on the drainage system caused by discharge from various plumbing fixtures.  One drainage fixture unit is equivalent to 7½ gallons per minute or 1 cubic foot per minute.


            "Drainage Piping"  (See "Drainage System".)


            "Drainage System":  All piping within public or private premises that conveys sewage, rain or other liquid wastes to a point of disposal, but does not include the mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.  The drainage system does not include the venting system.  Drainage and venting are separate systems, although both are part of the overall plumbing system.


            "Durham System":  A soil or waste system where all piping is of threaded pipe, using recessed drainage fittings.


            "Effective Opening":  The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area.  (This is applicable to sizing an air gap.)


            "Existing Plumbing" or "Existing Work":   A plumbing system or any part of a plumbing system that has been installed prior to January 1, 2014.


            "Extracted Mechanical Joint":  A joint that is developed with a special drilling tool used to penetrate a copper pipe wall, after which two steel pins are extended from the drill.  While rotating, the drill head is withdrawn from the pipe under power, raising an external collar from the hole in the pipe.  The branch pipe is then brazed into the collared outlet.


            "Fixed":  Stationary, immovable or immobile, as in a fixed air gap.


            "Fixture Branch":  A water supply pipe, soil pipe or waste pipe serving one or more fixtures.


            "Fixture Carrier":  A device designed to support an off-the-floor plumbing fixture.


            "Fixture Drain":  The vertical or horizontal outlet pipe from the trap of the fixture to the junction of that pipe with any other drain pipe. (See Appendix B.Illustration M.)


            "Fixture Supply":  A water supply pipe connecting the fixture to a branch or main water supply pipe.


            "Fixture Supply Stop":  A valve used to control water supply to an individual plumbing fixture, appurtenance or appliance.


            "Float Valve":  An automatic opening valve, operated by a float, used to control the water level in a vessel, tank or other container.


            "Flood Level":  The elevation at which a liquid will overflow the fixture or receptacle.


            "Flood Level Rim":  The top edge of a receptacle or fixture over which a liquid will flow when the receptacle or fixture is filled beyond its capacity (or flooded).  "Overflow rim" is used interchangeably with flood level rim.


            "Flooded":  When the liquid in a fixture equals the maximum capacity of the fixture or when the level of the liquid in the fixture rises to the fixture's flood level rim.  Any attempt to add liquid to a flooded fixture causes liquid to overflow.


            "Flush Valve":  A device for the purpose of flushing water closets and other similar fixtures.             


"Flushometer Valve":  A device actuated by hand, a photoelectric cell, or other electronic control that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.  The valve is closed by direct water pressure.


            "Food Service Establishment":  Any establishment selling or serving, to the public, food or liquid beverages that can be consumed on the premises.


"Grade":  The fall, pitch or slope of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane.  In drainage, it is usually expressed as the fraction of an inch fall per foot length of pipe.  This may also be expressed as a percentage.  (See Appendix B. Illustration O.)


            "Graywater":  Untreated waste water that has not come into contact with toilet waste, kitchen sink waste, dishwasher waste or similarly contaminated sources.  Graywater includes waste water from bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers and laundry tubs.  Also known as gray water, grey water, and greywater.


            "Grease Interceptor":  A device used to separate and retain grease, oils and other floating matter from sewage waste while permitting the remaining flow to discharge into the drainage system.  See "Interceptor".


            "Group of Fixtures":  Two or more fixtures adjacent to or near each other.


            "Hangers":  Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures and equipment to walls, ceilings, floors or any other structural member.


            "High Hazard Substance":  Any substance that, when present in the potable water system, can cause illness, injury or death if consumed.


            "Historic Buildings":  All buildings, parts of buildings, facilities or sites individually listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places; a "contributing" building or site in a National Register Historic District as determined by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) or as determined by a "Certified Local Government" designated by IHPA; a building or site designated as a historic or architectural landmark by a local Landmarks Commission or local Historic Preservation Commission; or buildings that undergo historic reconstruction.


            "Horizontal Branch":  A drain pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.  (See Appendix B.Illustration P.)


            "Horizontal Pipe":  Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees with the horizontal.


            "Hose":  A flexible tube for conveying fluids (as from a faucet or hydrant).


            "Hose Bibb":  A faucet to which a hose may be attached.


            "Hot Water":  Water at a temperature of not less than 120 degrees Fahrenheit.


            "House Drain"  (See "Building Drain".)


            "House Trap"  (See "Building Trap".)


            "Indirect Waste":  A pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid waste by discharging through an air gap into the drainage system.


            "Individual Dry Vent":  A pipe installed to vent a single fixture trap that connects with the vent system above the fixture served, or that terminates in the outside atmosphere. (See Appendix B.Illustration CC.)


            "Individual Water System":  A piping system that supplies potable water for a single family dwelling and includes the water service line and all potable water piping. 


            "Industrial Wastes":  Liquid wastes resulting from the processes employed in industrial and commercial establishments.


            "Insanitary":  Contaminated.  Not hygienic or sufficiently unclean to endanger health.


            "Interceptor":  A device designed and installed to separate and retain hazardous or undesirable matter from normal waste and to permit normal sewage or liquid waste to discharge into the drainage system.  Interceptors may be designed to remove gas, oil, sand, grit and grease.  "Separator" is also commonly used to mean an "interceptor."


            "Invert":  The lowest part of the internal cross-section of a pipe or conduit.


            "Island Fixture Vent":  A vent in which the vent pipe rises as near as possible to or above the highest water level in the fixture vented and then turns down before rising to connect to the vent system 6 inches above the flood level rim or terminating to the atmosphere.  (See Section 890.1600, "Special Venting for Island Fixtures".)


            "Joint":  The juncture of two pipes, a pipe and a fitting, or two fittings.


            "Kiosk":  A freestanding place of employment that has five or fewer employees at any time, located inside or outside a building.


"Kitchen or Bar Sink Faucet":  A faucet that discharges into a kitchen or bar sink in domestic or commercial installations. Supply fittings that discharge into other types of sinks, including clinic sinks, floor sinks, service sinks and laundry trays, are not included.


"Labeled":  An indication that an agency approved by the Department or that is an ANSI-accredited certification program has certified the plumbing material to be in compliance with applicable standards in accordance with this Part.


"Lavatory Faucet":  A faucet that discharges into a lavatory basin in a domestic or commercial installation.


"Lead Free":  When used with respect to solder and flux, refers to products containing not more than 0.2 percent lead and, when used with respect to wetted surfaces of pipe, pipe fittings, and fixtures, refers to materials containing no more than a weighted average of 0.25 percent lead.  Exemptions include pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, or fixtures, including backflow preventers, that are used exclusively for nonpotable services, such as manufacturing, industrial processing, irrigation, outdoor watering, or any other uses where the water is not anticipated to be used for human consumption; or toilets, bidets, urinals, fill valves, flushometer valves, tub fillers, shower valves, service saddles, or water distribution main gate valves that are 2 inches in diameter or larger. (Section 1417(a)(4)(A) and (B) of the Safe Drinking Water Act)


            "Length of Pipe":  The overall distance measured along the center line of a pipe.  See "Developed Length".


            "Line Valve":  A valve in the water supply distribution system, except those immediately controlling one fixture supply.


            "Liquid Waste":  The discharge from any fixture, appliance or appurtenance, in connection with a plumbing system that does not receive fecal matter.


            "Load Factor":  The percentage of the total connected fixture unit flow rate that is likely to occur at any point in the drainage system.  The load factor varies with the type of occupancy, the total flow above the point being considered, and probability of simultaneous use.  Load factor represents the ratio of the probable load to the potential load.


            "Local Ventilating Pipe":  A pipe on the fixture side of the trap through which vapors or gases or foul air is removed from a room or fixture to the outside atmosphere.  Certain special apparatus, such as sterilizers, are sometimes provided with a local ventilating pipe to remove vapors.  A local ventilating pipe is not connected into the vent piping of the drainage system.


            "Loop Vent":  A circuit vent that loops back to connect with a stack vent instead of a vent stack.  Its use is limited to floor drains and floor outlet fixtures.


            "Low Hazard Substance":  Any substance that, when present in the potable water system, may cause the water to be discolored or have an unusual odor or an unpleasant taste, but will not cause illness, injury or death if consumed.


            "Main":  The principal artery of a piping system to which branches may be connected.


"Main Vent":  The principal artery of the venting system to which vent branches may be connected.  A main vent may be a vent stack or stack vent.  (See Appendix B.Illustration Q.)


            "Maximum Demand":  In plumbing, the greatest requirement of flow of either water supply or waste discharge from the fixtures of a building, or any specific segment of the building fixtures.


            "Manhole":  An opening constructed to permit a person to gain access to an enclosed space.  In a sewer or any portion of the plumbing system, it is used to eliminate restriction of flow at changes of direction or junctions and to facilitate cleaning.


"Metering Faucet":  A self-closing faucet that dispenses a specific volume of water for each actuation cycle. The volume or cycle duration can be fixed or adjustable.


"Minor Repairs":  Repairs that do not require changes in the piping to or from plumbing fixtures or involve the removal, replacement, installation or reinstallation of any pipe or plumbing fixture.


"Multi-person Showers": Shower compartments designed and intended for use by two or more persons simultaneously. 


"New Plumbing" or "New Work":  Any plumbing system or part of a plumbing system, or any addition to or alteration of an existing system, being installed or recently completed.


            "Non-Potable Water":  Water that does not meet drinking water quality standards specified in the Pollution Control Board's rules titled Primary Drinking Water Standards, and is not suitable for human consumption or culinary use, or is of unknown quality. 


            "Non-Toxic Transfer Fluids":  Fluids having no normal detrimental effect on humans.


            "Occupancy":  The purpose for which a building is currently used.  In the case of a single family residence, occupancy shall mean taking possession of and living in the premises as one's sole and exclusive residence for a period of not less than six months after the completion of construction or issuance of a Certificate of Occupancy by a unit of local government.


            "Offset":  A combination of elbows or bends that brings one section of pipe into a line parallel with another section.


            "Open Plumbing":  Installation of plumbing so that traps and drainage pipes and their surroundings beneath fixtures are ventilated, accessible and open to inspection.  Open plumbing is also referred to as an exposed plumbing installation.


            "Overflow Rim":  The top edge of a receptacle or fixture over which a liquid will flow when the receptacle or fixture is filled beyond its capacity (or flooded).  "Flood level rim" is used interchangeably with overflow rim.


            "Part":  This Illinois Plumbing Code in its entirety or any emergency rule that the Department adopts, during the effective period of the emergency rule.


            "Peppermint Oil":  A pungent, aromatic mint oil sometimes used in testing a drain, waste and vent system by means of a "Peppermint Test".


            "Peppermint Test":  A test for leakage using peppermint oil and hot water as the media, and the sense of smell to determine any leak; also known as a "scent test" (see Section 890.1930(e)).


            "Pet Cock":  A small faucet or valve used to drain water, steam or air.


            "pH":  An expression of acidity and alkalinity on a scale from zero to 14, with 7.0 being neutral.  Numbers less than 7.0 indicate increasing acidity as the number decreases, and numbers greater than 7.0 indicate increasing alkalinity as the number increases.


            "Pipe":  A cylindrical conduit or conductor, the wall thickness of which is sufficient to receive a standard pipe thread.


            "Pipe Diameter":  The distance measured from the inside wall of a pipe (passing through the center of the pipe) to the opposite inside wall.  Any referenced pipe diameter or pipe size shall mean the nominal size or diameter.


            "Pipefitting":  The installation of piping other than piping that is defined as plumbing.


            "Pipe Increments":  Increasing or decreasing pipe size by a given number − the following examples constitute one pipe size change:  1, 1¼, 1½, 2, 2½, 3, 3½, 4, 4½, 5.


            "Piping":  An assembly of pipes or conduit with fittings of compatible design.  This term is commonly interchanged with "Pipe".


            "Pitch":  Synonymous with "grade".  (See "Grade".)


            "Plumbing":  See the Illinois Plumbing License Law.


            "Plumbing Appliance":  A special class of plumbing fixture intended to perform a special function.  This term includes water heaters, water coolers, drinking fountains, and heat exchanger and water treatment equipment other than water softeners.


            "Plumbing Appurtenance":  An accessory or device used in a plumbing system which demands no additional water supply, nor adds any discharge load to a fixture or the drainage system.  Plumbing appurtenances include instruments, gauges, relief valves, limit switches, backflow assemblies, solenoid valves and devices between solenoid valves.


            "Plumbing Fixture":  Approved, installed receptacles, devices or appliances that are supplied with water or that receive or discharge liquid or liquid-borne waste, with or without discharge of the waste into the drainage system to which they may be directly or indirectly connected;  an installed appurtenance to the potable water supply system that makes available intended potable water, or a receptor that receives and discharges liquids or liquid-borne waste either directly or indirectly into the drainage system; or a  permanent appendage usually designed as a receptacle and intended to receive or discharge liquid or liquid-borne waste to a drainage system.  Industrial or commercial tanks, vats, and similar processing equipment are not plumbing fixtures, but they may be connected to, or discharged into, approved traps or plumbing fixtures.


            "Plumbing Inspector":  An employee or agent of State or local government who holds a valid Illinois Plumbing License and is authorized to inspect plumbing.


            "Plumbing System":  See the Illinois Plumbing License Law.


            "Pop-Up Waste":  A waste outlet into which a sliding metal or plastic stopper is fitted, and the stopper can be raised to drain the waste.  A common pop-up waste used for lavatories has a lever that passes out the side of the drain fitting and connects to a lift rod that extends on top of the lavatory or sink. The rod is lifted to lower the stopper, or depressed to raise the stopper and drain the lavatory.


            "Potable Water":  Water that meets drinking water quality standards specified in the Pollution Control Board's rules titled Primary Drinking Water Standards and is suitable for human consumption or culinary use. 


"Pre-Rinse Spray Valve":  A hand-held device for use with commercial dishwashing and ware-washing equipment that sprays water on dishes, flatware and other food service items for the purpose of removing food residue before cleaning and sanitizing the items.


"Pressure Gradient Monitor":  A device used to protect the quality of water, failsafe by design, securing the potable water system by isolating a heat exchanger when the pressure between the potable water and the heat exchange medium drops below a preset level.


            "Pressure Relief Valve"  (See "Relief Valves".)


            "Private" or "Private Use":  In the classification of plumbing fixtures, private applies to fixtures in residences, apartments and private bathrooms of hotels or motels where the fixtures are intended for the use of a single family or an individual; handwashing stations (lavatories) within residents' rooms, within shared or common resident restrooms, or designated for staff use only in hospitals/long-term care units/mental health facilities, and hand-washing stations where food is being prepared.


            "Private Sewage Disposal System":  Any sewage handling or treatment facility receiving domestic sewage from fewer than 15 people or population equivalent and having a ground surface discharge or any sewage handling or treatment facility receiving domestic sewage and having no ground surface discharge.  Refer to the Private Sewage Disposal Licensing Act  and Private Sewage Disposal Code.


            "Private Sewer":  A sewer privately owned and not directly controlled by a public authority.


            "Private Water Supply":  Any potable water supply that provides water for drinking, culinary and sanitary purposes and serves an owner-occupied single family dwelling.  


            "Proper" or "Properly": To be accurate or meeting the standard of competence for the given situation and properties of the materials involved based upon the standards in this Part and manufacturer's recommendations.


"p.s.i"; "P.S.I."; or "psi":  Pounds per square inch gauge of pressure. 


"Public" or "Public Use":  Any installation or use of plumbing fixtures or facilities except those in residences, apartments or private bathrooms of hotels/motels where the fixtures are intended for the personal use of an individual or single family only.


            "Public Area":  An area within a building accessible to all persons, including, but not limited to, mercantile units, private clubs and membership organizations.


            "Public Sanitary Sewer":  A sewer that is controlled by a public authority and is intended to receive and transport sewage.


            "Public Water System":  A system for providing piped water to the public for human consumption, if the system has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves an average of at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days per year. The term public water system includes:  any collection, treatment, storage and distribution facility under the control of the operator of the system and used primarily in connection with the system; and any collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under control of the operator of the system that are used primarily in connection with that system. The public water system ends at and with the water service connection.


            "Quarter Bend":  A fitting changing direction of 90 degrees . 


            "Quick Closing Valve":  A valve or faucet that closes automatically when released or one that has fast action closing.


"Readily Accessible":  Direct access without the necessity of removing or moving any panel, door or similar obstruction.


            "Receptor":  Devices or fixtures that receive the discharge from indirect waste pipes.


"Reduced Pressure Zone Principle Backflow Preventer Assembly" or "RPZ"  (See "Backflow Preventer, Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventer Assembly" or "RPZ".)


            "Relief Valves":


            Temperature relief valve − A valve designed to release water to the atmosphere at a predetermined temperature setting.


            Pressure relief valve − A valve designed to relieve excessive pressure to the atmosphere at a predetermined setting.


            Temperature and pressure relief valve or pressure-temperature relief valve − A valve incorporating a temperature relief valve and a pressure relief valve in one unit.


            Vacuum relief valve − A valve that admits air to the system when the system is attempting to reduce its pressure to less than atmospheric.


            "Relief Vent":  A vent that permits circulation of air in or between drainage and vent systems.  (See Appendix B.Illustration S.)


            "Restroom":  As a minimum, will consist of one water closet and one lavatory, all located in the same room.


            "Return Offset":  A double offset installed so as to return the pipe to its original alignment. 


            "Revent Pipe"  (See "Individual Dry Vent".)  (See Appendix B.Illustration U.)


            "Rim":  An unobstructed open edge of a fixture.


            "Riser":  A water supply pipe that extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.


"Roughing-In":  The installation of all parts of the plumbing system that can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures.  This includes drainage, water supply, and vent piping, and the necessary fixture supports.


"Safe Pan":  An appurtenance installed beneath piping or a fixture to collect and drain any leakage.  Safe pans are generally found  in food preparation/storage areas and sterile areas of health care facilities that have overhead, exposed drainage piping.  Safe pans are not intended to receive discharges from temperature and pressure relief valves.


            "Safe Waste"  (See "Indirect Waste".)


            "Sanitary Sewer":  A public or private sewer into which building sewers are connected.


            "Sanitary Waste":  Sewage containing excrement and liquid wastes or ordinary wastes derived from a plumbing system.


"Self Closing Faucet":  A faucet that closes itself after the actuation or control mechanism is deactivated. The actuation or control mechanism can be mechanical or electronic.


"Semi-Private Water System":  A water supply that is not a public water system and that serves a segment of the public other than an owner-occupied single family dwelling.  (See Section 19 of the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act.)


            "Separator"  (See "Interceptor".)


            "Service Connection":  The tap at the water main and any pipe to the property line.


            "Sewage":  Any waste containing animal, human or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.


            "Sewage Ejector":  A device for lifting sewage by pumping means.


            "Sillcock":  A type of lawn faucet.  A faucet used on the outside of a building to which a garden hose may be attached.


            "Size of Pipe or Tubing":  Pipe is generally sized according to the approximate dimension of its bore or inside diameter, whereas tubing is usually sized by measuring its outside diameter.  Both are expressed in inches and fractions of inches.  For purposes of this Part, any referenced pipe or tubing size shall mean the nominal size or diameter as designated by the commercial manufacturer.


            "Slope":  Synonymous with "grade."  (See "Grade".)


            "Soil Pipe":  Any pipe that conveys the discharge of water closets or fixtures having similar functions, with or without the discharge from other fixtures, to the building drain.


            "Special Waste Pipe":  Piping that conveys special waste.  Piping that has been designed and manufactured of special material to handle special waste such as acids.


            "Special Wastes":  Wastes that require special handling and treatment before they may be discharged into the plumbing system.  (See Subpart H.)


            "Sprinkler System": 


Fire sprinkler system − a system of piping and necessary appurtenances for conveying water or other extinguishing substances to outlets for the purpose of fire extinguishment. 


Lawn sprinkler system − a system of piping installed for irrigation purposes.


            "Stack":  Any vertical line of soil, waste or vent piping.


            "Stack Vent":  The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack.  (See Appendix B.Illustration V.)


            "Stack Venting":  A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack.




Boiling Type Sterilizer − a fixture (non-pressure type) used for boiling instruments, utensils ­or other equipment (used for sterilization).  Some devices are portable; others are connected to the plumbing system.


Instruments Sterilizer − a device for the sterilization of various instruments.


Pressure (Autoclave) Sterilizer − a fixture (pressure vessel) designed to use steam under pressure for sterilizing.


Pressure Instrument Washer-Sterilizer − a fixture (pressure vessel) designed to both wash and sterilize instruments during the operating cycle of the fixture.


Sterilizer Vent − a separate pipe or stack that is trapped below the lowest exhaust and indirectly connected to the building drainage systems and that receives the vapors from non-pressure sterilizers, or the exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the vapors directly to the outside atmosphere. Sometimes called a vapor, steam, atmospheric or exhaust vent.


Water Sterilizer − a device for sterilizing water and storing sterile water.


"Storm Sewer":  A sewer that is used for conveying rain water, surface water, ground water, subsurface water, site drainage, condensate, cooling water or other similar liquid waste (excluding sewage) from the building storm drain to an approved point of discharge.


"Sub-soil Drain":  A drain that collects sub-soil drainage and conveys it to a place of disposal.


            "Sub-soil Drainage":  Liquid waste, such as run-off water, seepage water or clear water waste, free of fecal matter and graywater.


"Sump":  A receptacle that receives sanitary or storm waste, located below the normal grade level of the gravity system and emptied by pumping or gravity.


            "Sump Pump":  A pump for the removal of storm, subsoil and clear water waste drainage from a sump.


            "Supports":  A hanger, anchor or other device for securing or holding pipe fixtures to walls, ceilings, floors or structural members.


"Swimming Pool":  See the Swimming Facility Act  for minimum sanitary requirements for the design and operation of swimming facilities.


            "Tempered Water":  Water ranging in temperature from 85 degrees Fahrenheit to, but not including, 120 degrees Fahrenheit.


            "Terminal Heating Device":  A device located within the environment to be conditioned that directly transfers its heating energy by radiation or forced or gravity convection.


            "Test Cock":  A small cock, faucet or valve set in a water pipe, pump, backflow device or water jacket and used to drain water or test pressure.


            "Toxic":  Not fit for human consumption; poisonous.


            "Toxic Transfer Fluids":  Sanitary waste, graywater, or mixtures containing harmful substances, including, but not limited to, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, oils, ammonia refrigerants, and hydrazine.


            "Trap":  A fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal that will prevent the back passage of air without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.  (See Appendix B.Illustration W.)


            "Trap Arm":  The portion of a fixture drain between a trap and its vent.


            "Trap Primer":  A device or system of piping to maintain a water seal in a trap.


            "Trap Seal":  The vertical distance between the crown weir and the top of the dip of the trap.  (See Appendix B.Illustration W.)


            "Tube":  A cylindrical conduit or conductor, the wall thickness of which is less than that needed to receive a standard pipe thread. Compare with "Pipe".


            "Tuberculation":  A condition that develops on the interior of pipe due to corrosion, resulting in the creation of small, hemispherical lumps (tubercules) on the inner walls of the pipe.


            "Union":  A coupling device used to join two pipes end-to-end, but allow them to be disconnected and re-connected.  This joint can be assembled and disassembled without removing any adjacent pipes.


            "Unisex Restroom":  A restroom shared by males and females and having only one water closet and one lavatory located in the same room.  In addition, a single urinal may be installed.


            "Vacuum":  A pressure less than atmospheric pressure, sometimes referred to as suction.  It is usually measured in inches of mercury below atmospheric pressure, such as 10 or 20 inches of mercury.  To vacuum also means to siphon.


            "Vacuum Breaker":  A device that prevents the creation of a vacuum by admitting air at atmospheric pressure, used to prevent back siphonage.


            "Vacuum Breaker, Hose Type" or "HVB":  A back siphonage prevention device designed for hose connections that are not under continuous pressure, and meeting the requirements of ASSE 1011.


            "Vacuum Relief Valve":  A device to prevent excessive vacuum in a pressure vessel.


            "Vent Pipe":  A pipe in a plumbing system that is used to equalize pressure and ventilate the plumbing system.  Also see the definition of "Vent System".


            "Vent Stack":  A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of the drainage system and terminating to the atmosphere or in the stack vent. 


            "Vent System":  The pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system and to provide a circulation of air within the system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure.


            "Venturi":  A short section in a pipe with a reduced diameter or cross-sectional area (forming a throat) compared to the larger ends, thereby increasing the velocity of the fluid passing through the throat and decreasing the pressure at the throat.  This decrease in pressure allows another fluid to be drawn into the venturi.


            "Vertical Pipe":  Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees or less with the vertical.


            "Wall Hung Water Closet":  A water closet installed so that no part of the water closet touches the floor.


            "Waste"  (See "Sanitary Waste".)


            "Waste Pipe":  A pipe that conveys only waste material.


"Water Closet":  A fixture with a water-containing receptor that receives liquid and solid body waste and, on actuation, conveys the waste through an exposed integral trap into a drainage system. Also referred to as a toilet.


"Water Distribution Pipe":  A pipe within the building or on the premises that conveys water from the water service to the point of usage.


"Water Hammer":  A concussion or sound of concussion of moving water against the sides of a containing pipe or vessel due to a sudden stoppage of flow.  A pressure that results from a sudden deceleration of flow of water in a closed conduit.  It is also called hydraulic shock.


            "Water Hammer Arrester":  A device to absorb hydraulic shock.


            "Water Heater":  An appliance for supplying hot water for domestic or commercial purposes.  It may be used for space heating if the water temperature does not exceed 150 degrees Fahrenheit.


            "Water Main":  A water supply pipe for public or community use.


            "Water Outlet":  An opening through which water is supplied to a fixture, device, appliance or appurtenance, or into the atmosphere.


            "Water Riser Pipe"  (See "Riser".)


"Water Service" or "Water Service Pipe":  The pipe from the water main or source of potable water supply to the water distribution pipe of the building served.


            "Water Supply Fixture Unit" or "WSFU":  The mathematical factor used by the plumbing industry to estimate the probable demand on the water supply system (considering the volume, duration of flow, and intervals between operations) caused by various plumbing fixtures.


            "Water Supply Stub":  A vertical pipe less than one story in height supplying one or more fixtures.


            "Water Supply System":  The water service pipe, the water distribution pipe, and all fittings, valves and appurtenances in or associated with the building or premises being served.


"Wet Vent":  A vent that also serves as a drain.  (See Appendix B.Illustration Y.)


            "Yard Hydrant":  A valve or faucet for drawing water from a buried pipe that includes a stand pipe with a valve or faucet at the upper end and a threaded valve outlet to which a hose may be attached.


            "Yoke Vent":  A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure changes in the stack.  (See Appendix B.Illustration Z.)


(Source:  Amended at 38 Ill. Reg. 9940, effective April 24, 2014)