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Illinois Compiled Statutes

Information maintained by the Legislative Reference Bureau
Updating the database of the Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) is an ongoing process. Recent laws may not yet be included in the ILCS database, but they are found on this site as Public Acts soon after they become law. For information concerning the relationship between statutes and Public Acts, refer to the Guide.

Because the statute database is maintained primarily for legislative drafting purposes, statutory changes are sometimes included in the statute database before they take effect. If the source note at the end of a Section of the statutes includes a Public Act that has not yet taken effect, the version of the law that is currently in effect may have already been removed from the database and you should refer to that Public Act to see the changes made to the current law.

VEHICLES
(625 ILCS 5/) Illinois Vehicle Code.

625 ILCS 5/11-612

    (625 ILCS 5/11-612)
    Sec. 11-612. Certain systems to record vehicle speeds prohibited. Except as authorized in the Automated Traffic Control Systems in Highway Construction or Maintenance Zones Act and Section 11-208.8 of this Code, no photographic, video, or other imaging system may be used in this State to record vehicle speeds for the purpose of enforcing any law or ordinance regarding a maximum or minimum speed limit unless a law enforcement officer is present at the scene and witnesses the event. No State or local governmental entity, including a home rule county or municipality, may use such a system in a way that is prohibited by this Section. The regulation of the use of such systems is an exclusive power and function of the State. This Section is a denial and limitation of home rule powers and functions under subsection (h) of Section 6 of Article VII of the Illinois Constitution.
(Source: P.A. 97-672, eff. 7-1-12.)

625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. VII

 
    (625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. VII heading)
ARTICLE VII. DRIVING ON RIGHT SIDE OF
ROADWAY; OVERTAKING AND PASSING, ETC.

625 ILCS 5/11-701

    (625 ILCS 5/11-701) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-701)
    (Text of Section before amendment by P.A. 99-681)
    Sec. 11-701. Drive on right side of roadway - exceptions.
    (a) Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows:
        1. When overtaking and passing another vehicle
    
proceeding in the same direction under the rules governing such movements;
        2. When an obstruction exists making it necessary to
    
drive to the left of the center of the roadway; provided, any person so doing shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper direction upon the unobstructed portion of the roadway within such distance as to constitute an immediate hazard;
        3. Upon a roadway divided into 3 marked lanes for
    
traffic under the rules applicable thereon;
        4. Upon a roadway restricted to one way traffic;
        5. Whenever there is a single track paved road on one
    
side of the public highway and 2 vehicles meet thereon, the driver on whose right is the wider shoulder shall give the right-of-way on such pavement to the other vehicle.
    (b) Upon a 2 lane roadway, providing for 2-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall be driven in the right-hand lane available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right hand curb or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway.
    (c) Upon any roadway having 4 or more lanes for moving traffic and providing for 2-way movement of traffic, no vehicle shall be driven to the left of the center line of the roadway, except when authorized by official traffic-control devices designating certain lanes to the left side of the center of the roadway for use by traffic not otherwise permitted to use such lanes, or except as permitted under Subsection (a) 2. However, this Subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting the crossing of the center line in making a left turn into or from an alley, private road or driveway.
    (d) Upon an Interstate highway or fully access controlled freeway, a vehicle may not be driven in the left lane, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle.
    (e) Subsection (d) of this Section does not apply:
        (1) when no other vehicle is directly behind the
    
vehicle in the left lane;
        (2) when traffic conditions and congestion make it
    
impractical to drive in the right lane;
        (3) when snow and other inclement weather conditions
    
make it necessary to drive in the left lane;
        (4) when obstructions or hazards exist in the right
    
lane;
        (5) when a vehicle changes lanes to comply with
    
Sections 11-907 and 11-908 of this Code;
        (6) when, because of highway design, a vehicle must
    
be driven in the left lane when preparing to exit;
        (7) on toll highways when necessary to use I-Pass,
    
and on toll and other highways when driving in the left lane is required to comply with an official traffic control device; or
        (8) to law enforcement vehicles, ambulances, and
    
other emergency vehicles engaged in official duties and vehicles engaged in highway maintenance and construction operations.
(Source: P.A. 93-447, eff. 1-1-04.)
 
    (Text of Section after amendment by P.A. 99-681)
    Sec. 11-701. Drive on right side of roadway - exceptions.
    (a) Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows:
        1. When overtaking and passing another vehicle
    
proceeding in the same direction under the rules governing such movements;
        2. When an obstruction exists making it necessary to
    
drive to the left of the center of the roadway; provided, any person so doing shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper direction upon the unobstructed portion of the roadway within such distance as to constitute an immediate hazard;
        3. Upon a roadway divided into 3 marked lanes for
    
traffic under the rules applicable thereon;
        4. Upon a roadway restricted to one way traffic;
        5. Whenever there is a single track paved road on one
    
side of the public highway and 2 vehicles meet thereon, the driver on whose right is the wider shoulder shall give the right-of-way on such pavement to the other vehicle.
    (b) Upon a 2 lane roadway, providing for 2-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall be driven in the right-hand lane available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right hand curb or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway.
    (c) Upon any roadway having 4 or more lanes for moving traffic and providing for 2-way movement of traffic, no vehicle shall be driven to the left of the center line of the roadway, except when authorized by official traffic-control devices designating certain lanes to the left side of the center of the roadway for use by traffic not otherwise permitted to use such lanes, or except as permitted under Subsection (a) 2. However, this Subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting the crossing of the center line in making a left turn into or from an alley, private road or driveway.
    (d) Upon an Interstate highway or fully access controlled freeway, a vehicle may not be driven in the left lane, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle.
    (e) Subsection (d) of this Section does not apply:
        (1) when no other vehicle is directly behind the
    
vehicle in the left lane;
        (2) when traffic conditions and congestion make it
    
impractical to drive in the right lane;
        (3) when snow and other inclement weather conditions
    
make it necessary to drive in the left lane;
        (4) when obstructions or hazards exist in the right
    
lane;
        (5) when a vehicle changes lanes to comply with
    
Sections 11-907, 11-907.5, and 11-908 of this Code;
        (6) when, because of highway design, a vehicle must
    
be driven in the left lane when preparing to exit;
        (7) on toll highways when necessary to use I-Pass,
    
and on toll and other highways when driving in the left lane is required to comply with an official traffic control device; or
        (8) to law enforcement vehicles, ambulances, and
    
other emergency vehicles engaged in official duties and vehicles engaged in highway maintenance and construction operations.
(Source: P.A. 99-681, eff. 1-1-17.)

625 ILCS 5/11-702

    (625 ILCS 5/11-702) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-702)
    Sec. 11-702. Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions. Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions shall pass each other to the right, and upon roadways having width for not more than one line of traffic in each direction each driver shall give to the other at least one-half of the main-traveled portion of the roadway as nearly as possible.
(Source: P.A. 79-1069.)

625 ILCS 5/11-703

    (625 ILCS 5/11-703) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-703)
    Sec. 11-703. Overtaking a vehicle on the left. The following rules govern the overtaking and passing of vehicles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those limitations, exceptions, and special rules otherwise stated in this Chapter:
        (a) The driver of a vehicle overtaking another
    
vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle. In no event shall such movement be made by driving off the pavement or the main traveled portion of the roadway.
        (b) Except when overtaking and passing on the right
    
is permitted, the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible signal and shall not increase the speed of his vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle.
        (c) The driver of a 2 wheeled vehicle may not, in
    
passing upon the left of any vehicle proceeding in the same direction, pass upon the right of any vehicle proceeding in the same direction unless there is an unobstructed lane of traffic available to permit such passing maneuver safely.
        (d) The operator of a motor vehicle overtaking a
    
bicycle or individual proceeding in the same direction on a highway shall leave a safe distance, but not less than 3 feet, when passing the bicycle or individual and shall maintain that distance until safely past the overtaken bicycle or individual.
        (e) A person driving a motor vehicle shall not, in a
    
reckless manner, drive the motor vehicle unnecessarily close to, toward, or near a bicyclist, pedestrian, or a person riding a horse or driving an animal drawn vehicle.
        (f) Every person convicted of paragraph (e) of this
    
Section shall be guilty of a Class A misdemeanor if the violation does not result in great bodily harm or permanent disability or disfigurement to another. If the violation results in great bodily harm or permanent disability or disfigurement to another, the person shall be guilty of a Class 3 felony.
(Source: P.A. 95-231, eff. 1-1-08; 96-1007, eff. 1-1-11.)

625 ILCS 5/11-704

    (625 ILCS 5/11-704) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-704)
    Sec. 11-704. When overtaking on the right is permitted.
    (a) The driver of a vehicle with 3 or more wheels may overtake and pass upon the right of another vehicle only under the following conditions:
        1. When the vehicle overtaken is making or about to
    
make a left turn;
        2. Upon a roadway with unobstructed pavement of
    
sufficient width for two or more lines of vehicles moving lawfully in the direction being traveled by the overtaking vehicle.
        3. Upon a one-way street, or upon any roadway on
    
which traffic is restricted to one direction of movement, where the roadway is free from obstructions and of sufficient width for 2 or more lines of moving vehicles.
    (b) The driver of a 2 wheeled vehicle may not pass upon the right of any other vehicle proceeding in the same direction unless the unobstructed pavement to the right of the vehicle being passed is of a width of not less than 8 feet. This subsection does not apply to devices propelled by human power.
    (c) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another vehicle upon the right only under conditions permitting such movement in safety. Such movement shall not be made by driving off the roadway.
(Source: P.A. 98-485, eff. 1-1-14.)

625 ILCS 5/11-705

    (625 ILCS 5/11-705) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-705)
    Sec. 11-705. Limitations on overtaking on the left.
    No vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the center of the roadway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction unless authorized by the provisions of this Chapter and unless such left side is clearly visible and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to permit such overtaking and passing to be completely made without interfering with the safe operation of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction or any vehicle overtaken. In every event the overtaking vehicle must return to an authorized lane of travel as soon as practicable and in the event the passing movement involves the use of a lane authorized for vehicles approaching from the opposite direction, before coming within 200 feet of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction.
(Source: P.A. 76-1586.)

625 ILCS 5/11-706

    (625 ILCS 5/11-706) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-706)
    Sec. 11-706. Further limitations on driving to the left of center of roadway. (a) No vehicle shall be driven on the left side of the roadway under the following conditions:
    1. When approaching or upon the crest of a grade or a curve in the highway where the driver's view is obstructed within such distance as to create a hazard in the event another vehicle might approach from the opposite direction.
    2. When approaching within 100 feet of or traversing any intersection or railroad grade crossing.
    3. When the view is obstructed upon approaching within 100 feet of any bridge, viaduct or tunnel.
    (b) The limitations in sub-paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 do not apply upon a one-way roadway nor upon a roadway with unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for 2 or more lanes of moving traffic in each direction nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway when such movements can be made with safety.
(Source: P.A. 79-1069.)

625 ILCS 5/11-707

    (625 ILCS 5/11-707) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-707)
    Sec. 11-707. No-passing zones. (a) The Department and local authorities are authorized to determine those portions of any highway under their respective jurisdictions where overtaking and passing or driving on the left of the roadway would be especially hazardous and may by appropriate signs or markings on the roadway indicate the beginning and end of such zones. Upon request of a local school board, the Department or local authority which has jurisdiction over the roadway in question, shall determine whether a hazardous situation exists at a particular location and warrants a no-passing zone. If the Department or local authority determines that a no-passing zone is warranted, the school board and the Department or local authority shall share equally the cost of designating the no-passing zone by signs and markings. When such signs or markings are in place and clearly visible to an ordinarily observant person every driver of a vehicle shall obey the directions thereof.
    (b) Where signs or markings are in place to define a no-passing zone as set forth in paragraph (a) no driver may at any time drive on the left side of the roadway within the no-passing zone or on the left side of any pavement striping designed to mark such no-passing zone throughout its length.
    (c) This Section does not apply under the conditions described in Section 11-701 (a) 2, nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway. The pavement striping designed to mark the no-passing zone may be crossed from the left hand lane for the purpose of completing a pass that was begun prior to the beginning of the zone in the driver's direction of travel.
    (d) Special speed limit areas required under Section 11-605 of this Code in unincorporated areas only shall also be no-passing zones.
(Source: P.A. 86-471.)

625 ILCS 5/11-708

    (625 ILCS 5/11-708) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-708)
    Sec. 11-708. One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands. (a) The Department and local authorities, with respect to highways under their respective jurisdictions, may designate any highway, roadway, part of a roadway or specific lanes upon which vehicular traffic shall proceed in one direction at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic control devices.
    (b) Upon a roadway so designated for one-way traffic, a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction designated at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic control devices.
    (c) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island must be driven only to the right of such island.
    (d) Whenever any highway has been divided into 2 or more roadways by leaving an intervening space or by a physical barrier or a clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic, every vehicle must be driven only upon the right-hand roadway unless directed or permitted to use another roadway by official traffic-control devices or police officers. No vehicle may be driven over, across, or within any such dividing space, barrier, or section, except through an opening in the physical barrier, or dividing section, or space, or at a cross-over or intersection as established by public authority.
    (e) The driver of a vehicle may turn left across a paved noncurbed dividing space unless prohibited by an official traffic-control device.
(Source: P.A. 84-873.)

625 ILCS 5/11-709

    (625 ILCS 5/11-709) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-709)
    Sec. 11-709. Driving on roadways laned for traffic. Whenever any roadway has been divided into 2 or more clearly marked lanes for traffic the following rules in addition to all others consistent herewith shall apply.
    (a) A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable entirely within a single lane and shall not be moved from such lane until the driver has first ascertained that such movement can be made with safety.
    (b) Upon a roadway which is divided into 3 lanes and provides for two-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall not be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and passing another vehicle traveling in the same direction when such center lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance, or in preparation for making a left turn or where such center lane is at the time allocated exclusively to traffic moving in the same direction that the vehicle is proceeding and such allocation is designated by official traffic control devices.
    (c) Official traffic control devices may be erected directing specific traffic to use a designated lane or designating those lanes to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction regardless of the center of the roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device. On multi-lane controlled access highways with 3 or more lanes in one direction or on any multi-laned highway with 2 or more lanes in one direction, the Department may designate lanes of traffic to be used by different types of motor vehicles. Drivers must obey lane designation signing except when it is necessary to use a different lane to make a turning maneuver.
    (d) Official traffic control devices may be installed prohibiting the changing of lanes on sections of roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device.
(Source: P.A. 84-1311.)

625 ILCS 5/11-709.1

    (625 ILCS 5/11-709.1) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-709.1)
    Sec. 11-709.1. Driving on the shoulder.
    (a) Vehicles shall be driven on a roadway, and shall only be driven on the shoulder for the purpose of stopping or accelerating from a stop while merging into traffic. It shall be a violation of this Section if while merging into traffic and while on the shoulder, the vehicle passes any other vehicle on the roadway adjacent to it.
    (b) This Section shall not apply to any authorized emergency vehicle, to any authorized transit bus, to any farm tractor or implement of husbandry, to any service vehicle while engaged in maintenance of the highway or related work, or to any authorized vehicle within a designated construction zone.
(Source: P.A. 97-292, eff. 8-11-11.)

625 ILCS 5/11-709.2

    (625 ILCS 5/11-709.2)
    Sec. 11-709.2. Bus on shoulder program.
    (a) The use of specifically designated shoulders of roadways by transit buses may be authorized by the Department in cooperation with the Regional Transportation Authority and the Suburban Bus Division of the Regional Transportation Authority. The Department shall prescribe by rule which transit buses are authorized to operate on shoulders, as well as times and locations. The Department may erect signage to indicate times and locations of designated shoulder usage.
    (b) (Blank).
    (c) (Blank).
(Source: P.A. 98-756, eff. 7-16-14; 98-871, eff. 8-11-14; 99-78, eff. 7-20-15.)

625 ILCS 5/11-709.3

    (625 ILCS 5/11-709.3)
    Sec. 11-709.3. Transit buses on shoulders - toll highways. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority may allow transit buses to use the shoulders of highways under its jurisdiction.
(Source: P.A. 97-292, eff. 8-11-11; 98-871, eff. 8-11-14.)

625 ILCS 5/11-710

    (625 ILCS 5/11-710) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-710)
    Sec. 11-710. Following too closely. (a) The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due regard for the speed of such vehicles and the traffic upon and the condition of the highway.
    (b) The driver of any truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle when traveling upon a roadway outside of a business or residence district and which is following another truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle shall, whenever conditions permit, leave sufficient space so that an overtaking vehicle may enter and occupy such space without danger, except that this shall not prevent a truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle from overtaking and passing any vehicle or combination of vehicles.
    (c) Motor vehicles being driven upon any roadway outside of a business or residence district in a caravan or motorcade whether or not towing other vehicles shall be so operated as to allow sufficient space between each such vehicle or combination of vehicles so as to enable any other vehicle to enter and occupy such space without danger. This provision shall not apply to funeral processions.
(Source: P.A. 79-1069.)

625 ILCS 5/11-711

    (625 ILCS 5/11-711) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-711)
    Sec. 11-711. Restrictions on use of controlled access highway.
    (a) No person may drive a vehicle onto or from any controlled access highway except at entrances and exits established by public authority.
    (b) The Department with respect to any controlled access highway under its jurisdiction may prohibit the use of any such highways by pedestrians (except in authorized areas or facilities), bicycles, farm tractors, implements of husbandry, funeral processions, and any vehicle unable to maintain the minimum speed for which the highway is posted, or other non-motorized traffic or by any person operating a motor driven cycle. The Department may also prohibit the use of such highway to school buses picking up and discharging children and mail delivery vehicles picking up or delivering mail. The Department shall erect and maintain official signs on the controlled access highway on which such prohibitions are applicable and when so erected no person may disobey the restrictions stated on such sign.
(Source: P.A. 76-1586.)

625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. VIII

 
    (625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. VIII heading)
ARTICLE VIII. TURNING AND STARTING
AND SIGNALS ON STOPPING AND TURNING

625 ILCS 5/11-801

    (625 ILCS 5/11-801) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-801)
    Sec. 11-801. Required position and method of turning. (a) The driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an intersection shall do so as follows:
    (1) Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practical to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.
    (2) The driver of a vehicle intending to turn left at any intersection shall approach the intersection in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of such vehicle, and after entering the intersection, the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection in a lane lawfully available to traffic moving in such direction upon the roadway being entered. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be made in that portion of the intersection to the left of the center of the intersection.
    (3) The Department and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may cause official traffic control devices to be placed within or adjacent to intersections and thereby require and direct that a different course from that specified in this Section be traveled by vehicles turning at an intersection, and when such devices are so placed no driver of a vehicle shall turn a vehicle at an intersection other than as directed and required by such devices.
    (b) Two-way left turn lanes. Where a special lane for making left turns by drivers proceeding in opposite directions has been indicated by official traffic-control devices:
    (1) A left turn shall not be made from any other lane.
    (2) A vehicle shall not be driven in the lane except when preparing for or making a left turn from or into the roadway or when preparing for or making a U turn when otherwise permitted by law.
    (c) When a motor vehicle and a mass transit bus are traveling in the same direction on the same multi-laned highway, street or road, the operator of the motor vehicle overtaking such bus, which is stopped at an intersection on the right side of the roadway to receive or discharge passengers, shall pass to the left of the bus at a safe distance and shall not turn to the right in front of the bus at that intersection.
(Source: P.A. 85-786.)

625 ILCS 5/11-802

    (625 ILCS 5/11-802) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-802)
    Sec. 11-802. Limitations on U turns. (a) The driver of any vehicle shall not turn such vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction unless such movement can be made in safety and without interfering with other traffic.
    (b) No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon any curve, or upon the approach to or near the crest of a grade, where such vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within 500 feet.
(Source: P.A. 82-783.)

625 ILCS 5/11-803

    (625 ILCS 5/11-803) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-803)
    Sec. 11-803. Starting parked vehicle.
    No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing, or parked unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety.
(Source: P.A. 76-1586.)

625 ILCS 5/11-804

    (625 ILCS 5/11-804) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-804)
    Sec. 11-804. When signal required.
    (a) No person may turn a vehicle at an intersection unless the vehicle is in proper position upon the roadway as required in Section 11-801 or turn a vehicle to enter a private road or driveway, or otherwise turn a vehicle from a direct course or move right or left upon a roadway unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety. No person may so turn any vehicle without giving an appropriate signal in the manner hereinafter provided.
    (b) A signal of intention to turn right or left when required must be given continuously during not less than the last 100 feet traveled by the vehicle before turning within a business or residence district, and such signal must be given continuously during not less than the last 200 feet traveled by the vehicle before turning outside a business or residence district.
    (c) No person may stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided in this Chapter to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is opportunity to give such a signal.
    (d) The electric turn signal device required in Section 12-208 of this Act must be used to indicate an intention to turn, change lanes or start from a parallel parked position but must not be flashed on one side only on a parked or disabled vehicle or flashed as a courtesy or "do pass" signal to operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear. However, such signal devices may be flashed simultaneously on both sides of a motor vehicle to indicate the presence of a vehicular traffic hazard requiring unusual care in approaching, overtaking and passing.
(Source: P.A. 78-1297.)

625 ILCS 5/11-805

    (625 ILCS 5/11-805) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-805)
    Sec. 11-805. Signal by hand or arm or signal device. Any stop or turn signal when required herein shall be given either by means of the hand and arm or by an electric turn signal device conforming to the requirements provided in Section 12-208 of this Act.
(Source: P.A. 79-1069.)

625 ILCS 5/11-806

    (625 ILCS 5/11-806) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-806)
    Sec. 11-806. Method of giving hand and arm signals. All signals herein required given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the vehicle in the following manner and such signals shall indicate as follows:
        1. Left turn - Hand and arm extended horizontally.
        2. Right turn - Hand and arm extended upward, except
    
that a person operating a bicycle may extend the right hand and arm horizontally and to the right side of the bicycle.
        3. Stop or decrease of speed - Hand and arm extended
    
downward.
(Source: P.A. 95-231, eff. 1-1-08.)

625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. IX

 
    (625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. IX heading)
ARTICLE IX. RIGHT-OF-WAY

625 ILCS 5/11-901

    (625 ILCS 5/11-901) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-901)
    Sec. 11-901. Vehicles approaching or entering intersection.
    (a) When 2 vehicles approach or enter an intersection from different roadways at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left must yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.
    (b) The right-of-way rule declared in paragraph (a) of this Section is modified at through highways and otherwise as stated in this Chapter.
(Source: P.A. 76-1739.)

625 ILCS 5/11-901.01

    (625 ILCS 5/11-901.01) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-901.01)
    Sec. 11-901.01. Vehicles approaching or entering a "T" intersection. The driver of a vehicle approaching the intersection of a highway from a highway which terminates at the intersection, not otherwise regulated by this Act or controlled by traffic control signs or signals, shall stop, yield, and grant the privilege of immediate use of the intersection to another vehicle which has entered the intersection from the non-terminating highway or is approaching the intersection on the non-terminating highway in such proximity as to constitute a hazard and after stopping may proceed when the driver may safely enter the intersection without interference or collision with the traffic using the non-terminating highway.
(Source: P.A. 81-860.)

625 ILCS 5/11-902

    (625 ILCS 5/11-902) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-902)
    Sec. 11-902. Vehicle turning left. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection or into an alley, private road, or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction which is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard, but said driver, having so yielded may proceed at such time as a safe interval occurs.
(Source: P.A. 76-1586.)

625 ILCS 5/11-903

    (625 ILCS 5/11-903) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-903)
    Sec. 11-903. Vehicles entering stop crosswalk.
    Where stop signs or flashing red signals are in place at an intersection or flashing red signals are in place at a plainly marked crosswalk between intersections, drivers of vehicles shall stop before entering the nearest crosswalk and pedestrians within or entering the crosswalk at either edge of the roadway shall have the right-of-way over vehicles so stopped. Drivers of vehicles having so yielded the right-of-way to pedestrians entering or within the nearest crosswalk at an intersection shall also yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within any other crosswalk at the intersection.
(Source: P.A. 76-1586.)

625 ILCS 5/11-904

    (625 ILCS 5/11-904) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-904)
    Sec. 11-904. Vehicle entering stop or yield intersection.
    (a) Preferential right-of-way at an intersection may be indicated by stop or yield signs as authorized in Section 11-302 of this Chapter.
    (b) Except when directed to proceed by a police officer or traffic-control signal, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop intersection indicated by a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle which has entered the intersection from another roadway or which is approaching so closely on the roadway as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when the driver is moving across or within the intersection, but said driver having so yielded may proceed at such time as a safe interval occurs.
    (c) The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and, if required for safety to stop, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway. After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection.
    (d) If a driver is involved in a collision at an intersection or interferes with the movement of other vehicles after driving past a yield right-of-way sign, such collision or interference shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the driver's failure to yield right-of-way.
(Source: P.A. 76-1739.)

625 ILCS 5/11-905

    (625 ILCS 5/11-905) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-905)
    Sec. 11-905. Merging traffic. Not withstanding the right of way provision in Sec. 11-901 of this Act, at an intersection where traffic lanes are provided for merging traffic the driver of each vehicle on the converging roadways is required to adjust his vehicular speed and lateral position so as to avoid a collision with another vehicle.
(Source: P.A. 81-860.)

625 ILCS 5/11-906

    (625 ILCS 5/11-906) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-906)
    Sec. 11-906. Vehicle entering highway from private road or driveway.
    The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from an alley, building, private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the highway to be entered.
(Source: P.A. 76-1739.)

625 ILCS 5/11-907

    (625 ILCS 5/11-907) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-907)
    Sec. 11-907. Operation of vehicles and streetcars on approach of authorized emergency vehicles.
    (a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of audible and visual signals meeting the requirements of this Code or a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible or visual signal,
        (1) the driver of every other vehicle shall yield the
    
right-of-way and shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the highway clear of any intersection and shall, if necessary to permit the safe passage of the emergency vehicle, stop and remain in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, unless otherwise directed by a police officer and
        (2) the operator of every streetcar shall immediately
    
stop such car clear of any intersection and keep it in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, unless otherwise directed by a police officer.
    (b) This Section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway.
    (c) Upon approaching a stationary authorized emergency vehicle, when the authorized emergency vehicle is giving a signal by displaying alternately flashing red, red and white, blue, or red and blue lights or amber or yellow warning lights, a person who drives an approaching vehicle shall:
        (1) proceeding with due caution, yield the
    
right-of-way by making a lane change into a lane not adjacent to that of the authorized emergency vehicle, if possible with due regard to safety and traffic conditions, if on a highway having at least 4 lanes with not less than 2 lanes proceeding in the same direction as the approaching vehicle; or
        (2) proceeding with due caution, reduce the speed of
    
the vehicle, maintaining a safe speed for road conditions, if changing lanes would be impossible or unsafe.
    As used in this subsection (c), "authorized emergency vehicle" includes any vehicle authorized by law to be equipped with oscillating, rotating, or flashing lights under Section 12-215 of this Code, while the owner or operator of the vehicle is engaged in his or her official duties.
    (d) A person who violates subsection (c) of this Section commits a business offense punishable by a fine of not less than $100 or more than $10,000. It is a factor in aggravation if the person committed the offense while in violation of Section 11-501 of this Code. Imposition of the penalties authorized by this subsection (d) for a violation of subsection (c) of this Section that results in the death of another person does not preclude imposition of appropriate additional civil or criminal penalties.
    (e) If a violation of subsection (c) of this Section results in damage to the property of another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for a fixed period of not less than 90 days and not more than one year.
    (f) If a violation of subsection (c) of this Section results in injury to another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for a fixed period of not less than 180 days and not more than 2 years.
    (g) If a violation of subsection (c) of this Section results in the death of another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for 2 years.
    (h) The Secretary of State shall, upon receiving a record of a judgment entered against a person under subsection (c) of this Section:
        (1) suspend the person's driving privileges for the
    
mandatory period; or
        (2) extend the period of an existing suspension by
    
the appropriate mandatory period.
(Source: P.A. 95-884, eff. 1-1-09.)

625 ILCS 5/11-907.5

    (625 ILCS 5/11-907.5)
    (This Section may contain text from a Public Act with a delayed effective date)
    Sec. 11-907.5. Approaching disabled vehicles.
    (a) Upon approaching a disabled vehicle with lighted hazard lights on a highway having at least 4 lanes, of which at least 2 are proceeding in the same direction, a driver of a vehicle shall:
        (1) proceeding with due caution, make a lane change
    
into a lane not adjacent to that disabled vehicle, if possible with due regard to safety and traffic conditions; or
        (2) proceeding with due caution, reduce the speed of
    
the vehicle, maintaining a safe speed for road conditions, if changing lanes would be impossible or unsafe.
    (b) A person who violates subsection (a) of this Section commits a petty offense.
(Source: P.A. 99-681, eff. 1-1-17.)

625 ILCS 5/11-908

    (625 ILCS 5/11-908) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-908)
    Sec. 11-908. Vehicle approaching or entering a highway construction or maintenance area or zone.
    (a) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way to any authorized vehicle or pedestrian actually engaged in work upon a highway within any highway construction or maintenance area indicated by official traffic-control devices.
    (a-1) Upon entering a construction or maintenance zone when workers are present, a person who drives a vehicle shall:
        (1) proceeding with due caution, make a lane change
    
into a lane not adjacent to that of the workers present, if possible with due regard to safety and traffic conditions, if on a highway having at least 4 lanes with not less than 2 lanes proceeding in the same direction as the approaching vehicle; or
        (2) proceeding with due caution, reduce the speed of
    
the vehicle, maintaining a safe speed for road conditions, if changing lanes would be impossible or unsafe.
    (a-2) A person who violates subsection (a-1) of this Section commits a business offense punishable by a fine of not less than $100 and not more than $10,000. It is a factor in aggravation if the person committed the offense while in violation of Section 11-501 of this Code.
    (a-3) If a violation of subsection (a-1) of this Section results in damage to the property of another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for a fixed period of not less than 90 days and not more than one year.
    (a-4) If a violation of subsection (a-1) of this Section results in injury to another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for a fixed period of not less than 180 days and not more than 2 years.
    (a-5) If a violation of subsection (a-1) of this Section results in the death of another person, in addition to any other penalty imposed, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for 2 years.
    (a-6) The Secretary of State shall, upon receiving a record of a judgment entered against a person under subsection (a-1) of this Section:
        (1) suspend the person's driving privileges for the
    
mandatory period; or
        (2) extend the period of an existing suspension by
    
the appropriate mandatory period.
    (b) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way to any authorized vehicle obviously and actually engaged in work upon a highway whenever the vehicle engaged in construction or maintenance work displays flashing lights as provided in Section 12-215 of this Act.
    (c) The driver of a vehicle shall stop if signaled to do so by a flagger or a traffic control signal and remain in such position until signaled to proceed. If a driver of a vehicle fails to stop when signaled to do so by a flagger, the flagger is authorized to report such offense to the State's Attorney or authorized prosecutor. The penalties imposed for a violation of this subsection (c) shall be in addition to any penalties imposed for a violation of subsection (a-1).
(Source: P.A. 92-872, eff. 6-1-03; 93-705, eff. 7-9-04.)

625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. X

 
    (625 ILCS 5/Ch. 11 Art. X heading)
ARTICLE X. PEDESTRIANS' RIGHTS AND DUTIES

625 ILCS 5/11-1001

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1001) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1001)
    Sec. 11-1001. Pedestrian obedience to traffic control devices and traffic regulations.
        (a) A pedestrian shall obey the instructions of any official traffic control device specifically applicable to him, unless otherwise directed by a police officer.
    (b) Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic and pedestrian control signals provided in Sections 11-306 and 11-307 of this Chapter, but at all other places pedestrians shall be accorded the privileges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in this Article.
(Source: P.A. 76-1734.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1002

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1002) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1002)
    Sec. 11-1002. Pedestrians' right-of-way at crosswalks.
    (a) When traffic control signals are not in place or not in operation the driver of a vehicle shall stop and yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when the pedestrian is approaching so closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger.
    (b) No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a moving vehicle which is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.
    (c) Paragraph (a) shall not apply under the condition stated in Section 11-1003(b).
    (d) Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle.
    (e) Whenever stop signs or flashing red signals are in place at an intersection or at a plainly marked crosswalk between intersections, drivers shall yield right-of-way to pedestrians as set forth in Section 11-904 of this Chapter.
(Source: P.A. 96-1165, eff. 7-22-10.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1002.5

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1002.5)
    Sec. 11-1002.5. Pedestrians' right-of-way at crosswalks; school zones.
    (a) For the purpose of this Section, "school" has the meaning ascribed to that term in Section 11-605.
    On a school day when school children are present and so close thereto that a potential hazard exists because of the close proximity of the motorized traffic and when traffic control signals are not in place or not in operation, the driver of a vehicle shall stop and yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when the pedestrian is approaching so closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger.
    For the purpose of this Section, a school day shall begin at seven ante meridian and shall conclude at four post meridian.
    This Section shall not be applicable unless appropriate signs are posted in accordance with Section 11-605.
    (b) A first violation of this Section is a petty offense with a minimum fine of $150. A second or subsequent violation of this Section is a petty offense with a minimum fine of $300.
    (c) When a fine for a violation of subsection (a) is $150 or greater, the person who violates subsection (a) shall be charged an additional $50 to be paid to the unit school district where the violation occurred for school safety purposes. If the violation occurred in a dual school district, $25 of the surcharge shall be paid to the elementary school district for school safety purposes and $25 of the surcharge shall be paid to the high school district for school safety purposes. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the entire $50 surcharge shall be paid to the appropriate school district or districts.
    For purposes of this subsection (c), "school safety purposes" has the meaning ascribed to that term in Section 11-605.
(Source: P.A. 95-302, eff. 1-1-08; 96-1165, eff. 7-22-10.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1003

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1003) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1003)
    Sec. 11-1003. Crossing at other than crosswalks.
    (a) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
    (b) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
    (c) Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.
    (d) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diagonally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices; and, when authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians shall cross only in accordance with the official traffic-control devices pertaining to such crossing movements.
    (e) Pedestrians with disabilities may cross a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk where the intersection is physically inaccessible to them but they shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
(Source: P.A. 88-685, eff. 1-24-95.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1003.1

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1003.1) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1003.1)
    Sec. 11-1003.1. Drivers to exercise due care. Notwithstanding other provisions of this Code or the provisions of any local ordinance, every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian, or any person operating a bicycle or other device propelled by human power and shall give warning by sounding the horn when necessary and shall exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any obviously confused, incapacitated or intoxicated person.
(Source: P.A. 82-132.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1004

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1004) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1004)
    Sec. 11-1004. Pedestrian with disabilities; right-of-way. The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian with clearly visible disabilities.
(Source: P.A. 88-685, eff. 1-24-95.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1004.1

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1004.1) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1004.1)
    Sec. 11-1004.1. Motorized wheelchairs. Every person operating a motorized wheelchair upon a sidewalk or roadway shall be granted all the rights and shall be subject to all the duties applicable to a pedestrian.
(Source: P.A. 84-672.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1005

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1005) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1005)
    Sec. 11-1005. Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks.
    Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the right half of crosswalks.
(Source: P.A. 76-1586.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1005.1

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1005.1)
    Sec. 11-1005.1. Electric personal assistive mobility devices. Every person operating an electric personal assistive mobility device upon a sidewalk or roadway has all the rights and is subject to all the duties applicable to a pedestrian. Nothing in this Section shall be deemed to limit or preempt the authority of any home rule or non-home rule unit of local government from regulating or prohibiting the use of electric personal assistive mobility devices.
(Source: P.A. 92-868, eff. 6-1-03.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1006

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1006) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1006)
    Sec. 11-1006. Pedestrians soliciting rides or business.
    (a) No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of soliciting a ride from the driver of any vehicle.
    (b) No person shall stand on a highway for the purpose of soliciting employment or business from the occupant of any vehicle.
    (c) No person shall stand on a highway for the purpose of soliciting contributions from the occupant of any vehicle except within a municipality when expressly permitted by municipal ordinance. The local municipality, city, village, or other local governmental entity in which the solicitation takes place shall determine by ordinance where and when solicitations may take place based on the safety of the solicitors and the safety of motorists. The decision shall also take into account the orderly flow of traffic and may not allow interference with the operation of official traffic control devices. The soliciting agency shall be:
        1. registered with the Attorney General as a
    
charitable organization as provided by "An Act to regulate solicitation and collection of funds for charitable purposes, providing for violations thereof, and making an appropriation therefor", approved July 26, 1963, as amended;
        2. engaged in a Statewide fund raising activity; and
        3. liable for any injuries to any person or property
    
during the solicitation which is causally related to an act of ordinary negligence of the soliciting agent.
    Any person engaged in the act of solicitation shall be 16 years of age or more and shall be wearing a high visibility vest.
    (d) No person shall stand on or in the proximity of a highway for the purpose of soliciting the watching or guarding of any vehicle while parked or about to be parked on a highway.
    (e) Every person who is convicted of a violation of this Section shall be guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
(Source: P.A. 88-589, eff. 8-14-94.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1007

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1007) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1007)
    Sec. 11-1007. Pedestrians walking on highways.
    (a) Except as provided in subsection (e), where a sidewalk is provided and its use is practicable, it shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to walk along and upon an adjacent roadway.
    (b) Except as provided in subsection (e), where a sidewalk is not available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk only on a shoulder, as far as practicable from the edge of the roadway.
    (c) Except as provided in subsection (e), where neither a sidewalk nor a shoulder is available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk as near as practicable to an outside edge of a roadway, and, if on a two-way roadway, shall walk only on the left side of the roadway.
    (d) Except as otherwise provided in this Chapter, any pedestrian upon a roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
    (e) In municipalities with a population of under 2,000,000 inhabitants, upon highways where the maximum posted speed limit is 45 miles per hour or less, and during the period from sunrise to sunset, a pedestrian who is 18 years of age or older and wearing in-line speed skates may travel upon the roadway as near as practicable to an outside edge of the roadway. Pedestrians wearing in-line speed skates upon a roadway may not impede or obstruct other vehicular traffic. Pedestrians wearing in-line speed skates shall be subject to all other rights and duties under this Article X. Nothing in this Code shall be construed to prevent a pedestrian wearing in-line speed skates from using a lane designated for bicycles.
(Source: P.A. 97-1023, eff. 1-1-13.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1008

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1008) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1008)
    Sec. 11-1008. Right-of-way on sidewalks. The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian on a sidewalk.
(Source: P.A. 79-857.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1009

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1009) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1009)
    Sec. 11-1009. Pedestrians yield to authorized emergency vehicles. Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of an audible signal and visual signals meeting the requirements of Section 12-217 of this Chapter, or of a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible signal only, every pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to the authorized emergency vehicle.
(Source: P.A. 79-857.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1010

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1010) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1010)
    Sec. 11-1010. Pedestrians under influence of alcohol or drugs. A pedestrian who is under the influence of alcohol or any drug to a degree which renders himself a hazard shall not walk or be upon a highway except on a sidewalk.
(Source: P.A. 79-857.)

625 ILCS 5/11-1011

    (625 ILCS 5/11-1011) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 11-1011)
    Sec. 11-1011. Bridge and railroad signals.
    (a) No pedestrian shall enter or remain upon any bridge or approach thereto beyond the bridge signal, gate, or barrier after a bridge operation signal indication has been given.
    (b) No pedestrian shall pass through, around, over, or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or bridge while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.
    (c) No pedestrian shall enter, remain upon or traverse over a railroad grade crossing or pedestrian walkway crossing a railroad track when an audible bell or clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device is operational giving warning of the presence, approach, passage, or departure of a railroad train or railroad track equipment.
    (d) A violation of any part of this Section is a petty offense for which a $250 fine shall be imposed for a first violation, and a $500 fine shall be imposed for a second or subsequent violation. The court may impose 25 hours of community service in place of the $250 fine for a first violation.
    (e) Local authorities shall impose fines as established in subsection (d) for pedestrians who fail to obey signals indicating the presence, approach, passage, or departure of a train or railroad track equipment.
(Source: P.A. 96-1244, eff. 1-1-11.)