TITLE 92: TRANSPORTATION
CHAPTER I: DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SUBCHAPTER f: HIGHWAYS
PART 550 POLICY ON PERMITS FOR ACCESS DRIVEWAYS TO STATE HIGHWAYS
SECTION 550.40 HIGHWAY CONSIDERATIONS
Section 550.40 Highway Considerations
a) Turning Lanes
1) Turning lanes for either right or left turns into a commercial driveway may be necessary for capacity purposes when there are high roadway and/or turning volumes or for safety when the roadway speeds are moderate or high. The entry movement to a series of driveways serving interconnected or common parking areas tends to be heavily concentrated at the first driveway in the series. Turning lanes may therefore be needed only at the first one or two driveways serving a given approach to a major facility. The final determination concerning the need for such facilities will rest with the Department.
2) Turning lanes consist of a taper and a full width auxiliary lane. The design of the lanes is based primarily on the speed at which drivers will turn into the lane, the speed to which drivers must reduce in order to turn around the driveway radii after traversing the deceleration lane, and the amount of vehicular storage that will be required. Other special considerations are the volume of trucks that will use the turning lane and the steepness of an ascending or descending grade.
3) The cost of providing turning lanes for other than a public road is the responsibility of the property owner. The lanes must be constructed in accordance with State standards and specifications. Where the width of the highway right-of-way is insufficient to permit the construction of a needed turning lane, the property owner shall provide any necessary additional right-of-way to the Department. Right-turning lanes should generally be constructed entirely within the frontage of the property being served, since an adjacent owner might subsequently require an entrance that would otherwise come into the turning lane. On an undivided highway or a divided highway with a median width inadequate for a left-turn lane, the applicant may be required, if a left-turn lane is necessary, to widen the highway in order to provide for the turning lane. Illustration 8 depicts a typical left-turn lane on a two-lane highway. The need for, and location of, turning lanes will affect the location of the entrances, which is covered in further detail in Section 550.50(a)(1). The construction of turning lanes may necessitate a formal agreement (Section 550.30(e)(1)).
b) Median Crossovers
1) Where a divided highway has been constructed with a median, crossovers in the median for new driveways will not be permitted where there are frequent openings for intersections with local streets that form a street network. Left-turn access into the property may therefore need to be by use of entrances to side streets adjacent to the property or a frontage road.
2) The layout of entrances to a large development should be done in such a manner as to take advantage of existing or preplanned median crossovers. In such cases, the construction of left-turn lanes must be considered.
3) Median crossovers along modified access-controlled highways (expressways) must be located in accordance with Section 3-110.06 of the Department's Design Manual. These requirements should also be used for divided nonfreeways insofar as practical.
1) The roadway shoulders adjacent to driveways constructed under permit shall be reconstructed to match the shoulders in the immediate area. Where more than one surfaced commercial entrance is being constructed the Regional/District Office issuing the permit may allow or require the shoulder area between the entrances to also be surfaced. In order to establish well-defined traffic flow patterns, curbing may be allowed or required at the edge of the shoulder.
2) The shoulder in the area of the driveway shall not be used as an auxiliary lane. The property owner shall assist in prohibiting the parking or commercial use of the roadway shoulder or right-of-way.
1) Lighting commercial driveways used extensively after dark may be helpful to assist motorists in easily locating the entrances. Such lighting must be erected on private property unless the driveway permit specifically provides for units to be located on the right-of-way.
2) Lights on commercial premises should not constitute a nuisance to passing motorists. Such lights must not be similar to traffic control devices (i.e., signals or flashing beacons). No flashing, oscillating, or rotating lights visible from any public highway may be placed on any building or structure within 200 feet of the highway (Illinois Highway Code, par. 9-112.2). No signs may have lights that are not effectively shielded so as to prevent light rays from causing glare or impairing the vision of motorists.
3) In the case of some major commercial developments, it may be determined necessary to have the developer place highway or street lighting units to illuminate a part of the highway facility. Provisions for such lighting may be included in the permit and/or agreement. The units must meet standards and specifications approved by the Department.
e) Traffic Controls
1) Short-duration high-volume traffic generated by an industrial or commercial facility (such as a drive-in theater) may require special traffic control at an entrance to a State highway. Either deputized officers (uniformed off-duty policemen or security guards) on the highway or other personnel off the highway may be needed to regulate traffic during such times. Traffic on the highway may be directed only by a deputized officer. He shall not unduly delay traffic on the highway, and frequent breaks in traffic from the industrial or commercial facility shall be made for the benefit of through traffic. Such operation will be under the general supervision of the appropriate police agency, which will take suitable action to protect the rights of through traffic.
2) It may be desirable where short-duration high-volume traffic exists to utilize an appropriate warning sign with an 8-inch amber flashing light mounted above the sign. Such flashing lights may be activated only during the times when the high traffic volumes would be entering or leaving the site. Flashing lights have also been used above warning signs where an industrial area periodically creates smoke or a fog-like condition that constitutes a hazard to traffic. Flashing lights may be installed only when determined necessary by the Regional/District Office. The installation may either be done by the State, at the expense of the property owner, or by a private contractor under the conditions of a permit.
3) Some large traffic generators, such as shopping centers and industrial or institutional parking lots, may for certain hours of the day generate traffic volumes that substantially exceed the minimum hourly volume requirements for the installation of traffic signals. In order to adequately handle these short-duration peak traffic volumes, traffic signals may be installed at locations on State highways satisfying the warrants for commercial-industrial signals prescribed in the Illinois Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices to be codified as 92 Ill. Adm. Code 546, subject to the following provisions:
A) Agreements and Permits
i) Agreements – An agreement will normally be required between the Department and a local or private agency only when there is to be some financial participation by the State in some highway improvements to be done in conjunction with the installation of signals or when the State will be maintaining the signals, with reimbursement by the local or private agency.
ii) Permits – When an agreement is not required, a permit may be issued by the Department for the installation and maintenance of commercial-industrial signals. Within the corporate limits of a municipality, the permits are generally issued to the municipality upon a request in the form of a resolution. Outside a municipality, such permits may be issued directly to the private agency.
B) Financial Responsibility
The entire cost for the installation, modernization, maintenance, and energy charges of the signals shall be the responsibility of the local or private agency. Motor Fuel Tax funds may not be used for these items. The agreement or permit shall provide that the Department shall not be held liable for accidents or damages sustained in connection with the operation of the signals. The Department may require the removal of the signals for any sufficient reason upon 30 days' notice in writing. Improper use, lack of enforcement, failure to maintain or defray maintenance costs, failure to modernize the signals when required, or a significant reduction in traffic volumes shall be considered as sufficient reason to require removal. The signals shall be maintained either by the Department with full reimbursement, by the local or private agency, or by a municipality that is capable of proper traffic signal maintenance.
C) Design and Operation
The design and operation of commercial-industrial signals shall conform to the requirements set forth in the Illinois Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways.
4) If determined necessary by the Regional/District Offices, other traffic control devices, such as regulatory or warning signs, delineators, pavement markings, etc., may be required to be installed at the expense of a commercial developer. All such devices shall be in accordance with the Illinois Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices to be codified as 92 Ill. Adm. Code 546.