TITLE 77: PUBLIC HEALTH
CHAPTER I: DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
SUBCHAPTER m: FOOD, DRUGS AND COSMETICS
PART 750 FOOD SERVICE SANITATION CODE
SECTION 750.10 DEFINITIONS
Section 750.10 Definitions
The following definitions shall apply in the interpretation and the enforcement of this Part:
"Acceptable product list" means a list of foods, acceptable to the regulatory authority, that, because of their characteristics, will present a barrier to the growth of Clostridium botulinum.
"Balut" means an embryo inside a fertile egg that has been incubated for a period sufficient for the embryo to reach a specific stage of development after which it is removed from the incubation before hatching.
"Barrier" means a safety factor of a physical, biological, or chemical nature that inhibits or minimizes the growth of microorganisms, including those that may be infectious or toxigenic.
"Beef pattie mix" (or "beef patties" if in pattie form) means chopped beef with or without the addition of beef fat as such and/or seasonings.
"Beverage" means a liquid for drinking, including water.
"Category I facility" means a food establishment that presents a high relative risk of causing food-borne illness, based on the large number of food handling operations typically implicated in food-borne outbreaks and/or the type of population served by the facility. Category I facilities include those where the following operations occur:
Potentially hazardous foods are cooled, as part of the food handling operation at the facility;
Potentially hazardous foods are prepared hot or cold and held hot or cold for more than 12 hours before serving;
Potentially hazardous cooked and cooled foods must be reheated;
Potentially hazardous foods are prepared for off-premises serving for which time-temperature requirements during transportation, holding and service are relevant;
Complex preparation of foods or extensive handling of raw ingredients with hand contact for ready-to-eat foods occurs as part of the food handling operations at the facility;
Vacuum packaging and/or other forms of reduced oxygen packaging are performed at the retail level; or
Immunocompromised individuals such as the elderly, young children under age four and pregnant women are served, where these individuals compose the majority of the consuming population.
"Category II facility" means a food establishment that presents a medium relative risk of causing food-borne illness, based upon few food handling operations typically implicated in food-borne illness outbreaks. Category II facilities include those where the following operations occur:
Hot or cold foods are held at required temperatures for no more than 12 hours and are restricted to same-day services;
Foods are prepared from raw ingredients, using only minimal assembly; and
Foods that require complex preparation (whether canned, frozen or fresh prepared) are obtained from approved food-processing plants, high-risk food service establishments or retail food stores.
"Category III facility" means a food establishment that presents a low relative risk of causing food-borne illness, based upon few or no food handling operations typically implicated in food-borne illness outbreaks. Category III facilities include those where the following operations occur:
Only pre-packaged foods are available or served in the facility, and any potentially hazardous foods available are commercially pre-packaged in an approved processing plant;
Only limited preparation of non-potentially hazardous foods and beverages, such as snack foods and carbonated beverages, occurs at the facility; or
Only beverages (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) are served at the facility.
"Certification number" means a unique combination of letters and numbers assigned by a shellfish control authority to a molluscan shellfish dealer according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.
"Certified food service manager or supervisor" means a person certified in compliance with Section 750.540.
"Cold smoke process" is a smoking process used to apply smoke or a smoke flavor at or below ambient temperature to food products not sufficiently darkened in the original smoking operation.
"Commercially prepared sweet baked goods" means an individually portioned and wrapped non-potentially hazardous yeast or cake-type bread, bun, croissant or roll with or without filling and/or icing.
"Commingle" means to combine shellstock harvested on different days or from different growing areas as identified on the tag or label; or to combine shucked shellfish from containers with different container codes or different shucking dates.
"Comminuted" means reduced in size by methods including chopping, flaking, grinding or mincing. It includes fish or meat products that are reduced in size and restructured or reformulated, such as gefilte fish, formed roast beef, gyros, ground beef, and sausage; and a mixture of two or more types of meat that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausages made from two or more meats.
"Commissary" means a catering establishment, restaurant, or any other place in which food, containers, or supplies are kept, handled, prepared, packaged or stored.
"Consumer" means a person who is a member of the public, takes possession of food, is not functioning in the capacity of an operator of a food establishment or food processing plant, and does not offer the food for resale.
"Controlled atmosphere packaging" or "CAP" means an active packaging system that continuously maintains the desired atmosphere within the package throughout the shelf-life of the product. CAP uses an agent to bind or "scavenge" oxygen permeating the package, or a sachet to emit a gas.
"Cook-chill processing" means a process in which a plastic bag is filled with hot cooked food and the air is expelled while the bag is being sealed before being blast or tumble chilled.
"Corrosion-resistant materials" means those materials that maintain their original surface characteristics under prolonged influence of the food to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and bactericidal solutions, and other conditions-of-use environment.
"Critical control point" means any point or procedure in a specific food processing or packaging operation where loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk.
"Curing" means the placing in or on edible flesh of approved ingredients, such as a solution or mixture containing chloride and nitrite salts of sodium or potassium, water, sodium erythorbate or ascorbate, sodium phosphates, sweeteners (dextrose and cane sugar) and flavorings.
"Dedicated equipment or personnel" means equipment or personnel reserved solely for the use of one food processing operation to prevent cross-contamination.
"Department" means the Illinois Department of Public Health.
"Easily cleanable" means that surfaces are readily accessible and made of such material and finish and so fabricated that residue may be effectively removed by normal cleaning methods.
"Egg" means the shell egg of avian species such as chicken, duck, goose, guinea, quail, ratites or turkey. The term does not include a balut; the egg of reptile species such as alligator; or an egg product.
"Egg Product" means all, or a portion of, the contents found inside eggs separated from the shell and pasteurized in a food processing plant, with or without added ingredients, intended for human consumption, such as dried, frozen or liquid eggs. The term does not include food that contains eggs only in a relatively small proportion, such as cake mixes.
"Employee" means individuals having supervisory or management duties, and any other person working in a food service establishment.
"Equipment" means stoves, ovens, ranges, hoods, slicers, mixers, meat blocks, tables, counters, refrigerators, sinks, dishwashing machines, steam tables, and similar items, other than utensils, used in the operation of a food service establishment.
"Extensively remodeled" means conversion of an existing structure for use as a retail food establishment; any structural additions or alterations to existing establishments; changes, modifications and extensions of plumbing systems, excluding routine maintenance.
"Field dressed" means the removal of the visceral organs of an animal following the animal's death in the field.
"Food" means any raw, cooked, or processed edible substance, ice, beverage or ingredient used or intended for use or for sale in whole or in part for human consumption.
"Food-contact surface" means those surfaces of equipment and utensils with which food normally comes in contact, and those surfaces from which food may drain, drip, or splash back to surfaces normally in contact with food.
"Food employee" means an individual working with unpackaged food, food equipment or utensils, or food-contact surfaces.
"Food-processing establishment" means a commercial establishment in which food is manufactured or packaged for human consumption. The term does not include a food service establishment, retail food store, or commissary operation.
"Food service establishment" means any place where food is prepared and intended for, though not limited to, individual portion service, and includes the site at which individual portions are provided. The term includes any such place regardless of whether consumption is on or off the premises and regardless of whether there is a charge for the food. The term also includes delicatessen-type operations that prepare foods intended for individual portion service. The term does not include lodging facilities serving only a continental breakfast (a continental breakfast is one limited to only coffee, tea, and/or juice and commercially prepared sweet baked goods), private homes or a closed family function where food is prepared or served for individual family consumption, retail food stores or the location of food vending machines.
"Full time" means 30 hours per week or the length of time the facility is in operation, whichever is less.
"Game animal" means an animal, the products of which are food, that is not classified as cattle, sheep, swine, or goat in 9 CFR 301 (Mandatory Meat Inspection, Definitions); as poultry in 9 CFR 381 (Mandatory Poultry Products Inspection, Poultry products inspection regulations); as meat in the Illinois Meat and Poultry Act [225 ILCS 650]; or as fish. Game animal includes wild and not domestically raised animals such as reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, bison, rabbit, squirrel, bear, and muskrat; aquatic and nonaquatic birds such as wild ducks and geese, quail, and pheasant; nonaquatic reptiles such as rattlesnakes; and aquatic mammals. It also includes exotic animals as defined in 9 CFR 1 (Animal Welfare, Definition of Terms), such as lion, tiger, leopard, elephant, camel, antelope, anteater, kangaroo and water buffalo, and species of foreign domestic cattle, such as Ankole, Gayal and Yak.
"Ground beef" means chopped or ground beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat and shall not contain more than 30 percent fat.
"Hamburger" means chopped beef with or without the addition of beef fat and/or seasoning and shall not contain more than 30 percent fat.
"Hazard" means a biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.
"Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Program" or "HACCP" means a comprehensive food safety control plan that includes a step-by-step description of the food processing, packaging and storage procedure, including identification of critical control points (CCPs); the food-contact surface cleaning and sanitizing procedures; lot identification procedure; and training procedures.
"Hermetically sealed container" means a container designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and, in the case of low acid canned foods, to maintain the commercial sterility of its content after processing.
"Highly susceptible population" means persons who are more likely than other people in the general population to experience food-borne disease because they:
Are immunocompromised, preschool age children or older adults; and
Obtain food at a facility that provides services such as custodial care, health care, or assisted living (such as a child or adult day care center, kidney dialysis center, hospital or nursing home), or nutritional or socialization services (such as a senior center).
"Injected" means manipulating a meat so that infectious or toxigenic microorganisms may be introduced from its surface to its interior through tenderizing with deep penetration or injecting the meat, such as with juices, which may be referred to as injecting, pinning or stitch pumping.
"Juice" means the aqueous liquid expressed or extracted from one or more fruits or vegetables, purées of the edible portions of one or more fruits or vegetables, or any concentrates of such liquid or puree. The term does not include, for purposes of HACCP, liquids, purées, or concentrates that are not used as beverages or ingredients of beverages.
"Kitchenware" means all multi-use utensils other than tableware.
"Law" includes State and local statutes, ordinances, and regulations.
"Lodging facilities" means any hotel, motel, motor inn, lodge, and inn or other quarters that provide temporary sleeping facilities open to the public.
"Lot" means a unique run of processed or packaged product with a specifically designated date and processing operation.
"Mobile food unit" means a vehicle-mounted food service establishment designed to be readily movable.
"Molluscan shellfish" means any edible species of fresh or frozen oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops or edible portions of the scallop, except when the scallop product consists only of the shucked adductor muscle.
"Official Methods of Analysis" means the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th Edition, or Standard Methods for Examination of Dairy Products, 17th Edition, as incorporated in Section 750.5(b)(1) and (2).
"Operational Supervision" means the on-site supervision and management of the food service facility, operations, and employees.
"Packaged" means bottled, canned, cartoned, or securely wrapped. The term "packaged" does not include a wrapper, carry-out box, or other non-durable container used to containerize food for the purpose of facilitating food protection during service and receipt of the food by the consumer.
"Partially defatted beef fatty tissue" means a beef by-product derived from the low temperature rendering (not exceeding 120°F) of fresh beef tissue. Such product shall have a pinkish color and a fresh odor and appearance.
"Pasteurized shell eggs" means eggs still in their shells that have been heat treated to destroy Salmonella enteritidis to the FDA standard of 5-log reduction and, thus, are exempt from status of a potentially hazardous food because no viable salmonellae exist.
"Person" includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity.
"Person in charge" means the individual present in a food service establishment who is the apparent supervisor of the food service establishment at the time of inspection. If no individual is the apparent supervisor, then any employee present is the person in charge.
"Potentially hazardous food" means any food that requires time/temperature control for safety that consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, edible crustacea, or other ingredients, including synthetic ingredients, in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms; growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum; or, in raw shell eggs, the growth of Salmonella enteritidis. "Potentially hazardous food" includes an animal food (a food of animal origin) that is raw or heat treated; a food of plant origin that is heat treated or consists of raw seed sprouts; cut tomatoes; cut melons; and garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support the growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms. The term does not include foods that:
Have a pH level of 4.6 or below;
Have a water activity (aw) value of 0.85 or less; or
Are a food, in an unopened hermetically sealed container, that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of non-refrigerated storage and distribution; or
Are eggs with shell intact that have been pasteurized to destroy all viable salmonellae.
"Preservative" means any curing agent or curing accelerator (specific chemical agent that extends the shelf life of the product) that cures, accelerates color fixing or preserves color in meat or poultry products, including sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate, sodium nitrite or potassium nitrite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, glucono delta lactone, sodium ascorbate, sodium erythorbate, citric acid, sodium citrate or sodium benzoate.
"Processing" means to manufacture, compound, intermix or prepare food products for sale or for customer service.
"Pushcart" means a non-self-propelled vehicle limited to serving nonpotentially hazardous foods or commissary-wrapped food maintained at proper temperatures, or limited to the preparation and serving of frankfurters.
"Ratite" means a flightless bird such as an emu, ostrich or rhea.
"Ready-to-eat food" means food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the food establishment or the consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form. Ready-to-eat food includes:
Unpackaged potentially hazardous food that is cooked to the temperature and time required for specific food under Section 750.180;
Washed and cut raw fruit and vegetables;
Whole raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for consumption without the need for further washing, such as at a buffet, but excluding whole raw fruits and vegetables offered for retail sale; and
Other food presented for consumption for which further washing or cooking is not required and from which rinds, peels, husks, or shells are removed.
"Reconstituted" means dehydrated food products recombined with water or other liquids.
"Reduced-oxygen packaging" means the reduction of the amount of oxygen in a package by removing oxygen; displacing oxygen and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen content to a level below that normally found in the atmosphere (approximately 21% at sea level); and a process that involves a food for which the hazards Clostridium botulinum or Listeria monocytogenes require control in the final packaged form. "Reduced oxygen packaging" includes:
Vacuum packaging, in which air is removed from a package of food and the package is hermetically sealed so that a vacuum remains inside the package;
Modified atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that its composition is different from air, but the atmosphere may change over time due to the permeability of the packaging material or the respiration of the food. Modified atmosphere packaging includes reduction in the proportion of oxygen, total replacement of oxygen, or an increase in the proportion of other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen;
Controlled atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that, until the package is opened, its composition is different from air, and continuous control of that atmosphere is maintained, such as by using oxygen scavengers or a combination of total replacement of oxygen, non-respiring food, and impermeable packaging material;
Cook chill packaging, in which cooked food is hot filled into impermeable bags that have the air expelled and are then sealed or crimped closed. The bagged food is rapidly chilled and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychotrophic pathogens; or
Sous vide packaging, in which raw or partially cooked food is placed in a hermetically sealed, impermeable bag, cooked in the bag, rapidly chilled, and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychotrophic pathogens.
"Regulatory authority" means the State and/or local enforcement authority or authorities having jurisdiction over the food service establishment.
"Re-service" means the transfer to another person of food that is unused and returned by a consumer after being served or sold and in the possession of the consumer.
"Safe materials" means articles manufactured from or composed of materials that may not reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in their becoming a component of or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food. If materials used are food additives or color additives as defined in section 201(s) or (t) of the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, they are "safe" only if they are used in compliance with regulations established pursuant to section 409 or 706 of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Other materials are "safe" only if, as used, they are not food additives or color additives as defined in section 201(s) or (t) of the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and are used in compliance with all applicable regulations of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that are incorporated by reference in Section 750.5 of this Part.
"Sanitization" means the application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned food-contact surfaces that, when evaluated for efficacy, is sufficient to yield a reduction of at least 5 logs, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of representative disease microorganisms of public health importance.
"Sealed" means free of cracks or other openings that permit the entry or passage of moisture.
"Shellfish control authority" means a state, federal, foreign, tribal, or other government entity legally responsible for administering a program that includes certification of molluscan shellfish harvesters and dealers for interstate commerce.
"Shellstock" means raw in-shell molluscan shellfish.
"Showering" means a potable water spray with or without liquid smoke in the smoke house that, depending on when the water spray is applied, maintains humidity and flavors, decreases cooking time, promotes rapid cooling or reduces casing shrinkage.
"Shucked shellfish" means molluscan shellfish that have one or both shells removed.
"Single service articles" means cups, containers, lids, closures, plates, knives, forks, spoons, stirrers, paddles, straws, napkins, wrapping materials, toothpicks, and similar articles intended for one-time, one-person use and then discarded.
"Single-use articles" means utensils and bulk food containers designed and constructed to be used once and discarded. "Single-use articles" include items such as wax paper, butcher paper, plastic wrap, formed aluminum food containers, jars, plastic tubs or buckets, bread wrappers, pickle barrels, ketchup bottles, etc., and number 10 cans that do not meet the materials, durability, strength, and cleanability specification under Subpart D of this Part, specifically Sections 750.600, 750.630 and 750.650 for multi-use utensils.
"Smoke generator" means a piece of equipment attached or integral to a smoke house which provides smoke to the smoke house, usually by slowly augering sawdust onto a heating element with the resulting smoke being drawn into the smokehouse.
"Smoke house" means a piece of equipment or room sized enclosure used to conduct the smoking process, with a smoke source, adequate ventilation, heat and humidity source if necessary, approved plumbing and waste lines if necessary, support structures for the food products to be smoked and a method to determine internal product temperature.
"Smoking" means the process of subjecting meat cuts and other foods to an environment of heat and smoke generated from hardwood, hardwood sawdust, corn cobs or natural liquid smoke that has been transformed into a gaseous state by application of direct heat.
"Smooth" means a food-contact surface that is free of pits and inclusions with a cleanability equal to or exceeding that of (100 grit) number 3 stainless steel; a nonfood-contact surface of equipment equal to that of commercial grade hot-rolled steel free of visible scale; and a floor, wall or ceiling having an even or level surface with no roughness or projections that render it difficult to clean.
"Special event" means a unique event at a particular location, such as a celebration, festival or fundraiser that occurs no more than twice a year.
"Tableware" means multi-use eating and drinking utensils.
"Temperature-measuring device" means a thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of food, air or water.
"Temporary food service establishment" means a food service establishment that operates at a fixed location for a period of time of not more than 14 consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration.
"Utensil" means a food-contact implement or container used in the storage, preparation, transportation, dispensing, sale or service of food, such as kitchenware or tableware that is multi-use, single service or single use; gloves used in contact with food; temperature-sensing probes of food temperature measuring devices; and probe-type or identification tags used in contact with food.
"Variance" means a written document, issued by the regulatory authority, that authorizes a modification or waiver of one or more requirements of this Part if, in the opinion of the regulatory authority, a health hazard or nuisance will not result from the modification or waiver.
"Voluntary inspection" means an inspection of meat or poultry products that are not subject to the federal or State meat or poultry inspection laws, and for which the federal or State mark of inspection is requested.
(Source: Amended at 32 Ill. Reg. 11980, effective July 10, 2008)