TITLE 77: PUBLIC HEALTH
CHAPTER I: DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH
SUBCHAPTER k: COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL AND IMMUNIZATIONS
PART 690 CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES CODE
SECTION 690.900 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Section 690.900 Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this Part, the following shall be the accepted definitions of terms.
"Acceptable Laboratory" − A laboratory that is certified under the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Laboratory Requirements (42 CFR 493), which implements the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 USC 263).
"Act" – The Department of Public Health Act of the Civil Administrative Code of Illinois [20 ILCS 2305].
"Airborne Precautions" or "Airborne Infection Isolation Precautions" – Infection control measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents that may be suspended in the air in either dust particles or small particle aerosols (airborne droplet nuclei (5 µm or smaller in size)) (see Section 690.1010(a)(7)).
"Authenticated Fecal Specimen" − A specimen is considered to be authenticated when a public health authority or a person authorized by a public health authority has observed one or more of the following:
The patient produce the specimen.
Conditions such that no one other than the case, carrier or contact could be the source of the specimen.
"Bioterrorist Threat or Event" – The intentional use of any microorganism, virus, infectious substance or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of any such microorganism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product, to cause death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant or another living organism.
"Carbapenem Antibiotics" – A class of broad-spectrum Beta-lactam antibiotics.
"Carrier" − A person or deceased person who harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection for others.
"Case" − Any person or deceased person having a recent illness due to a communicable disease.
"Confirmed Case" – A case that is classified as confirmed per federal or State case definitions.
"Probable Case" − A case that is classified as probable per federal or State case definitions.
"Suspect Case" − A person whose medical history or symptoms suggest that he or she may have or may be developing a communicable disease and does not yet meet the case definition of a probable or confirmed case.
"Certified Local Health Department" − A local health authority that is certified pursuant to Section 600.210 of the Certified Local Health Department Code (77 Ill. Adm. Code 600).
"Chain of Custody" − The methodology of tracking specimens for the purpose of maintaining control and accountability from initial collection to final disposition of the specimens and providing for accountability at each stage of collecting, handling, testing, storing, and transporting the specimens and reporting test results.
"Child Care Facility" − A center, private home, or drop-in facility open on a regular basis where children are enrolled for care or education.
"Cleaning" − The removal of visible soil (organic and inorganic material) from objects and surfaces; it normally is accomplished by manual or mechanical means using water with detergents or enzymatic products.
"Clinical Materials" – A clinical isolate containing the infectious agent or other material containing the infectious agent or evidence of the infectious agent.
"Cluster" – Two or more persons with a similar illness, usually associated by place or time, unless defined otherwise in Subpart C of this Part.
"Communicable Disease" – An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or inanimate source to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or the inanimate environment.
"Contact" − Any person known to have been associated sufficiently with a case or carrier of a communicable disease to have been the source of infection for that person or to have been associated sufficiently with the case or carrier of a communicable disease to have become infected by the case or carrier.
"Contact Precautions" – Infection control measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents that can be spread through direct contact with the patient or indirect contact with potentially infectious items or surfaces (see Section 690.1010(a)(7)).
"Contagious Disease" – An infectious disease that can be transmitted from person to person.
"Dangerously Contagious or Infectious Disease" − An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or the inanimate environment, and may pose an imminent and significant threat to the public health, resulting in severe morbidity or high mortality.
"Decontamination" − A procedure that removes pathogenic microorganisms from objects so they are safe to handle, use or discard.
"Department" − Illinois Department of Public Health.
"Director" − The Director of the Department, or his or her duly designated officer or agent.
"Diarrhea" − The presence of 3 or more loose stools within a 24-hour period.
"Disinfection" − A process, generally less lethal than sterilization, that eliminates virtually all recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms (e.g., bacterial spores).
"Droplet Precautions" – Infection control measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious agents via large particle droplets that do not remain suspended in the air and are usually generated by coughing, sneezing, or talking (see Section 690.1010(a)(7)).
"Emergency" – An occurrence or imminent threat of an illness or health condition that:
is believed to be caused by any of the following:
the appearance of a novel or previously controlled or eradicated infectious agent or biological toxin;
a natural disaster;
a chemical attack or accidental release; or
a nuclear attack or incident; and
poses a high probability of any of the following harms:
a large number of deaths in the affected population;
a large number of serious or long-term disabilities in the affected population; or
widespread exposure to an infectious or toxic agent that poses a significant risk of substantial future harm to a large number of people in the affected population.
"Epidemic" − The occurrence in a community or region of cases of a communicable disease (or an outbreak) clearly in excess of expectancy.
"Extensively Drug-Resistant Organisms" – A micro-organism that is non-susceptible to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories.
"Fever" – The elevation of body temperature above the normal (typically considered greater than or equal to 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit).
"First Responder" – Those individuals who in the early stages of an incident are responsible for the protection and preservation of life, property, evidence, and the environment, including emergency response providers as defined in section 2 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 USC 101), as well as emergency management, public health, clinical care, public works, and other skilled support personnel (such as equipment operators) that provide immediate support services during prevention, response, and recovery operations.
"Food Handler" − A person who produces, prepares, packages or dispenses food or drink.
"Health Care Facility" − Any institution, building, or agency or portion thereof, whether public or private (for-profit or nonprofit) that is used, operated, or designed to provide health services, medical treatment, or nursing, rehabilitative, or preventive care to any person or persons. This includes, but is not limited to: ambulatory surgical treatment centers, home health agencies, hospices, hospitals, end-stage renal disease facilities, long-term care facilities, medical assistance facilities, mental health centers, outpatient facilities, public health centers, rehabilitation facilities, residential treatment facilities, and adult day care centers.
"Health Care Provider" – Any person or entity who provides health care services, including, but not limited to, hospitals, medical clinics and offices, long-term care facilities, medical laboratories, physicians, pharmacists, dentists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, registered and other nurses, paramedics, emergency medical or laboratory technicians, and ambulance and emergency workers.
"Health Care Worker" − Any person who is employed by (or volunteers his or her services to) a health care facility to provide direct personal services to others. This definition includes, but is not limited to, physicians, dentists, nurses and nursing assistants.
"Incubation Period" – The time interval between initial contact with an infectious agent and the first appearance of symptoms associated with the infection.
"Infectious Disease" – A disease caused by a living organism or other pathogen, including a fungus, bacteria, parasite, protozoan, prion, or virus. An infectious disease may, or may not, be transmissible from person to person, animal to person, or insect to person.
"Institution" – An established organization or foundation, especially one dedicated to education, public service, or culture, or a place for the care of persons who are destitute, disabled, or mentally ill.
"Isolation" – The physical separation and confinement of an individual or groups of individuals who are infected or reasonably believed to be infected with a contagious or possibly contagious disease from non-isolated individuals, to prevent or limit the transmission of the disease to non-isolated individuals.
"Isolation, Modified" – A selective, partial limitation of freedom of movement or actions of a person or group of persons infected with, or reasonably suspected to be infected with, a contagious or infectious disease. Modified isolation is designed to meet particular situations and includes, but is not limited to, the exclusion of children from school, the prohibition or restriction from engaging in a particular occupation or using public or mass transportation, or requirements for the use of devices or procedures intended to limit disease transmission.
"Isolation Precautions" – Infection control measures for preventing the transmission of infectious agents, i.e., Standard Precautions, Airborne Precautions (also known as Airborne Infection Isolation Precautions), Contact Precautions, and Droplet Precautions (see Section 690.1010(a)(7)).
"Least Restrictive" − The minimal limitation of the freedom of movement and communication of a person or group of persons while under an order of isolation or an order of quarantine, which also effectively protects unexposed and susceptible persons from disease transmission.
"Local Health Authority" − The health authority (i.e., full-time official health department, as recognized by the Department) having jurisdiction over a particular area, including city, village, township and county boards of health and health departments and the responsible executive officers of such boards, or any person legally authorized to act for such health authority. In areas without a health department recognized by the Department, the local health authority shall be the Department.
"Medical Record" – A written or electronic account of a patient's medical history, current illness, diagnosis, details of treatments, chronological progress notes, and discharge recommendations.
"Non-Duplicative Isolate" – The first isolate obtained from any source during each unique patient/resident encounter, including those obtained for active surveillance or clinical decision making.
"Observation" − The practice of close medical or other supervision of contacts in order to promote prompt recognition of infection or illness, but without restricting their movements.
"Observation and Monitoring" − Close medical or other supervision, including, but not limited to, review of current health status, by health care personnel, of a person or group of persons on a voluntary or involuntary basis to permit prompt recognition of infection or illness.
"Outbreak" – The occurrence of illness in a person or a group of epidemiologically associated persons, with the rate of frequency clearly in excess of normal expectations. The number of cases indicating presence of an outbreak is disease-specific.
"Premises" − The physical portion of a building or other structure and its surrounding area so designated by the Director of the Department, his authorized representative, or the local health authority.
"Public Health Order" − A written or verbal command, directive, instruction or proclamation issued or delivered by the Department or certified local health department.
"Quarantine" – The physical separation and confinement of an individual or groups of individuals who are or may have been exposed to a contagious disease or possibly contagious disease and who do not show signs or symptoms.
"Registry" – A data collection and information system that is designed to support orgainzed care management.
"Sensitive Occupation" − An occupation involving the direct care of others, especially young children and the elderly, or any other occupation so designated by the Department or the local health authority, including, but not limited to, health care workers and child care facility personnel.
"Sentinel Surveillance" – A means of monitoring the prevalence and/or incidence of infectious disease or syndromes through reporting of cases, suspected cases, or carriers or submission of clinical materials by selected sites.
"Specimens" – Include, but are not limited to, blood, sputum, urine, stool, other bodily fluids, wastes, tissues, and cultures necessary to perform required tests.
"Standard Precautions" – Infection prevention and control measures that apply to all patients regardless of diagnosis or presumed infection status (see Section 690.1010(a)(7)).
"Sterilization" – The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy all microbial life, including large numbers of highly resistant bacterial endospores.
"Susceptible (non-immune)" − A person who is not known to possess sufficient resistance against a particular pathogenic agent to prevent developing infection or disease if or when exposed to the agent.
"Syndromic Surveillance" − Surveillance using health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response.
"Tests" – Include, but are not limited to, any diagnostic or investigative analyses necessary to prevent the spread of disease or protect the public's health, safety, and welfare.
"Transmission" − Any mechanism by which an infectious agent is spread from a source or reservoir to a person, including direct, indirect, and airborne transmission.
"Voluntary Compliance" – Deliberate consented compliance of a person or group of persons that occurs at the request of the Department or local health authority prior to instituting a mandatory order for isolation, quarantine, closure, physical examination, testing, collection of laboratory specimens, observation, monitoring, or medical treatment pursuant to this Subpart.
(Source: Amended at 37 Ill. Reg. 12063, effective July 15, 2013)